Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is very effective in management of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS-1). However, serious complication may occur due to accidental intravascular (intra-arterial) injection of local anaesthetic agents. Abdi and others, has suggested a modified technique in which fluoroscopy-guided block is given at the junction of uncinate process and body of vertebra at C7 level. In this approach vascular structures remain away from the trajectory of needle and thus avoid accidental vascular injection. We have used this technique of SGB in nine patients who were treated for CRPS-I. The blocks were effective in all the patients all the time without any vascular or other serious complication.
CRPS-I; modified technique; stellate ganglion block
Accidental intra-arterial injection of intramuscular antibiotic preparations is described in 3 cases in infants. In 2 benzathine penicillin was injected, and in 1 rolitetracycline. The clinical features are dominated by arteriolar obstruction which produces gangrene of the most severely affected limb. In addition, neuroloigcal involvement occurs when vessels to nerves or spinal cord are involved. The arteriolateral aspect of the thigh is preferable to the buttock as a site for intramuscular injection, and a short (2.5 cm) needle should be used to minimise the risk of intra-arterial injection.
The intravenous (tail vein) and intra-arterial (internal carotid artery) toxicities of 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the combination of drugs were tested in unanesthetized rats. At least 3 doses (normally 10 animals/dose) were used per drug and route of administration; the drugs were given by bolus injection. Probit analysis of lethal dose-response curve data revealed that lidocaine, with or without epinephrine, was significantly more toxic intravenously than by internal carotid artery injection and that epinephrine potentiated the intravascular toxicity of lidocaine. These results modify proposals suggesting that local anesthetics injected accidentally into a branch of the external carotid artery may cause serious adverse reactions by flowing in retrograde fashion down to the internal carotid artery and then directly to the brain.
Accidental intra-arterial injection as a consequence of drug misuse has been described in both the upper and lower limbs. We present a case in which a drug abuser injected heroin into his femoral artery. This resulted in necrosis of the femoral artery requiring an autologous graft. A life threatening haemorrhage necessitated ligation of the common femoral artery. His limb survived.
Femoral artery necrosis; Intravenous drug abuse; Intra-arterial injection
Complications arising from accidental intraarterial drug injections have been described in the past. However, given the multitude of injected substances and complex pathophysiology, guidelines regarding diagnosis and management of patients with intraarterial injections remain vague. As such it remains unclear, when to expect limb ischemia and whether and for how long to monitor patients after intraarterial injections.
We present the case of a "near miss event" in an i.v. drug abuser presenting to the emergency department 3 hours after injection of water dissolved zolpidem (Ambien™) tablets into the right ulnar artery. Chief complaint was forearm pain. Clinical examination at the time revealed no concern for limb ischemia and patient was discharged. The patient returned unplanned 18 hours after injection with an ischemic right hand. Angiography revealed no flow in the distal ulnar artery and minimal flow in the palmar arch. Emergent intraarterial thrombolysis with Urokinase was performed and restored hand perfusion. Clinical follow-up 3 months after injury showed full recovery with regular recapillarisation and normal Allen test.
This case report highlights the need to rigorously monitor patients with suspected intraarterial injections for potential delayed onset of limb ischemia. This is to our knowledge the first described case report of a successful revascularization after prolonged ischemia with delayed onset after zolpidem injection. We recommend close monitoring of these patients for at least 24 hours in addition to starting prophylactic anticoagulation.
Clinically apparent carbon dioxide (CO2) gas embolism is uncommon, but it may be a potentially lethal complication if it occurs. We describe a 40-year-old woman who suffered a CO2 gas embolism with cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer and liver metastasis. Intra-abdominal pressure was controlled to less than 15 mmHg during CO2 gas pneumoperitoneum. The right hepatic vein was accidentally disrupted during liver dissection, and an emergent laparotomy was performed. A few minutes later, the end-tidal CO2 decreased, followed by bradycardia and pulseless electrical activity. External cardiac massage, epinephrine, and atropine were given promptly. Ventilation with 100% oxygen was started and the patient was moved to the Trendelenburg position. Two minutes after resuscitation was begun, a cardiac rhythm reappeared and a pulsatile arterial waveform was displayed. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed air bubbles in the right pulmonary artery. The patient recovered completely, with no cardiopulmonary or neurological sequelae.
