To describe the University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD program and assess the prevalence and characteristics of PharmD/PhD programs in the United States.
Survey instruments were mailed in May 2004 to UT dual-degree program participants and deans of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD students completed more than 30 hours of graduate credit before obtaining their PharmD and 72.2% agreed or strongly agreed that the program met their professional goals. More than 40% of US pharmacy colleges and schools have or plan to have PharmD/PhD programs. A wide variation exists in the level of integration, PhD concentrations offered, entrance requirements, and student benefits. Most schools with PharmD/PhD programs had few students enrolled in the program, but attrition rates were low (<20%) for 69% of the schools.
Dual-degree programs attract and retain pharmacy students in research programs and 47.6% of graduates entered academia and industry.
dual-degree programs; faculty shortage; pharmacy education; PharmD/PhD; graduate education
The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty.
The combined initiatives were aimed at (1) instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2) expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3) offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4) recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner.
The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties.
The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.
Clinical pharmacists shortage; Saudi Arabia; clinical pharmacy; career ladder; residency training; international faculty recruitment
To evaluate the academic experience and satisfaction of students who completed a dual PharmD/MBA degree program and the program's long-term impact on the students' career choice and earning potential.
GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who completed only the PharmD program. A satisfaction survey instrument was administered to 17 students who completed the dual PharmD/MBA degree program in May 2007. Data from a standardized job placement and starting salary survey instrument completed by all PharmD graduates were also obtained, as well as all students' final grade point averages (GPAs). GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who had completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who had completed only the PharmD program.
The graduating GPAs of dual-degree students were higher than those of both pharmacy (3.52 vs 3.41, p > 0.10) and business (3.82 vs. 3.68, p = 0.018) students not enrolled in the dual-degree program. Dual-degree students were slightly less likely to enter a residency (17% vs. 27%, p = 0.44) than other pharmacy graduates. Among those who elected not to pursue a residency, both mean starting salaries ($111,090 vs. $101,965) and mean total first-year compensation ($127,290 vs. $110,388) were significantly higher for dual-degree graduates compared to the PharmD graduates.
Students enrolled in the dual-degree program did slightly better academically than students who completed only the MBA or PharmD programs and indicated a high level of satisfaction with the program. Dual-degree graduates reported increased career opportunities and were slated to earn significantly more during their first year in the workforce. These results affirm continuation of our program and make the case for support of similar programs across the nation.
dual degree; master of business administration (MBA) degree; curriculum; grade point average; salary; career opportunities
Objective. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of curriculum in dual doctor of pharmacy (PharmD)/master of public health (MPH) degree programs offered by US pharmacy programs.
Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed online to faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Of the 110 colleges and schools that responded, 23 (21%) offered a PharmD/MPH degree. Common characteristics of these 23 programs included current PharmD program structure (3 + 1 year), early curricular recruitment, small enrollment, and interdisciplinary coursework occurring online and in the classroom. The impact of the dual degree on the curriculum and longevity of the dual-degree programs varied. About 55% of responding programs without a formal dual-degree program reported that additional public health training was available.
Conclusion. Twenty-one percent of colleges and schools of pharmacy offer a combined PharmD/MPH dual degree. Most programs required an additional 1 or 2 semesters to complete both degrees.
pharmacy education; public health; masters of public health; dual degree
To assess differences in the practice of pharmacy and in job satisfaction between graduates of a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and a bachelor of science (BS) in pharmacy program.
Two separate survey instruments were mailed to 293 PharmD graduates and 293 BS graduates.
Two hundred fourteen (73.0%) of the 293 nontraditional PharmD graduates and 189 (64.5%) of the 293 BS graduates completed the survey instruments. Nontraditional PharmD graduates expressed greater satisfaction, both in their current position and with pharmacy as a career, compared to BS graduates. Nontraditional PharmD graduates were more likely than BS graduates to practice in a hospital and have more clinical responsibilities.
Nontraditional PharmD graduates are more likely to have greater satisfaction with their job and with pharmacy as a career compared to BS-trained pharmacists.
nontraditional PharmD degree; job responsibilities; job satisfaction
To determine doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ perceptions of a PharmD
and master of public health (MPH) dual degree program.
A seven-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to students at a
large metropolitan school of pharmacy during scheduled class time in April
Among the 611 students enrolled in the PharmD program, 447 (73%) responded.
