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1.  Retrospective Outcomes Evaluation of 100 Parenteral Moderate and Deep Sedations Conducted in a General Practice Dental Residency 
Anesthesia Progress  2008;55(4):116-120.
An abstract of this study was presented at the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) Dental Anesthesiology Research Group in Honolulu, Hawaii, in March of 2004. This study was conducted to correlate the intraoperative and postoperative morbidity associated with moderate and deep sedation, also known as monitored anesthesia care (MAC), provided in a General Practice Residency (GPR) clinic under the supervision of a dentist anesthesiologist. After internal review board approval was obtained, 100 parenteral moderate and deep sedation cases performed by the same dentist anesthesiologist in collaboration with second year GPR residents were randomly selected and reviewed by 2 independent evaluators. Eleven morbidity criteria were assessed and were correlated with patient age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status Classification (ASAPS), duration of procedure, and anesthetic protocol. A total of 39 males and 61 females were evaluated. Patients' ASAPS were classified as I, II, and III, with the average ASAPS of 1.61 and the standard deviation (STDEV) of 0.584. No ASPS IV or V was noted. Average patient age was 33.8 years (STDEV, 14.57), and the average duration of procedure was 97.5 minutes (STDEV, 42.39). Three incidents of postoperative nausea and vomiting were reported. All 3 incidents involved the ketamine-midazolam-propofol anesthetic combination. All patients were treated and were well controlled with ondansetron. One incident of tongue biting in an autistic child was regarded as an effect of local anesthesia. One patient demonstrated intermittent premature atrial contractions (PACs) intraoperatively but was stable. Moderate and deep sedation, also known as MAC, is safe and beneficial in an outpatient GPR setting with proper personnel and monitoring. This study did not demonstrate a correlation between length of procedure and morbidity. Ketamine was associated with all reported nausea and vomiting incidents because propofol and midazolam are rarely associated with such events.
PMCID: PMC2614649  PMID: 19108595
Dental sedation; Sedation training; Sedation outcomes
2.  General Anesthesia Time for Pediatric Dental Cases 
Pediatric dentistry  2012;34(5):129-135.
The purpose of this study was to describe the use of operating room (OR) time for pediatric dental procedures performed under general anesthesia (GA) at a regional children’s hospital over a 2-year period.
A cross-sectional review of a pediatric dental GA records was performed at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Data were collected for 709 0- to 21-year-old patients from January 2008 to December 2009. Demographic data, dental and anesthesia operator types, and procedures were recorded. Utilization of OR time was analyzed.
The mean age of patients was 7.1 years (±4.2 SD), and 58% were male. Distribution by American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classifications were: ASA I 226 (32%); ASA II 316 (45%); ASA III 167 (24%). Cases finished earlier than the scheduled time by an average of 14 minutes (±28). Overrun time was significantly associated with: patient age (P=.01); ASA classification (P=.006); treatment type (P<.001); number of teeth treated (P<.001); and dentist operator type (P=.005).
Overall, 73% of dental procedures under GA finished early or on time. Significant variables included patient age, medical status, treatment type and extent, and dentist operator type. Assessing factors that impact the time needed in GA may enhance efficiency for pediatric dental procedures.
PMCID: PMC3528354  PMID: 23211897
3.  Accreditation council for graduate medical education (ACGME) annual anesthesiology residency and fellowship program review: a "report card" model for continuous improvement 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:13.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires an annual evaluation of all ACGME-accredited residency and fellowship programs to assess program quality. The results of this evaluation must be used to improve the program. This manuscript describes a metric to be used in conducting ACGME-mandated annual program review of ACGME-accredited anesthesiology residencies and fellowships.
A variety of metrics to assess anesthesiology residency and fellowship programs are identified by the authors through literature review and considered for use in constructing a program "report card."
Metrics used to assess program quality include success in achieving American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) certification, performance on the annual ABA/American Society of Anesthesiology In-Training Examination, performance on mock oral ABA certification examinations, trainee scholarly activities (publications and presentations), accreditation site visit and internal review results, ACGME and alumni survey results, National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) results, exit interview feedback, diversity data and extensive program/rotation/faculty/curriculum evaluations by trainees and faculty. The results are used to construct a "report card" that provides a high-level review of program performance and can be used in a continuous quality improvement process.