Carbon dioxide gas embolism; Laparoscopic surgery; Transesophageal echocardiography
Deep accidental hypothermia (body temperature below 28°C) is rare and has a high mortality rate. Successful resuscitation usually occurs in the young, but a prompt intervention using a portable extracorporeal cardiopulmonary circulation device can also provide a good outcome for older persons.
We report the successful resuscitation of an 82-year-old male from deep accidental hypothermia using portable extracorporeal circulation in the emergency department.
This successful resuscitation of an 82-year-old patient demonstrates that a prompt intervention by a medical team that trains together, using a mobile cardiopulmonary bypass device via a percutaneous approach, can potentially provide good outcomes for all victims of deep accidental hypothermia, both in the operating suites and the emergency department.
Some factors have been identified as contributing to medical errors, such as labels, appearance and location of ampoules. We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid instead of Bupivacaine during spinal anaesthesia. One minute after the injection of 3 mL of the solution, the patient developed myoclonus of her lower extremities. Accidental intrathecal injection of the wrong drug was suspected and a used ampoule of tranexamic acid was discovered in the trash can. The ampoules of Bupivacaine (5 mg/mL, trade name “Sensovac Heavy”) and tranexamic acid (500 mg/mL, Trade name “Nexamin”) were similar in appearance. Her myoclonus was successfully treated with phenytoin, sodium valproate, thiopental sodium infusion, midazolam infusion and supportive care of haemodynamic and respiratory systems. The surgery was temporarily deferred. The patient's condition progressively improved to full recovery.
Myoclonic jerks; spinal anaesthesia; tranexamic acid
The superficial brachial artery (SBA), a branch of the axillary artery, is one of the most common arterial variations in this area. While it is more vulnerable to accidental arterial injection or injury, it could be useful for the nourishment of a medial arm skin free flap. To analyze the relationship between the SBA of axillary origin and segmental variation of the axillary artery, we dissected 304 arms of Korean cadavers. We found an SBA of axillary origin in 12.2% of cadaveric arms. Unilateral occurrence was detected in 16 cadavers and bilateral in 10. SBAs gave rise to radial and ulnar arteries in the cubital fossa (8.9%), continued in the forearm as the radial artery (2.3%), or ended in the upper arm (1.0%). The SBA ended as ulnar artery was not found in any of the cadavers. The bifurcation of the SBA into the radial and ulnar arteries, presence of an SBA that ends in the upper arm, and the lack of continuation as the ulnar artery are characteristics of SBAs in Korean cadavers.
Superficial Brachial Artery; Axillary Artery; Superficial Radial Artery; Anatomical Variation
A 79-year man, admitted to our emergency department after accidental falling with syncope, had pelvic fractures and complete atrioventricular (AV) block.
He received transvenous pacer placement for complete AV block and required hemodynamic stability. His heart rate was successfully controlled. However, secondary deterioration of his hemodynamics concerning of pelvic fractures was occurred and immediate trancatheter arterial embolization was performed. Final angiography showed no findings of bleeding and he was discharged intensive care unit in good condition.
Combined transarterial and transvenous interventional radiology is an effective and safety resuscitation technique for an elderly with secondary life-threatening injury after accidental falling due to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia.
This report describes a case of accidental needlestick injury involving a live equine vaccination, Equilis StrepE. A vet presented herself to the Emergency Department having accidentally injected herself with an equine vaccination. Her left thumb (injury site) was inflamed and had lymphangitis progressing proximally along her left arm. Her inflammatory markers were not raised. The swelling, erythma and lymphangitis had improved markedly with intravenous antibiotics. She had no sequelae at follow-up. Equilis StrepE is a vaccine for submucosal administration containing a modified live avirulent strain of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (Strain TW). Group C streptococci infections are pathogenic in horses and uncommon in humans. A search of the literature revealed no prior case report of similar adverse reaction to this vaccine. The vaccine may have harmful effect on human health, if injected accidentally but more evidence needs to be collected.
Inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery is a relatively frequent and potentially disastrous complication of attempted central venous access. Due to its noncompressible location, accidental subclavian arterial cannulation may result in hemorrhage as the sheath is removed. We report a new case of successful percutaneous closure of the subclavian artery which had been inadvertently cannulated, using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St. Jude Medical). This was performed in a patient who had received maximal antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies because of prior coronary stenting in the context of cardiogenic shock. There was no prior angiographic assessment, as arterial puncture was presumed to have been distal to the right common artery and vertebral arteries. No complications were observed in this high-risk patient, suggesting that this technique could be used once the procedure has been evaluated prospectively.
The superficial ulnar artery is a rare variation of the upper limb arterial system that arises from the brachial or axillary artery and runs superficial to the muscles arising from the medial epicondyle [1-3]. The incidence is about 0.7 to 7% [1,4,5]. In our routine dissections we found a superficial ulnar artery, which crossed the cubital fossa superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis making it highly vulnerable to intra-arterial injection. This is a rare variation that every medical and nursing staff member should know about.
Previous studies show that intravascular injection of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) significantly improves neurological functional recovery in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mannitol improves the efficiency of intra-arterial MSC delivery (i.e., fewer injected cells required for therapeutic efficacy) after ICH. There were four post-ICH groups (N=9): group 1, negative control with only intra-arterial injection of 1 million human fibroblasts in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); group 2, intravenous injection of mannitol alone in PBS (1.5 g/kg); group 3, intra-arterial injection of 1 million hBMSCs alone in PBS; and group 4, intravenous injection of mannitol (1.5 g/kg) in PBS followed by intra-arterial injection of 1 million hBMSCs in PBS. Group 4 exhibited significantly improved neurological functional outcome as assessed by neurological severity score (NSS) and corner test scores. Immunohistochemical staining of group 4 suggested increased synaptogenesis, proliferating immature neurons, and neuronal migration. The number of hBMSCs recruited to the injured region increased strikingly in group 4. Tissue loss was notably reduced in group 4. In summary, the beneficial effects of intra-arterial infusion of MSCs are amplified with intravenous injection of mannitol. Preadministration of mannitol significantly increases the number of hBMSCs located in the ICH region, improves histochemical parameters of neural regeneration, and reduces the anatomical and pathological consequences of ICH.
bone marrow stromal cell; neural regeneration; intracerebral hemorrhage; stroke
The aim of this study is to describe the appearance of intra-arterial administration of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). The effect of this finding on the standard uptake values (SUVs) is also briefly discussed. Three cases of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans, detected over 2 years (2004–2006), with different presentations producing hot forearm and hot hand signs are described. It was shown that intra-arterial injections of 18F-FDG producing “the hot forearm sign” and the hot hand sign” are similar to the glove pattern of uptake noted following intra-arterial administration of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate. Following intra-arterial injection, uptake of 18F-FDG is accentuated by hypoxia and exercise. A comparison is also made with the pattern of soft-tissue uptake seen following true intravenous injections with similar pre-injection vein enhancement techniques to the intra-arterial injections. Evaluation of the maximum intensity projection (MIP) and transaxial PET/CT fusion images of the arm, forearm and hand helps to confirm the diagnosis. Hands are often not included in PET/CT imaging and therefore cases might be missed. In conclusion, intra-arterial injection of 18F-FDG produces a “hot forearm sign” and “hot hand sign”. Hands are often not included in PET/CT imaging, and therefore the presence of hot forearm sign should suggest further investigation. It should be mentioned in the radiology report, as it may alter the sensitivity and specificity of the SUV value.