Of those who responded, 72.3% were either “very likely” or “likely” to
consider enrolling in such a PharmD/MPH dual degree program, and 77.4%
believed that it would be attractive to future students. The most commonly
identified potential limitations to pursuing the dual degree were time
commitment (19.9%), increased workload and stress (11.2%), and tuition cost
(10.3%). The most notable advantages documented were increased job
opportunities for public health-related pharmacy positions (26.9%),
increased ability to serve patients and the community (13.4%), and increased
marketability for future jobs (8.7%).
PharmD student participants demonstrated overall positive attitudes and
interest towards a PharmD/MPH dual degree program.
Education, Pharmacy; Students, Pharmacy; Students, Public Health; Schools, Pharmacy; Program Development; Attitude; United States
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) is a professional pharmacy degree qualification offered by universities world-wide. While the graduates from the West are familiar with scope and job opportunities that present on completion of a PharmD degree, graduates from Asia and the Middle-East are coming to grips with the future of PharmD program and the role that it could play in career advancement. Through this review, we would like to highlight that numerous credential programs are available which can be added to the armory of PharmD graduates for advancement of their professional careers. The credentials detailed in this review are designed for PharmD graduates to optimize pharmaceutical care in specialized clinical settings such as geriatrics and ambulatory medicine. We have assembled an extensive list of post-PharmD educational opportunities to enhance professional practice for pharmacy graduates.
PharmD; doctor of pharmacy; credentials
Residency training is designed to provide recent pharmacy school graduates who have the profession's terminal Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree with accelerated growth beyond entry-level professional competence. Placement into residency programs is highly competitive through an application and match process. These programs provide additional training in patient-centered care with advancement of skills in clinical judgment, pharmacy operations, clinical research, project management, and leadership. Approximately 20% of a pharmacy graduating class will apply for a residency. With increasing numbers of pharmacy schools across the country, the availability of residency programs is falling behind applicants. The establishment of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) has addressed the shortage of pharmacists within the state. In recent years, resident positions in Hawai‘i have doubled to a total of ten first year residency (PGY1) and two second year (PGY2) specialty residencies. Given the limited availability of positions in Hawai‘i, graduates continue to return to the continental US to seek positions, thus increasing the likelihood of them not returning to practice in Hawai‘i. Establishing residency programs is essential to elevate the level of pharmacy practice toward innovation and adherence to best practices, academia/teaching and scholarly research. This descriptive paper will detail the general components and types of pharmacy practice residency, the unique components of the Hawai‘i programs, the career placement of Hawai‘i's programs graduates and future challenges.
Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States.
China; international pharmacy education; clinical pharmacy
Evaluate the academic experience and satisfaction of students enrolled in the dual PharmD/MBA degree program between the South Carolina College of Pharmacy and The Citadel's School of Business Administration. Compare grade point averages of students enrolled in the dual degree program with those of traditional student colleagues.
A standardized satisfaction survey instrument was administered to 32 students currently enrolled in the dual PharmD/MBA degree program. Grade point averages (GPAs) in both pharmacy and business coursework were also collected for analysis.
There were slightly higher percentages of both female and minority students in the dual degree program compared to the pharmacy class as a whole. Eighteen (56%) of students completed the survey, and responses were generally positive. The mean GPA of students in the dual degree program was higher than that of both pharmacy (3.37 vs 3.08, p < 0.001) and business (3.72 vs 3.64, not statistically significant) students not enrolled in the dual degree program.
Students enrolled in the dual degree program did better academically than their counterparts and indicated an overall high level of satisfaction with the program.
dual degree; PharmD/MBA; master of business administration; business
To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference.
Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills.
The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University.
poster presentations; public health; active-learning
To compare practice settings and activities of pharmacists with bachelor of science (BS) in pharmacy and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees.
Data from the 2009 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey instrument were analyzed. Multivariate regression was used to examine the association of the PharmD degree with time spent in dispensing and patient care.
The survey response rate by pharmacists was 52%, and 562 usable responses met our inclusion criteria. Sixty-three percent of BS and 39% of PharmD pharmacists were employed in community pharmacies, compared with 21% of BS and 38% of PharmD pharmacists employed in hospital pharmacy settings. Practicing in a community setting had the strongest influence on time spent in dispensing and time spent in patient care. Among respondents with PharmD degrees, a residency was associated with less time in dispensing and more time in patient care.
Time spent in dispensing and patient care were influenced more by practice setting than by educational degree and residency training.
degrees; graduates; pharmacist; workforce
Objective. To determine which student characteristics and performance criteria in the prepharmacy and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program predict success on the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX).
Methods. Transcripts and NAPLEX scores were reviewed for 432 graduates from the Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy between 2008 and 2011.