An annual program review is required to assess all ACGME-accredited residency and fellowship programs to monitor and improve program quality. We describe an annual review process based on metrics that can be used to focus attention on areas for improvement and track program performance year-to-year. A "report card" format is described as a high-level tool to track educational outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2830223  PMID: 20141641
4.  Five Year Outcomes Study of Dental Rehabilitation Conducted Under General Anesthesia for Special Needs Patients 
Anesthesia Progress  2007;54(4):170-174.
We assessed the safety of general anesthesia for dental treatment of special needs patients as it related to American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status (ASAPS) classification, procedure, and other factors. After Institutional Review Board review and approval, special needs patients who were admitted to the outpatient surgical operating room for comprehensive dental rehabilitation (CDR) under general anesthesia within a period of 5 years had their medical records evaluated retrospectively for intraoperative and postoperative complications both related to anesthesia and surgery. All records were evaluated by an independent evaluator who tabulated the patients' age, gender, ASAPS, and duration of procedure. N  =  363, age mean  =  46.93 ± 16.835 years, age median  =  48 years, male patients  =  180, female patients  =  183, ASAPS I  =  183, ASAPS II  =  127, ASAPS III  =  53, duration of surgery mean  =  140.631 ± 23.104 minutes, duration of surgery median time  =  142.000 minutes, and number of complications  =  2. One complication resulted in an ASAPS I 16-year-old boy, which was airway related, and a second was an ASAPS III 22-year-old woman, which was surgically related. Both led to unplanned inpatient admissions and were treated successfully with no residual morbidity. Dental rehabilitation of special needs patients under general anesthesia is safe. While morbidity is very low, larger studies are needed to establish risk versus benefit stratification among this patient population.
PMCID: PMC2213248  PMID: 18085838
Special needs; Dental; General; Anesthesia
5.  Endoscopic sphincterotomy in acute biliary pancreatitis: A question of anesthesiological risk 
Two consecutive surveys of acute pancreatitis in Italy, based on more than 1000 patients with acute pancreatitis, reported that the etiology of the disease indicates biliary origin in about 60% of the cases. The United Kingdom guidelines report that severe gallstone pancreatitis in the presence of increasingly deranged liver function tests and signs of cholangitis (fever, rigors, and positive blood cultures) requires an immediate and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). These guidelines also recommend that patients with gallstone pancreatitis should undergo prompt cholecystectomy, possibly during the same hospitalization. However, a certain percentage of patients are unfit for cholecystectomy because advanced age and presence of comorbidity. We evaluated the early and long-term results of endoscopic intervention in relation to the anesthesiological risk for 87 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis. All patients underwent ERCP and were evaluated according to the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) criteria immediately before the operative procedure. The severity of acute pancreatitis was positively related to the anesthesiological grade. There was no significant relationship between the frequency of biliopancreatic complications during the follow-up and the ASA grade. The frequency of cholecystectomy was inversely related to the ASA grade and multivariate analysis showed that the ASA grade and age were significantly related to survival. Finally, endoscopic treatment also appeared to be safe and effective in patients at high anesthesiological risk with acute pancreatitis. These results further support the hypothesis that endoscopic sphincterotomy might be considered a definitive treatment for patients with acute biliary pancreatitis and an elevated ASA grade.
PMCID: PMC2998844  PMID: 21160646
Acute biliary pancreatitis; Anesthesiological risk; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic sphincterotomy
6.  Presentation of research in anesthesia: Culmination into publication? 
To assess the quality of research presentations made in conferences, its success or failure to be published in a peer-reviewed journal is a well-accepted marker. However, there is no data regarding the publication of research presentations made in Indian conferences of anesthesiology.
The primary objective was to determine publication rate of research presented at the largest and best attended national conference in anesthesiology, the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists’ Conference (ISACON), and also compare it with the rate from an international conference American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA annual meeting) held in the same year.
Materials and Methods:
All 363 abstracts presented as poster or podium presentations at the ISACON, and an equal number of randomly selected abstracts presented at ASA annual meeting were searched on Pubmed and Google Scholar for their full-text publications in peer-reviewed journals using a standardized search strategy. As secondary observations, abstracts were assessed for completeness by noting certain components central to research methodology. Also, changes between abstract of the presentation and published paper were noted with respect to certain components.