Chemical burns are not uncommon in India. Both accidental and non-accidental chemical burns are encountered in our setting. In the paediatric age group, chemical burns are mainly accidental. Analysis of chemical burn admissions to the Burn Units of a medical college hospital, and to an exclusively tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India, from 2001 to 2010 is described. A total number of 75 adults and 38 children are included in the study. Detailed analysis of age, sex, percentage of burn total body surface area (TBSA %), causative agents, aetiology (accidental or non-accidental), treatment instituted, mortality, and outcome are reported.
chemical burns; adults; children; outcome
Accidental injury to the common bile duct is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Accurate visualization of the biliary ducts may prevent or detect injuries early. Conventional X-Ray cholangiography is often used and can reduce the severity of injury when correctly interpreted. However, it may be useful to have an imaging method that could provide real-time extra-hepatic bile duct visualization without changing the field of view from the laparoscope. The purpose of this study was to use a new NIR fluorescent agent that is rapidly excreted via the biliary route in pre-clinical models to evaluate intra-operative real time near infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC).
To investigate probe function and excretion, a lipophilic near infrared fluorescent agent with hepatobiliary excretion was injected intravenously into one group of C57/BL6 control mice and four groups of C57/BL6 mice with the following experimentally-induced conditions: a) chronic biliary obstruction, b) acute biliary obstruction c) bile duct perforation and e) choledocholithiasis, respectively. The biliary system was imaged intravitally for one hour using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) with an intra-operative small animal imaging system (excitation 649 nm, emission 675 nm).
The extra hepatic ducts and extra-luminal bile were clearly visible due to the robust fluorescence of the excreted fluorochrome. Twenty-five minutes after intravenous injection, the target-to-background ratio peaked at 6.40 ± 0.83 but was clearly visible for ~ sixty minutes. The agent facilitated rapid identification of biliary obstruction and bile duct perforation. Implanted beads simulating choledocholithiasis were promptly identifiable within the common bile duct lumen.
NIRF agents with hepatobiliary excretion may be used intra-operatively to visualize extra hepatic biliary anatomy and physiology. Used in conjunction with laparoscopic imaging technologies this should enhance hepatobiliary surgery.
cholangiography; fluorescence; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; complications; surgical injuries; bile duct injuries
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) currently is being used as an effective palliative therapy for unresectable cancers especially hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC). Accidental lipiodol embolism to the lungs is a rare but potentially fatal complication of TACE. This procedure involves injection of drug-eluting microspheres (LC Bead) loaded with doxorubicin, followed by embolization with embozene microspheres until stasis is evident, being used in advanced HCC. We report a patient with inoperable HCC with underlying Hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis, who developed acute lung injury following targeted chemoembolization of selective feeding hepatic artery with LC beads loaded with doxorubicin. Acute lung injury as a complication of unintended lung chemoembolization with doxorubicin has not been previously reported in the literature. Interventional radiologists screen patients for potential hepatic A-V shunt and take appropriate precautions to prevent unintended pulmonary embolization. These include appropriate selection of LC bead particle size especially in patients who are embolized with radiation pellets. This report highlights the need for a screening total body scintigraphy after injection of radionuclide Tc-99 MAA in the feeding hepatic artery to identify patients with hepatic A-V shunt. In such patients, appropriate size selection of LC bead particles is critical to prevent unintended pulmonary chemoembolization and acute lung injury. Other measures include careful patient selection, low dose of chemotherapy, and transient selective hepatic vein balloon occlusion.
Chest imaging; drug; lung injury
Purpose/Background—Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually a blinding event, and is not an infrequent presentation to the accident and emergency (A&E) department. The evidence-base in support of current treatment options is weak.
Methods—This paper reviewed the literature germane to the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of retinal arterial occlusive disease.
Results—The visual prognosis associated with CRAO remains poor, and current therapeutic practices are of unproven benefit. The non-ophthalmologist in the A&E department should lie the patient flat and give a stat dose of intravenous acetazolamide in an attempt to improve the retinal perfusion pressure.
Conclusion—The management of acute occlusion of the central retinal artery has not changed over the past 30 years, although the potential benefits of superselective intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy warrant evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. The identification of underlying pathology is an essential component of medical care, and all cases should be followed up by an ophthalmologist because of the possibility of ocular rubeosis.
Haemobilia usually occurs secondary to accidental or iatrogenic hepatobiliary trauma. It can occasionally present with cataclysmal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage posing as a life threatening emergency. Haemobilia can very rarely be a complication of acute cholecystitis. Here we report a case of haemobilia manifesting as massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient without any prior history of biliary surgery or intervention and present a brief review of literature.