Results. The preadmission variables that correlated with NAPLEX scores included math-science grade point average (GPA), cumulative GPA, student type (internal or transfer), and having no unsatisfactory grades (p<0.001). In the PharmD program, cumulative GPA, on-time graduation, and having no unsatisfactory grades in the prepharmacy and PharmD programs correlated with NAPLEX scores (p<0.001).
Conclusion. Having no unsatisfactory grades in the prepharmacy program and a high cumulative GPA in the PharmD program were identified as significant predictors of success on the NAPLEX.
North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination; admissions; grade point average
To evaluate the curricula content of Thai pharmacy schools based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards.
Course syllabi were collected from 11 pharmacy schools. A questionnaire was developed based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards. Course coordinators completed the questionnaire assessing the curricula content.
The curricula for both the bachelor of science in pharmacy degree (BS Pharm) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree programs included the minimum content required by the 8 competency domains. The dominant content area in BS Pharm degree programs was product-oriented material. The content ratio of patient to product to social and administrative pharmacy in the BS Pharm degree programs was 2:3:1, respectively. However, the content ratio suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council was 3:2:1, respectively. For the PharmD programs, the largest content area was patient-oriented material, which was in agreement with the framework suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council.
The curricula of all Thai pharmacy schools met the competency standards; however, some patient-oriented material should be expanded and some product-oriented content deleted in order to meet the recommended content ratio.
pharmacy education; curriculum; competency; evaluation; Thailand
Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand.
Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand.
Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) .
Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.
pharmacy education; Thailand; PharmD; International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Survey
Objective. To determine student competency and confidence in the provision of diabetes care and satisfaction with incorporation of the American Pharmacist Association/American Association of Diabetes Educators (APhA/AADE) diabetes certificate program into the required doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
Design. Material from the diabetes certificate program was incorporated longitudinally into the third-year curriculum skills laboratory courses. Educational techniques used included self-study modules with case questions, lectures using the program’s slides and live seminar materials, and active-learning techniques including instructor-led modeling and role-playing exercises, small group activities, objective structured learning exercises (OSLE) using standardized patients, and a week-long diabetes simulation.
Evaluation. Students achieved a 100% pass rate on a diabetes certificate program examination and earned a mean score of 71.8 out of 100 points on a medication therapy management (MTM) objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A student survey demonstrated high student confidence in their ability to provide diabetes care (mean scores 4.2 to 4.8) and satisfaction with the program (mean scores 4.5 to 4.8).
Conclusion. Longitudinal integration of a nationally recognized diabetes certificate program into the required PharmD curriculum produced satisfied students competent in providing diabetes pharmaceutical care.
diabetes; diabetes certificate; disease management; assessment; American Pharmacists Association
Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university.
Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components.
Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health.
health-related quality of life; student pharmacists; perceived self-efficacy; ego-orientation
The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession.
dual degree; residency; graduate program; advanced educational training; leadership; master’s degree
Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes.
pharmacy education; pharmacy practice; India
A collaborative pharmacist-physician (PharmD-MD) team approach to medication therapy management (MTM), with pharmacists initiating and changing medications at separate office visits, holds promise for cost-effective management of blood pressure (BP), but has not been evaluated in many systematic trials. The primary objective of this study was to examine BP control for hypertensive patients managed by a newly formed PharmD-MD MTM team vs. versus usual care (UC) in a university primary care clinic.
This was a randomized, pragmatic, clinical trial of hypertensive patients randomly selected for the PharmD-MD MTM team or UC. In the PharmD-MD MTM group pharmacists managed drug therapy initiation, monitoring, medication adjustments, biometric assessments, laboratory tests, and patient education. In the UC group, patients continued to see their primary care provider (PCP). Participants were age 18 years or over, diagnosed with hypertension, most recent BP ≥140/90 mmHg or ≥130/80 mmHg if co-diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, on at least one anti-hypertensive medication, and English speaking. Primary outcome was the difference in mean change in systolic BP (SBP) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included percent achieving therapeutic BP goal, mean change in diastolic BP, LDL and HDL cholesterol.