The publication rate of presentations at ISACON and ASA meetings was 5% and 22%, respectively. The abstracts from ISACON lacked central components of research such as methods and statistical tests. The commonest change in the full-text publications as compared with the original abstract from both conferences was a change in authorship.
Steps are required to augment full-text publication of Indian research, including a more rigorous peer review of abstracts submitted to ISACON to ensure their completeness.
PMCID: PMC3713671  PMID: 23878445
Abstract-publication ratio; publication rate; presentations in anesthesia; research
7.  Subtest Scores From the In-Training Examination: An Evaluation Tool for an Obstetric-Anesthesia Rotation 
To evaluate resident performance in the obstetric-anesthesia rotation using resident portfolios and their In-Training Examination scores, which are provided by the American Board of Anesthesiology/American Society of Anesthesiologists.
We reviewed academic portfolios for second- and third-year anesthesiology residents at a single institution from 2006–2008 to examine United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 1 and 2 scores, grade for obstetrics-gynecology in medical school, and performance on the In-Training Examination. Faculty evaluation of medical knowledge and correlations for the various scores were obtained.
We examined scores for 43 residents. The subtest score for obstetric anesthesia increased after completing a rotation in obstetric anesthesia, 26.1 ± 10.3 versus 36.3 ± 10.6 (P  =  .02). The subtest score correlated with United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 2, r  =  0.46 (P  =  .027) but not with United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 1 or with the grade obtained in medical school. There was no correlation between faculty evaluations of medical knowledge and resident subtest scores in obstetric anesthesia.
Subtest scores in obstetric anesthesia are valid and provide a tool for the assessment of the educational program of a rotation. Knowledge as assessed by a faculty member is different from the knowledge assessed on a written examination. Both methods can help provide a more complete assessment of the resident and the rotation.
PMCID: PMC2941385  PMID: 21975629
8.  Contribution of Dentist Anesthesiologists to Dental Anesthesiology Research 
Anesthesia Progress  2011;58(1):14-21.
In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field.
PMCID: PMC3265265  PMID: 21410360
H-index; Dental research; Anesthesia, dental
9.  Prognostic Factors for Mortality Among Patients Above the 6th Decade Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery: (Cares – Clinical Assessment and Research in Elderly Surgical Patients) 
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)  2008;63(2):151-156.
To ascertain perioperative morbimortality and identify prognostic factors for mortality among patients ≥55 years who undergo non-cardiac surgery.
A retrospective cohort of 403 patients relating to perioperative morbidity-mortality. Data were collected from a standardized protocol on gender, age, comorbidities, medications used, smoking, alcohol abuse, chronic use of benzodiazepine, nutritional status, presence of anemia, activities of daily living, American Society of Anesthesiology classification, Detsky’s modified cardiac risk index - American College of Physicians, renal function evaluation, pulmonary risk according to the Torrington scale, risk of thromboembolic events, presence of malignant disease and complementary examinations.
The mean age of the subjects was 70.8 ± 8.1 years. The “very old” (≥80 years) represented 14%. The mortality rate was 8.2%, and the complication rate was 15.8%. Multiple logistic regression showed that a history of coronary heart disease (OR: 3.75; p=0.02) and/or valvular heart disease (OR: 31.79; p=0.006) were predictors of mortality. The American Society of Anesthesiology classification was shown to be the best scale to mark risk (OR: 3.01; p=0.016). Nutritional status was a protective factor, in which serum albumin increases of 1 mg/dl decreased risk by 63%.
The results indicate that serum albumin, coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease and the American Society of Anesthesiology classification could be prognostic predictors for aged patients in a perioperative setting. In this sample, provided that pulmonary, cardiac and thromboembolic risks were properly controlled, they did not constitute risk factors for mortality. Furthermore, continuous effort to learn more about the preoperative assessment of elderly patients could yield intervention possibilities and minimize morbimortality.
PMCID: PMC2664206  PMID: 18438567
Surgery; Preoperative; Mortality; Risk; Evaluation
10.  A comparison of certain practice characteristics of dental anesthesiologists in Canada and the United States. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(2):49-51.
