Equipment malfunction is a problem of particular importance during anesthesia and resuscitation. A review of published reports shows that the most common clinical events involve endotracheal tubes, the inspired oxygen concentration, the volume of inspired anesthetic vapours and gases, and pressures in the breathing or ventilation system. It is concluded that protection of a patient from equipment malfunction depends on: (a) appropriate application of standards set by a national standards association; (b) careful evaluation of equipment prior to purchase; (c) comprehension of equipment function by the user; (d) conscientious routine servicing of all systems concerned with anesthesia and resuscitation, and checking after service and before clinical use; (e) preanesthesia testing of equipment, including the use of an oxygen analyser in the breathing circuit; (f) early inclusion of equipment malfunction in the differential diagnosis of events during anesthesia; and (g) rapid action that cannot present a new hazard to the patient to correct the results of apparatus malfunction.
Although we get into the habit of thinking that anesthesia cannot be safely delivered without the availability of all equipments available in a state of the art Operating room, we find ourselves faced with situations where the availability and mobility of all this equipment is limited ; this results in the impetus to start a thought process of how we can perform mobile anesthesia with less technology. Disaster situations, such as earthquakes, floods, or armed conflicts, might happen in areas where access of a regular operating room might be hours away or not available at all.
Delivering mobile Anesthesia during the golden hour can be a totally different experience from customary anesthesia practices in a regular operating room.It requires setting up a field/forward surgical teams with its organization and structure. Total Intravenous anesthesia gained popularity in crisis and combat situations and has been documented as a safe method in crisis situations.Anesthesia configured medic bag: Is a modified medic bag that can be utilized to contain the most commonly used Anesthesia supply material in a portable way.
In reviewing the knowledge of how to provide anesthesia in crisis and disaster situations we conclude that there is evidence that anesthesia can be safely and efficiently delivered in a remote areas with limited tools and technology.
Disaster anesthesia; field surgical team; mobile anesthesia; TIVA anesthesia
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is becoming a standard method for invasive mediastinal staging and for the diagnosis of paratracheal and peribronchial lesions. It is essential to understand the technical aspects of EBUS-TBNA to ensure safe and efficient procedures. In this review, we discuss the practical aspects to be considered during EBUS-TBNA, including anesthesia, manipulation of equipment, understanding mediastinal ultrasound images, target selection, number of aspirations needed per target, sample handling, and complications.
Endobronchial Ultrasound; Bronchoscopy; Lung Neoplasms
Adverse intraoperative events (AIEs) during surgery are a well-known entity. A better understanding of the incidence of AIEs and their relationship with outcomes is helpful for surgeon preparation and preoperative patient counseling. The goals of this study are to describe the incidence of AIEs during bariatric surgery and examine their impact on major adverse complications.
The study included 5,882 subjects who had bariatric surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study between March 2005 and April 2009. Prospectively collected AIEs included organ injuries, anesthesia-related events, anastomotic revisions, and equipment failure. The relationship between AIEs and a composite end point of 30-day major adverse complications (ie, death, venous thromboembolism, percutaneous, endoscopic, or operative reintervention and failure to be discharged from the hospital within 30 days from surgery) was evaluated using a multivariable relative risk model adjusting for factors known to influence their risk.
There were 1,608 laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding, 3,770 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations, and 504 open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations. Adverse intraoperative events occurred in 5% of the overall sample and were most frequent during open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (7.3%), followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (5.5%) and laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding (3%). The rate of composite end point was 8.8% in the AIE group compared with 3.9% among those without an AIE (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that patients with an AIE were at 90% greater risk of composite complication than those without an event (relative risk = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.26–2.88; p = 0.002), independent of the type of procedure (open or laparoscopic).
Incidence of an AIE is not infrequent during bariatric surgery and is associated with much higher risk of major complication. Additional study is needed to assess the association between specific AIEs and short-term complications.