A total of 75 patients were in the PharmD-PCP MTM group and 91 in the UC group. Mean reduction in SBP was significantly greater in the PharmD-PCP MTM group at 6 months [−7.1 (SD=19.4) vs. +1.6 (SD=21.0) mm Hg, (p=0.008)] but the difference was no longer statistically significant at 9 months [−5.2 (SD=16.9) vs. −1.7 (SD=17.7) mmHg, (p=0.22)] based on intent to treat analysis. In the intervention group, a greater percentage of patients who continued to see the MTM pharmacist vs. those who returned to their PCP were at goal at 6 months (88.5% vs. 63.6%) and 9 months (78.9% vs. 47.4%). No significant difference in change of LDL or HDL was detected at 6 or 9 months between groups, however mean initial visit values were near recommended levels. The PharmD-PCP MTM group had significantly fewer mean number of PCP visits than the UC group [1.8 (SD=1.5) vs 4.2 (SD=1.0), p<0.001)
A PharmD-PCP collaborative MTM service was more effective in lowering blood pressure than UC at 6 months for all patients and at 9 months for patients who continued to see the pharmacist. Incorporating pharmacists in the primary care team can be a successful strategy for managing medication therapy, improving patient outcomes and possibly extending primary care capacity.
Hypertension; Collaborative Care; Pharmaceutical Care; Pharmacist; Medication Therapy Management; MTM
Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1–6.3]). Conclusion: Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results.
Pharmacist; Pharmaceutical industry; Pharmacy education; Saudi Arabia
Objective. To assess the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ desire to obtain additional degrees after graduation.
Methods. During the spring 2011 semester, an anonymous 14-question survey instrument was administered to students across all 6 years of the PharmD program to evaluate their interest in obtaining an additional degree after graduation. Demographic data was also collected and analyzed from this convenience sample.
Results. Approximately 34% of the respondents (n=1,239) indicated a desire to seek an additional degree. Of the additional degrees offered in the survey instrument, more than one-third of the students expressed interest in the master of business administration (MBA). Also, 79% of those respondents were willing to take summer courses to achieve a dual or additional degree.
Conclusion. Pharmacy students are interested in obtaining an additional degree(s) after graduation and are willing to complete summer courses to achieve their career goals.
doctor of pharmacy students; career goals; graduate degree; dual degree
A set of PharmD program curricular outcomes form the foundation of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum and are critical to the development of both the structure/courses of the curriculum and the assessment plan for the program. A goal for developing these outcomes is to craft a set of clear, concise, assessable statements that accurately reflect competencies of the generalist entry-level pharmacist or graduate of the first-professional doctor of pharmacy degree. This article will provide a review of one specific type of outcome, ability-based outcomes, and present a case study of how one college revised their PharmD program-level outcomes. A discussion of key elements for the successful adoption of these outcomes is also presented.
ability-based outcomes; outcomes; assessment; curricular design; competencies
To determine the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for earning a doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree and pursuing careers commonly associated with that degree after completion of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree compared to entering pharmacy practice directly upon completion of the PharmD degree.
Income profiles were constructed based on 2008 annual salary data. NPV and IRR were calculated for careers resulting from the PhD degree and compared to those of the practicing community pharmacist. Trends in IRR also were examined across career paths from 1982 to 2008. A priori assumptions were developed and sensitivity analyses were conducted.
The NPVs for all careers associated with the PhD degree were negative compared to that of the practicing community pharmacist. IRRs ranged from -1.4% to 1.3% for PhD careers. Longitudinal examination of IRRs indicated a negative trend from 1982 to 2008.
Economic financial incentives for PharmD graduates to pursue graduate school are lacking. The study illustrates the need to consider financial incentives when developing recruitment methods for PharmD graduates to pharmacy graduate programs.
salary; internal rate of return; graduate education; economic analysis; career
There is limited research on pharmacy specialization based differences with regards to usage of antibiotics.
To compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Southern India.
This was a cross sectional study involving final year BPharm and PharmD students studying in two private institutions located in Andra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for the period of 3 months. The questionnaire was divided into 5 components: demographics, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage, and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. The study questionnaire was assessed for reliability. Data were analysed by employing Mann Whitney and chi square tests using SPSS version 19.
The sample size comprised of 137 students. The response rate was 76.11% for the study. There was a significant difference in the knowledge of antibiotic use in BPharm and PharmD students (Mean score: 5.09 vs 6.18, p<0.001). The overall attitude of PharmD students about antibiotic use and resistance was positive compared to BPharm students (Mean score: 3.05 vs 2.23, p<0.05). The self-antibiotic practices was higher in BPharm students than PharmD students (36.4% vs 20%, p<0.05). A significantly high number of PharmD students believed that empirical antibiotic therapy led to antibiotic resistance (19.5% versus 48%, P<0.05).
PharmD students were more knowledgeable about antibiotic usage and resistance compared to BPharm students who did not have accurate and the much needed information about the same. Future interventions should be targeted towards educating the BPharm students so that they can implement the acquired knowledge in their practice.
Students; Pharmacy; Health Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Drug Resistance; Bacterial; India