An existing database was used to compare aspects of dental anesthesiology practice of dental anesthesiologists in Canada (n = 32) and the United States (n = 123). Data focusing on percutaneous injuries were obtained through a mailed questionnaire that was returned anonymously. Respondents provided information on the treatment of patients under deep sedation or general anesthesia only. Eighty-one percent of Canadians and 61% of Americans returned the questionnaire. The vast majority (84%) of injuries reported were due to sharps associated with general dentistry compared with those associated with anesthesiology. Canadians were more likely to be operator-anesthetists (P < .01) and to experience a percutaneous injury (P < .01) than US practitioners. American practitioners were more likely to have a greater proportion of the caseload under the age of 20 (P < .02). No other significant differences were observed. These results illustrate a number of unique attributes of the practice of dental anesthesiology in these 2 countries.
PMCID: PMC2148895  PMID: 10853564
11.  Drugs Used for Parenteral Sedation in Dental Practice 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):199-205.
The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate.
PMCID: PMC2167868  PMID: 3250279
12.  Aneurysm of an autologous aorta to right coronary artery reverse saphenous vein graft presenting as a mediastinal mass: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:340.
Aneurysmal dilation of saphenous vein grafts is a relatively rare complication of the now common surgical procedure of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The true prevalence of this condition is not clear, however, literature review by Jorgensen et. al. between 1975 and 2002 revealed only 76 published cases. [1] Recent review of literature, utilizing OVID (search terms: saphenous vein, aneurysm, graft, pseudoaneurysm, coronary bypass) suggests a significantly higher prevalence with 14 such cases published in a variety of multinational journals during the period of 2006 to April 2007. The causes of this dramatic increase is likely multifactorial, however, in the author's opinion, likely reflects the increased sophistication and utilization of cross sectional imaging modalities. Regardless of the true prevalence of the condition, there is little debate that the potential for serious morbidity and mortality in this patient population is significant, and that increased detection and discussion of viable therapeutic options is critical. [1] Therefore, we present a case report and discussion of a patient with symptomatic cardiac ischemia, found to have a large saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA) on coronary CTA.
PMCID: PMC2605764  PMID: 19021910
13.  Survey of oral and maxillofacial surgeons' offices in Virginia: anesthesia team characteristics. 
Anesthesia Progress  2004;51(4):122-125.
This survey assesses whether oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the state of Virginia are prepared for inspection of their offices. A survey asking pertinent questions on the availability of specific equipment and the educational qualifications of the anesthesia care team was developed and sent to 155 offices. Seven questions were asked regarding the availability of nurses, types of life support training, (formal or informal), the surgeons and anesthesia care personnel, and the presence of a defibrillator. Questionnaires were short and simple to encourage compliance with the study guidelines. A total of 128 (82.6%) questionnaires were returned. Only 42 of 128 (32.8%) offices employed nurses, and 6 of the 42 nurses were not considered as part of the anesthesia care team. Only 36 of 128 (28.1%) of the offices had assistants with formal anesthesia assistant course training from the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) or the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA). However, 93% of the assistants who participated in the anesthesia had current basic life support training (BLS) training, and 74% of the surgeons had current advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training. The AAOMS Office Emergency Manual was present in 118 of 128 offices (92.2%), and 124 of 128 offices (96.9%) had defibrillators. The survey suggests that the surgeons are well prepared from the standpoint of having a defibrillator present and the AAOMS Office Emergency Manual available as a template for the team to use in order to answer questions that the inspection team may ask of the primary anesthesia care provider and surgeon. The majority of the surgeons had current ACLS certification, and the office anesthesia assistants had current BLS training. Most of the assistants did not have formal course training, which indicates that on-the-job training is probably the norm. Less than one third of the offices had nurses.
PMCID: PMC2007491  PMID: 15675260
14.  Sedation in Japanese dental schools. 
Anesthesia Progress  2004;51(3):95-101.
There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan.
PMCID: PMC2007479  PMID: 15497299
15.  Comparison of preemptive analgesic effects of a single dose of nonopioid analgesics for pain management after ambulatory surgery: A prospective, randomized, single-blind studyin Turkish patients 
Preemptive analgesia used for postsurgical pain management has been shown to reduce the requirements of postoperative analgesics.