The cerebral protective effect of xenon anesthesia could be of interest during carotid surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of xenon on cerebral oxygen saturation with those of propofol during carotid clamping.
After approval of Research Ethics Board and patient informed consent, 74 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were enrolled. Patients were not randomized but were well matched by preoperative characteristics. Patients in the Xenon group were the ones scheduled for surgery in the operative theater equipped with the xenon anesthesia system. Anesthesia was started with a target control infusion of propofol and remifentanil. Patients were then divided into the control group (37 patients) with anesthesia maintained with target control infusion propofol and remifentanil and the Xenon group with anesthesia maintained with xenon (target inspired concentration of 60%) and target control infusion remifentanil. Remifentanil and xenon or propofol were stopped at the end of skin closure.
A cerebral oxygen saturation decrease below 55% was less frequently observed in the Xenon group during carotid cross-clamping (7/37 patients vs 15/37; p=0.01). Compared with values observed before clamping, the decrease in cerebral oxygen saturation during clamping was significantly less important in the Xenon group (12±11% vs 17±14%, p=0.04). Blood pressure and heart rate were not different between groups during carotid clamping.
This pilot study suggests that xenon anesthesia may be associated to higher cerebral oxygen saturation values when compared to propofol anesthesia during cross-clamping for carotid endarterectomy.
carotid surgery; general anesthesia; TCI; propofol; remifentanil; xenon; near-infrared spectrometry
The burden of disease, disability, and mortality that could be averted by surgery is growing. However, few low and middle income countries (LMICs) have the infrastructure or capacity to provide surgical services to meet this growing need. Equally, few of these countries have been assessed for key infrastructural capacity including surgical and anesthesia providers, equipment, and supplies. These assessments are critical to revealing magnitude of the evolving surgical and anesthesia workforce crisis, related morbidity and mortality, and necessary steps to mitigate the impact of the crisis.
A pilot Internet-based survey was conducted to estimate per-capita anesthesia providers in LMICs. Information was obtained from e-mail respondents at national health care addresses, and from individuals working in-country on anesthesia-related projects.
Workers from 6 of 98 countries responded to direct e-mail inquiries, and an additional five responses came from individuals who were working or had worked in-country at the time of the survey. The data collected revealed that the per-capita anesthesia provider ratio in the countries surveyed was often 100 times lower than in developed countries.
This pilot study revealed that the number of anesthesia providers available per capita of population is markedly reduced in low and lower middle income countries compared to developed countries. As anesthesia providers are an integral part of the delivery of safe and effective surgical care, it is essential that more data is collected to fully understand the deficiencies in workforce and capacity in low and middle income countries.
Background and Objectives:
Recently there has been a renewed interest in office based laparoscopy sterilization utilizing local anesthesia with conscious intravenous sedation. The safety of performing the procedure outside of a hospital environment has been questioned. The author attempts to determine the incidence of major complications with a review of the literature and a retrospective chart review of his personal cases.
During the period from 1971 to 1995, the author performed 1,753 laparoscopic procedures, utilizing local anesthesia in 1,562 cases and general anesthesia in the remainder. The focus of this chart study is the 1,190 laparoscopy sterilization cases performed in an office exam room setting, utilizing local anesthesia and conscious intravenous analgesia. Conventional 10 mm single puncture laparoscopy equipment was used. Major complications were defined as requiring laparotomy, blood transfusion, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or emergency transfer to the hospital.
The author's series contained one major complication, which was easily handled in the office environment. A review of the literature, including the author's series, revealed a major complication incidence of 5 out of 20,568 cases reviewed. None of these five complications would have required immediate laparotomy or blood transfusion to prevent a fatality.
The author proposes that there is no documented evidence that office laparoscopy places the patient at increased risk for a life-threatening complication and should be considered by experienced gynecologic laparoscopists who are interested in cost containment.