The aim of this study was to compare the preemptive analgesic effects of diflunisal, naproxen sodium, meloxicam, acetaminophen, and rofecoxin (no longer available in some markets) in patients undergoing ambulatory dental surgery and the need for postoperative pain management in these patients.
This prospective, randomized, single-blind study was conducted at the Departments of Anesthesiology and Reanimation and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Adana, Turkey. Turkish outpatients aged ≥ 16 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 (ie, healthy) and scheduled to undergo surgical extraction of an impacted third molar were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive diflunisal 500 mg, naproxen sodium 550 mg, meloxicam 7.5 mg, acetaminophen 500 mg, or rofecoxib 12.5 mg. All medications were administered orally 1 hour before surgery as preemptive analgesia and after surgery if needed, up to the maximum recommended dose. Surgery was performed with the patient under local anesthesia (articaine hydrochloride). Pain intensity was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 = none to 100 = worst possible pain) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours after ambulatory surgery. The use of additional analgesics was recorded for 24 hours using patient diaries. Postoperative adverse events were recorded using the diaries.
One hundred fifty patients (108 women, 42 men; mean [SE] age, 26.8 [0.6] years; 30 patients per group) had data available for analysis. Demographic data were similar between the 5 groups. No significant differences in mean VAS scores were found between the 5 groups at any time point. All mean VAS scores indicated minor pain. The rate of additional postoperative analgesics required was significantly lower in the diflunisal group compared with groups receiving naproxen sodium, meloxicam, acetaminophen, and rofecoxib (3 [10%] patients vs 11 [37%], 15 [50%], 15 [50%], and 14 [47%] patients, respectively; all, P < 0.05). Bleeding at the surgical site was reported in 2 patients each in the diflunisal, naproxen sodium, meloxicam, and acetaminophen groups, and in 1 patient in the rofecoxib group; the between-group differences were not significant. No significant differences in the prevalences of other adverse effects (eg, nausea, vomiting, allergy, gastrointestinal symptoms) were found between the 5 treatment groups.
In the present study in patients undergoing third molar extraction, adequate preemptive analgesia, based on VAS scores, was found with all of the nonopioid analgesic agents used. Fewer patients required rescue medication with diflunisal. All 5 study drugs were similarly well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3966011  PMID: 24678075
preemptive analgesia; ambulatory surgery; NSAIDs
16.  Survey of Anesthetic Choice among Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):206-207.
Two hundred and fifty Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology were surveyed concerning their personal preference of anesthetic technique, regional versus general anesthesia, through the use of two scenarios. Those surveyed preferred regional anesthesia as opposed to general anesthesia in both emergency and elective scenarios. These results are consistent with similar studies of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists, although these groups demonstrated an even greater bias toward regional anesthetic techniques.
PMCID: PMC2167867  PMID: 3250280
17.  Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Policy Élites: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(8):e1001076.
Gary Fooks and colleagues undertook a review of tobacco industry documents and show that policies on corporate social responsibility can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers at the highest level.
Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised.
Methods and Findings
Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT) documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764) were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information.
The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
In the past, companies and multinational corporations were judged on the profits they made. Nowadays, though, much is made of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR is the commitment by business to behave ethically and to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce, their families, the local community, and society at large. Put simply, companies and corporations now endeavor to show that they have a positive impact on the environment, consumers, employees, and society in addition to making money for their shareholders. Large tobacco companies are no exception. British American Tobacco (BAT, the world's second largest publicly traded tobacco company), for example, began working on a wide-ranging CSR program more than a decade ago. Given that tobacco is responsible for an estimated 5.4 million deaths worldwide annually, this program was initially met with hostility and dismissed as an image management exercise. However, large parts of the investment and CSR communities now approve of BAT's CSR program, which has won numerous awards.
Why Was This Study Done?