Laparoscopy sterilization; Local anesthesia; Safety; Office; Experienced gynecologic laparoscopist
Many medical schools and hospitals throughout the world are equipped with a simulation center for the purpose of training anesthesiologists to perform both technical and non-technical skills. Because induction, maintenance, and emergence of general anesthesia are critical to patient welfare, various simulation mannequins and tools are utilized for the purpose of training anesthesiologists for safer patient care. Traditionally, anesthesia residency training mostly consisted of didactic lectures and observations. After completion of "traditional" training, anesthesia residents were allowed to perform procedures on patients under supervision. However, simulation would be a more effective training tool for which to teach anesthesiologists the skills necessary to perform invasive procedures, such as endotracheal intubation, central venous catheter insertion, and epidural catheter insertion. Recently, non-technical skills, such as the Anesthesia Non-Technical Skills developed by anesthesiologists from Aberdeen University, have been emphasized as an important training resource. Technical skills and non-technical skills can be learned by anesthesiology residents through a standardized and organized simulation program. Such programs would be beneficial in training anesthesia residents to work efficiently as a team in the operation room.
Anesthesia; Non-technical skill; Simulation; Simulator; Training
Complications in pediatric anesthesia can happen, even in our modern hospitals with the most advanced equipment and skilled anesthesiologists. It is important, albeit in a tranquil and reassuring way, to inform parents of the possibility of complications and, in general, of the anesthetic risks. This is especially imperative when speaking to the parents of children who will be operated on for minor procedures: in our experience, they tend to think that the anesthesia will be a light anesthesia without risks. Often the surgeons tell them that the operation is very simple without stressing the fact that it will be done under general anesthesia which is identical to the one we give for major operations. Different is the scenario for the parents of children who are affected by malignant neoplasms: in these cases they already know that the illness is serious. They have this tremendous burden and we choose not to add another one by discussing anesthetic risks, so we usually go along with the examination of the child without bringing up the possibility of complications, unless there is some specific problem such as a mediastinal mass.
pediatric anesthesia; complications; anesthetic drugs; preanesthetic evaluation.
This survey assesses whether oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the state of Virginia are prepared for inspection of their offices. A survey asking pertinent questions on the availability of specific equipment and the educational qualifications of the anesthesia care team was developed and sent to 155 offices. Seven questions were asked regarding the availability of nurses, types of life support training, (formal or informal), the surgeons and anesthesia care personnel, and the presence of a defibrillator. Questionnaires were short and simple to encourage compliance with the study guidelines. A total of 128 (82.6%) questionnaires were returned. Only 42 of 128 (32.8%) offices employed nurses, and 6 of the 42 nurses were not considered as part of the anesthesia care team. Only 36 of 128 (28.1%) of the offices had assistants with formal anesthesia assistant course training from the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) or the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA). However, 93% of the assistants who participated in the anesthesia had current basic life support training (BLS) training, and 74% of the surgeons had current advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training. The AAOMS Office Emergency Manual was present in 118 of 128 offices (92.2%), and 124 of 128 offices (96.9%) had defibrillators. The survey suggests that the surgeons are well prepared from the standpoint of having a defibrillator present and the AAOMS Office Emergency Manual available as a template for the team to use in order to answer questions that the inspection team may ask of the primary anesthesia care provider and surgeon. The majority of the surgeons had current ACLS certification, and the office anesthesia assistants had current BLS training. Most of the assistants did not have formal course training, which indicates that on-the-job training is probably the norm. Less than one third of the offices had nurses.
Purpose: To review the initial results of implementing an extended surgical time-out (STO) in pediatric surgery.
Methods: Starting in January 2006, all members of our surgical team implemented and used an extended STO, confirming the patient's identity, technical and anesthetic details, administered and available medications, and need for blood products and special equipment. To avoid disrupting work flow, the STO was initially after anesthesia induction. Starting in October 2007, the STO was done before anesthesia induction. Initial results, elapsed time to incision, and surgical team surveys were reviewed before and after implementing the preinduction STO.
Results: The elapsed time to incision was similar for elective and urgent operations before and after implementing the preinduction STO. All antibiotics were administered and confirmed during the STO. Four significant equipment findings were detected, altering the planned procedure (two before and two after implementing the preinduction STO). Operating room staff felt more confident and prepared for the operations because communication was improved. One near-miss occurred during the postinduction STO. One wrong-site operation occurred despite the preinduction STO, because of inadequate marking. Root-cause analysis demonstrated that this was due to a systems error.
Conclusions: Using the extended STO before anesthesia induction improved communication among the surgical team members and did not disrupt work flow. An extended STO may also have broader value, such as confirming timely antibiotic administration or meeting other quality measures. The extended STO did not eliminate wrong-site surgery. However, implementation of the STO placed the responsibility for wrong-site surgery with the whole team and system, rather than with the individual surgeon.
To describe the evolution and implementation of standards for head, face, and eye protection in sports.
Recent changes in testing standards for head, face, and eye protection include the development of new equipment, the mandating of tougher standards, and the coverage of additional products by these standards, all in an effort to improve athletes' safety and reduce their risk of injury. The person selecting equipment needs to understand these standards, how they are developed for each piece of equipment, and which standards the piece of equipment is purported to meet.
The sports medicine clinician must recommend only the use of personal protective equipment that meets a current standard; must ensure that the equipment is maintained in its original form and that all parts and labels are present; and must ascertain that equipment is refurbished by a qualified reconditioner. By following these guidelines, we improve sport safety for our athletes and lessen their risk of injury.
helmet; headgear; face protector; NOCSAE; ASTM; eyewear
The methods of gathering information to determine the safety of anesthesia and to establish the risk of mortality and morbidity include anecdotal tales, in-hospital audit and peer review, reports to medical protective societies, retrospective studies, reviews of specific problems and prospective studies. All these methods have limitations and, in particular, do not readily differentiate the anesthetic from the surgical contributions. However, it appears that over the past 30 years the risk of death directly attributable to anesthesia has decreased from 1 in 2680 to about 1 in 10 000. The main causes of death are faulty anesthetic techniques due to human error, drug overdose, coexistent disease and failure of immediate postoperative care. Equipment failure, poor preoperative assessment, halothane-associated hepatitis and malignant hyperthermia, although often cited in the literature, are rarely the cause of problems associated with anesthesia.
Local anesthesia can be very useful in the first stage of labour when a general anesthetic cannot be given during this stage, and it is associated with reduced respiratory depression in the fetus. Paracervical block anesthesia is one such method of local anesthesia. Its successful use depends upon a proper technique, knowledge of the indications and contraindications, appropriate equipment and use of a long-acting anesthetic agent of low toxicity. A series of 90 cases of paracervical block are described in which the success rate was 90 to 95%.
Primary care physicians are frequently asked to evaluate patients before elective surgery. Familiarity with anesthetic technique and physiologic processes can help primary care physicians identify risk factors for perioperative complications, optimize patient care, and enhance communication with surgeons and anesthesiologists. To this end, we review the physiologic processes accompanying tracheal intubation and general and regional anesthesia. There is no convincing evidence that regional anesthesia is safer than general anesthesia. In addition to replacing fluid losses from the surgical field and insensible losses, intraoperative fluid administration may attenuate the cardiovascular and renal effects of anesthesia. Therefore, recommendations to limit fluids should be made with caution and should be tempered with an understanding of intraoperative fluid requirements. An understanding of the physiologic processes of anesthesia, combined with preoperative risk stratification strategies, will enhance a primary care physician's ability to provide meaningful preoperative evaluations.
The ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is one type of fetal surgery, performed before delivery while the fetus remains attached to the uteroplacental circulation. This intervention improves neonatal morbidity and mortality of certain congenital diseases. For instance, securing the airway of a fetus with congenital airway obstruction while on uteroplacental circulation prevents the hypoxemia during the establishment of an airway post-delivery. Anesthesia for fetal surgery now incorporates new knowledge of the maternal/fetal response to anesthetic agents. This chapter reviews for the EXIT procedure the effects of maternal anesthesia on fetal hemodynamics, intravenous anesthesia to supplement inhalational anesthesia in order to provide maternal-fetal hemodynamic stability during surgery, intraoperative fetal monitoring, maternal pharmacokinetics approach to study placental drug transfer and fetal pharmacokinetics to improve our understanding of the effects of maternal anesthesia on the fetus.
We describe a patient with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy under spinal anesthesia. At preoperative assessment, it was considered that intubation of the trachea was likely to be difficult. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was attempted, but without success. As the standard technique for spinal anesthesia failed, a variation of the paramedian approach in the lumbosacral approach, also known as Taylor's approach was successfully attempted. This resulted in adequate sensory and motor blockade for the surgical procedure. The patient did not require airway interventions, but equipment and aids to secure airway were available.
Ankylosing spondylitis; Taylor's approach; percutaneous nephrolithotomy
Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines’ internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines’ breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined.
Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines’ breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted.
Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded.
Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturer’s recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized.
anesthesia machine; breathing circuit system; contamination; infection control
Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Europe. Early diagnosis and treatment gives the patient a chance for complete recovery. Screening colonoscopies in the symptom-free patients are currently performed on a wide scale. The examinations are performed under local anesthesia which does not eliminate all discomfort and pain related to the examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate magnetic scope navigation in screening endoscopic examinations performed to detect early-stage colorectal cancer.
The study group consisted of 200 patients, aged 40–65 years, who were free from colon cancer symptoms. All patients underwent complete colonoscopy under local anesthesia. The equipment could be fitted with the scope that allows three-dimensional observation of instrument localization in the bowel. The examination was performed by three experienced endoscopists, each of whom performed over 5,000 colonoscopies. The patients were randomized to two groups: those whose equipment did not have 3D navigation (group I) and those whose equipment did have 3D navigation (group II). Each group consisted of 100 cases matched by gender, age, and BMI. The authors compared the duration of introducing instrument to cecum, the pulse rate before the examination and at the time the instrument reached the cecum, and subjective pain evaluation by the patient on the visual analog scale.
Group I consisted of 54 women and 46 men with a mean age of 54.6 years and mean BMI of 27.8 kg/m2, and group II had 58 women and 42 men, mean age of 55.1 years and mean BMI of 26.4 kg/m2. The average time it took for the instrument to reach the cecum was 216s in group I and 181s in group II (P < 0.05). Pain measured on the 10-point VAS scale was 2.44 in group I and 1.85 in group II (P < 0.05). The results showed a significantly shorter time for the instrument to reach the cecum in group II and significantly lower pain intensity during the examination was reported by the group II patients. No significant differences were found in the pulse measurements between the groups (P = 0.5).
3D navigation during colonoscopy decreases the time for the instrument to reach the cecum and lowers pain intensity subjectively reported by the patients. The use of 3D and the possibility to observe instrument localization and maneuvers brings more comfort to the patients.
Colorectal cancer; Colonoscopy; Magnetic endoscopic imaging; Pain
For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.
Volatile anesthetics; Environmental pollution; Greenhouse warming potential; Ozone depletion potential
Radiotherapy (RT) has become an important treatment modality in pediatric oncology, but its delivery to young children with cancer is challenging and general anesthesia is often needed.
To evaluate whether a psychoeducational intervention might reduce the need for anesthesia, 223 consecutive pediatric cancer patients receiving 4141 RT fractions during 244 RT courses between February 1989 and January 2006 were studied. Whereas in 154 RT courses corresponding with 2580 RT fractions patients received no psychoeducational intervention (group A), 90 RT courses respectively 1561 RT fractions were accomplished by using psychoeducational intervention (group B). This tailored psychoeducational intervention in group B included a play program and interactive support by a trained nurse according to age to get familiar with staff, equipment and procedure of radiotherapy.