But what do BAT and other tobacco companies actually hope to achieve through their CSR initiatives and how successful have they been in achieving these aims? Few studies have addressed these important questions. In particular, there has been little research into the extent to which tobacco companies use CSR initiatives as a form of corporate political activity that can help them gain “access” to policymakers and define the legitimate concerns and optimal alternatives of public policy (“issue definition”). Access is defined as taking place when policymakers consider the views of policy advocates such as tobacco company employees and is a crucial component of issue definition, which refers to the strategies adopted by bodies such as multinational corporations to influence the policy agenda by defining what issues public policy should concern itself with and how it should approach them. In this case study, the researchers explore whether BAT's CSR program works as a form of corporate political activity by systematically examining internal BAT documents made publicly available as a result of US litigation. Specifically, the researchers examine BAT's efforts through its CSR program to reestablish access with the UK Department of Health following the department's decision in the late 1990s to restrict contact with major tobacco companies.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Using iterative searching, the researchers identified 764 documents in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (a large collection of internal tobacco company documents released as a result of US litigation cases) that contain information relevant to BAT's CSR strategies. Their analysis of these documents indicates that one of the key aims of the CSR program actively developed over the past decade by BAT was to help secure access to policymakers and shows how BAT used CSR to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers at a time when contact between government and tobacco companies was extremely restricted. The documents also show that BAT employees used CSR initiatives as a means of issue definition to both optimize the probability of subsequent discussions taking place and to frame their content. Finally, the documents illustrate how BAT used its CSR program to expand the number of access points across government, thereby providing BAT with more opportunities to meet and talk to officials.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that CSR is a form of corporate political activity that potentially has important implications for public health given the documented impact of the political activity of tobacco companies in delaying and blocking health-related tobacco control policies. In practice, the impact of the political use of CSR is likely to be context specific and will depend on factors such as whether senior policymakers regard companies as reliable sources of information. Importantly, these findings underline the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty that calls for the introduction of multiple measures to reduce tobacco consumption, including tobacco advertizing bans and relevant taxation policies. Article 5.3 aims to protect public-health policies on tobacco control from tobacco industry influence. The findings of this study indicate that implementation of Article 5.3 will require measures that ensure transparency in interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and will need an increased awareness across government of what tobacco companies hope to achieve through CSR.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The Corporate Responsibility (CORE) coalition, an alliance of voluntary organizations, trade unions, and companies, maintains a Web site that contains useful material on corporate social responsibility
The European Coalition for Corporate Justice (ECCJ) promotes corporate accountability by bringing together national platforms of civil society organizations (including NGOs, trade unions, consumer advocacy groups, and academic institutions) from all over Europe
The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library is a public, searchable database of tobacco company internal documents detailing their advertising, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and scientific activities
The World Health Organization provides information about the dangers of tobacco (in several languages), details of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (in several languages), and guidelines for the implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC
The Framework Convention Alliance provides more information about the FCTC
For information about tobacco industry influence on policy, see the 2009 World Health Organization report Tobacco interference with tobacco control
PMCID: PMC3160341  PMID: 21886485
18.  Core Program Education: Tracking the Progression Toward Excellence in an Anesthesiology Residency Program Over 60 Years 
The Ochsner Journal  2011;11(1):43-51.
The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program is the oldest continuously accredited anesthesiology residency program in the state of Louisiana. As the American College of Graduate Medical Education has developed residency training requirements, so has the Ochsner training program evolved from a structure- and process-based program to an outcomes-based program. The author, associated with the program since 1983, reviewed Program Information Forms from 1971 to the present to track the evolution of the anesthesiology residency training program. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education demanded allocation of resources to residency training and mandated the demonstration of outcomes of training. The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program has kept pace with these demands. The trend for graduate performance on written examinations has been upward. Fifty years ago, graduates practiced locally, but graduates now practice throughout the United States. Many completed fellowship training at increasingly higher profile institutions.
PMCID: PMC3096168  PMID: 21603335
Anesthesiology; medical education; residency education
19.  A Survey of Collection Development for United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Preparation MaterialEC 
The research sought to ascertain medical and dental libraries' collection development policies, evaluation methods, purchase decisions, and issues that relate to print and electronic United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation materials.
The investigators surveyed librarians supporting American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools (n = 58/125) on the USMLE and librarians supporting American Dental Association (ADA)–accredited dental schools (n = 23/56) on the NBDE. The investigators analyzed the data by cross-tabulating and filtering the results using EFM Continuum web survey software. Investigators also surveyed print and electronic USMLE and NBDE preparation materials from 2004–2007 to determine the number of publications and existence of reviews.