Group A did not differ significantly from group B in age at RT, gender, diagnosis, localization of RT and positioning during RT. Whereas 33 (21.4%) patients in group A got anesthesia, only 8 (8.9%) patients in group B needed anesthesia. The median age of cooperating patients without anesthesia decreased from 3.2 to 2.7 years. In both uni- and multivariate analyses the psychoeducational intervention significantly and independently reduced the need for anesthesia.
We conclude that a specifically tailored psychoeducational intervention is able to reduce the need for anesthesia in children undergoing RT for cancer. This results in lower costs and increased cooperation during RT.
Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications.
The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas.
Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ≥ 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment.
Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2) number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3) major and minor morbidity; 4) disease specific and general quality of life; 5) anorectal function; 6) health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures.
Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR of 3.3% and considering an upper-limit of 10% for EMR to be non-inferior (beta-error 0.2 and one-sided alpha-error 0.05), 89 patients are needed per group.
The TREND study is the first randomized trial evaluating whether TEM or EMR is more cost-effective for the treatment of large rectal adenomas.
Trial registration number
The acquisition process for interventional equipment and the care that this equipment receives constitute a comprehensive quality improvement program. This program strives to (a) achieve the production of good image quality that meets clinical needs, (b) reduce radiation doses to the patient and personnel to their lowest possible levels, and (c) provide overall good patient care at reduced cost. Interventional imaging equipment is only as effective and efficient as its supporting facility. The acquisition process of interventional equipment and the development of its environment demand a clinical project leader who can effectively coordinate the efforts of the many professionals who must communicate and work effectively on this type of project. The clinical project leader needs to understand (a) clinical needs of the end users, (b) how to justify the cost of the project, (c) the technical needs of the imaging and all associated equipment, (d) building and construction limitations, (e) how to effectively read construction drawings, and (f) how to negotiate and contract the imaging equipment from the appropriate vendor. After the initial commissioning of the equipment, it must not be forgotten. The capabilities designed into the imaging device can be properly utilized only by well-trained operators and staff who were initially properly trained and receive ongoing training concerning the latest clinical techniques throughout the equipment’s lifetime. A comprehensive, ongoing maintenance and repair program is paramount to reducing costly downtime of the imaging device. A planned periodic maintenance program can identify and eliminate problems with the imaging device before these problems negatively impact patient care.
Radiation dose; Interventional equipment; Maintenance performance standard; Technical settings interventional suite
Interference of monitored electrocardiogram is common during different surgical procedures using electrical equipment. The electrical devices used induce artifacts in the electrocardiographic tracing, which may resemble serious arrhythmia. We describe a case of electrocardiographic artifact resembling ventricular tachycardia with the use of a Storz unidrive microdebrider during inferior turbinectomy under general anesthesia. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge of various equipment-related electrocardiographic artifacts in avoiding unnecessary and harmful therapeutic interventions.
Turbinectomy; microdebrider; ventricular tachycardia
Understanding the way in which groups of cortical neurons change their individual and mutual firing activity during the induction of general anesthesia may improve the safe usage of many anesthetic agents. Assessing neuronal interactions within cell assemblies during anesthesia may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms of general anesthesia. Here, a point process generalized linear model (PPGLM) was applied to infer the functional connectivity of neuronal ensembles during both baseline and anesthesia, in which neuronal firing rates and network connectivity might change dramatically. A hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach combined with a variational Bayes (VB) algorithm is used for statistical inference. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated with synthetic spike train data drawn from small and medium-size networks (consisting of up to 200 neurons), which are simulated using biophysical voltage-gated conductance models. We further apply the analysis to experimental spike train data recorded from rats’ barrel cortex during both active behavior and isoflurane anesthesia conditions. Our results suggest that that neuronal interactions of both putative excitatory and inhibitory connections are reduced after the induction of isoflurane anesthesia.