A majority of responding AAMC libraries (62%, n = 58) provide at least 1 electronic or online USMLE preparation resource and buy an average of 11.6 print USMLE titles annually. Due to a paucity of NBDE print and electronic resources, ADA libraries bought significantly fewer print resources, and only 1 subscribed to an electronic resource. The most often reported evaluation methods for both populations were feedback from medical or dental students, feedback from medical or dental faculty, and online trials. Some AAMC (10%, n = 58) and ADA libraries (39%, n = 23) libraries reported that no evaluation of these materials occured at their libraries.
From 2004–2007, publishers produced 45 USMLE preparation resources (total n = 546) to every 1 NBDE preparation resource (total n = 12). Users' needs, institutional missions and goals, financial status, and official collection policies most often underlie decisions to collect or not collect examination preparation materials. Evaluating the quality of examination preparation materials can be problematic due to lack of published reviews, lack of usability testing by libraries, and librarians' and library users' unfamiliarity with the actual content of examinations. Libraries must integrate faculty and students into the purchase process to make sure examination preparation resources of the highest quality are purchased.
PMCID: PMC2479044  PMID: 18654641
20.  Relationship Express: A Pilot Program to Teach Anesthesiology Residents Communication Skills 
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to teach 6 core competencies and to provide evidence of effective standardized training through objective measures. George Washington University's Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine implemented a pilot program to address the interpersonal and communication skill competency. In this program, we aimed to pilot the Relationship Express model, a series of exercises in experiential learning to teach anesthesiology residents to build effective relationships with patients in time-limited circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of this model for anesthesiology training.
A total of 7 first-year clinical anesthesiology residents participated in this pilot study, and 4 residents completed the entire program for analysis purposes. Relationship Express was presented in three 1.5-hour sessions: (1) introduction followed by 2-case, standardized patient pretest with feedback to residents from faculty observers; (2) interpersonal and communication skills didactic workshop with video behavior modeling; and (3) review discussion followed by 2-case, standardized patient posttest and evaluation.
Modified Brookfield comments revealed the following themes: (1) time constraints were realistic compared with clinical practice; (2) admitting errors with patients was difficult; (3) patients were more aware of body language than anticipated; (4) residents liked the group discussions and the video interview; (5) standardized patients were convincing; and (6) residents found the feedback from faculty and standardized patients helpful.
Resident retrospective self-assessment and learning comments confirm the potential value of the Relationship Express model. This program will require further assessment and refinement with a larger number of residents.
PMCID: PMC3010947  PMID: 22132285
21.  Substance Use Disorder Among Anesthesiology Residents, 1975–2009 
Substance use disorder (SUD) among anesthesiologists and other physicians poses serious risks to both physicians and patients. Formulation of policy and individual treatment plans is hampered by lack of data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of physician SUD.
To describe the incidence and outcomes of SUD among anesthesiology residents.
Retrospective cohort study of physicians who began training in United States anesthesiology residency programs from July 1, 1975, to July 1, 2009, including 44 612 residents contributing 177 848 resident-years to analysis. Follow-up for incidence and relapse was to the end of training and December 31, 2010, respectively.
Cases of SUD (including initial SUD episode and any relapse, vital status and cause of death, and professional consequences of SUD) ascertained through training records of the American Board of Anesthesiology, including information from the Disciplinary Action Notification Service of the Federation of State Medical Boards and cause of death information from the National Death Index.
Of the residents, 384 had evidence of SUD during training, with an overall incidence of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.95–2.39) per 1000 resident-years (2.68 [95% CI, 2.41–2.98] men and 0.65 [95% CI, 0.44–0.93] women per 1000 resident-years). During the study period, an initial rate increase was followed by a period of lower rates in 1996–2002, but the highest incidence has occurred since 2003 (2.87 [95% CI, 2.42–3.39] per 1000 resident-years). The most common substance category was intravenous opioids, followed by alcohol, marijuana or cocaine, anesthetics/hypnotics, and oral opioids. Twenty-eight individuals (7.3%; 95% CI, 4.9%–10.4%) died during the training period; all deaths were related to SUD. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative proportion of survivors experiencing at least 1 relapse by 30 years after the initial episode (based on a median follow-up of 8.9 years [interquartile range, 5.0–18.8 years]) was 43% (95% CI, 34%–51%). Rates of relapse and death did not depend on the category of substance used. Relapse rates did not change over the study period.
Among anesthesiology residents entering primary training from 1975 to 2009, 0.86% had evidence of SUD during training. Risk of relapse over the follow-up period was high, indicating persistence of risk after training.
PMCID: PMC3993973  PMID: 24302092
22.  A Clinical Practice Update on the Latest AAOS/ADA Guideline (December 2012) on Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Dental Patients 
Journal of Dentistry  2013;14(1):49-52.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline “Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures.” This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to prevent patients undertaking dental procedures from orthopaedic implant infection. The guideline is developed on the basis of a collaborative systematic review to provide practical advice for training clinicians, dentists and any qualified physicians who need to consider prevention of orthopaedic implant (prosthesis) infection in their patients. This systematic review found no explicit evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between dental procedures and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).
This LTTE wishes to present a vivid summary of AAOS/ADA clinical practice guideline as a clinical update and an academic implementation to inform and assist Iranian competent clinicians and dentists in the course of their treatment decisions, to enrich the value and quality of health care on the latest international basis.
PMCID: PMC3927664  PMID: 24724118
Guideline; Prostheses and Implants; American Dental Association; Antibiotic Prophylaxis
23.  Acute pain medicine in anesthesiology 
F1000Prime Reports  2013;5:54.
The American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society for Regional Anesthesia have recently focused on the evolving practice of acute pain medicine. There is increasing recognition that the scope and practice of acute pain therapies must extend beyond the subacute pain phase to include pre-pain and pre-intervention risk stratification, resident and fellow education in regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia, as well as a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that are integral to the variability observed among individual responses to nociception. Acute pain medicine is also being established as a vital component of successful systems-level acute pain management programs, inpatient cost containment, and patient satisfaction scores. In this review, we discuss the evolution and practice of acute pain medicine and we aim to facilitate further discussion on the evolution and advancement of this field as a subspecialty of anesthesiology.
PMCID: PMC3854690  PMID: 24381730
24.  Safety of rapid intravenous of infusion acetaminophen 
Intravenous acetaminophen, Ofirmev®, is approved for management of mild to moderate pain, management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioids, and reduction of fever. The product is supplied as a 100 mL glass vial. As stated in the prescribing information, it is recommended to be infused over 15 minutes. This recommendation is related to the formulation propacetamol, the prodrug to acetaminophen, approved in Europe, which caused pain on infusion, and data from the clinical development of acetaminophen. The objective of this retrospective chart review study was to show the lack of side effects of rapidly infusing intravenous acetaminophen. Charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I–III ambulatory surgical patients who received only acetaminophen in the preoperative setting were reviewed for any infusion-related side effects. Using standard binomial proportion analyses and employing SAS/JMP software, all vital signs were analyzed for statistically significant changes between pre- and postinfusion values. One hundred charts were reviewed. Only one patient had pain on infusion, which lasted 10 seconds. No reported side effects or erythema was seen at the injection site. No infusions had to be slowed or discontinued. The median infusion time was 3:41 minutes. Of the vital signs monitored, only the systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P < 0.0099) blood pressures had statistically significant changes from pre- to postinfusion; however, they were of no clinical relevance. Acetaminophen can be administered as a rapid infusion with no significant infusion-related side effects or complications.
PMCID: PMC3684285  PMID: 23814378
25.  A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system 
The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS) that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation). The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken.
Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94–0.96, P<0.001 for training, test, and overall). The proposed RBRVS-based billing matrix yielded payments that were 3.0%±1.34% less than would have been expected from commercial insurers, using standard rates for commercial ASA relative value units and RBRVS relative value units. Compared with current Medicare reimbursement under the ASA relative value guide, reimbursement would almost double when converting to an RBRVS billing model. The greatest increases in Medicare reimbursement between the current system and proposed billing model occurred as anesthetic management complexity increased.
The new crosswalk correlates with existing evaluation and management and intensive care medicine codes in an essentially revenue neutral manner when applied to the market-based rates of commercial insurers. The new system more highly values delivery of care to more complex patients undergoing more complex surgery and better represents the true value of anesthetic case management.
PMCID: PMC4199848  PMID: 25336964
payment reform; billing; crosswalk

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