A 22 year old male admitted with history suggestive of acute cholecystitis subsequently developed waxing waning jaundice and recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Endoscopy showed an ulcer in the first part of duodenum with a clot, no active bleed was visible. Angiography was suggestive of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm in the vicinity of the right hepatic artery probably originating from the cystic artery. Coil embolization was tried but the coil dislodged into the right branch of hepatic artery distal to the site of pseudoaneurysm. Review of angiographic video in light of operative findings demonstrated a fistulous communication between cystic artery and gallbladder as the cause, a simultaneous cholecystoduodenal fistula was also noted. Retrograde cholecystectomy, closure of cholecystoduodenal fistula and right hepatic arteriotomy with retrieval of the endo-coil and hepatic arterial repair was performed.
Fistula between the cystic artery and gallbladder has been commonly reported to occur after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Spontaneous fistulous communication, i.e. in the absence of any prior trauma or intervention, between cystic artery and gallbladder is rare with very few reports in literature. Aetiopathogenesis of the disease, in the context of current literature is reviewed. The diagnostic dilemma posed by the confounding finding of an ulcer in the duodenum, the iconic video angiographic depiction as also the therapeutic challenge of a failed embolization with consequent microcoil migration and primary hepatic arterial repair in the emergency situation is discussed.
Cystic artery; Pseudoaneurysm; Haemobilia; Cholecystitis; Gastrointestinal; Haemorrhage
A 75-year-old woman presented with progressing pain, cyanosis, and hypaesthesia in her left hand after an intra-articular injection with diazepam into the wrist for osteoarthritis-related pain. Due to an iatrogenic intra-arterial injection, malperfusion of the ulnar digits developed. Angiography revealed blockage of perfusion of the 4th and 5th digits. Despite intra-arterial lysis, heparinisation, and vasodilatation, perfusion could not be reinstalled. Necrosis of the distal phalanges of the 4th and 5th digits developed, which had to be treated with amputation.
The pathomechanism of tissue damage and the treatment options after intra-arterial injections are reviewed and discussed.
Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline.
Similar to pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas can secrete catecholamines, although they are usually non-functional and clinical presentation is non-specific. We present a case of accidental, intra-operatively diagnosed neuroendocrine-active sympathetic paraganglioma, which was suspected and confirmed during elective retroperitoneal tumor removal.
A 25-year-old Caucasian Croatian man, American Society of Anesthesiologists status 1, underwent elective surgery for retroperitoneal tumor removal. The tumor had been discovered by chance during a routine examination and was suspected to be a sarcoma. Our patient had no history of previous medical conditions nor did he have symptoms characteristic of a neuroendocrine secreting tumor. The results of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a large, well demarcated retroperitoneal tumor mass in his upper abdomen localized between the aorta and vena cava, measuring approximately 9×6×4.5cm. In the operating room an epidural catheter was inserted at the T7 to T8 level prior to induction of general anesthesia. Epidural analgesia was maintained by an infusion pump with local anesthetic and opiate mixture. During the surgical excision of the tumor, hemodynamic changes occurred, with hypertension (205/110mmHg) and tachycardia (up to 120 beats/minute). In spite of the fact that the surgical field of work did not include adrenal glands whose direct manipulation could explain this occurrence, there was a high degree of suspicion for the presence of a neurosecreting tumor. His clinical symptoms were relieved after administration of urapidil, esmolol and magnesium sulfate. After tumor excision, our patient developed severe hypotension. Hemodynamic stability was reinstated with aggressive volume replacement, with crystalloids and colloids, vasopressors and hydrocortisone. His post-operative course was unremarkable and on the eighth post-operative day our patient was discharged from hospital, with no consequences or symptoms on follow-up two years after surgery.
Our patient’s case emphasizes the need to consider the presence of extra-adrenal paragangliomas in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumors, despite their rare occurrence. In our patient’s case, invasive hemodynamic monitoring during combined general anesthesia and epidural analgesia and early recognition of catechol-induced symptoms raised suspicion of the existence of a paraganglioma, and this led to an adequate therapeutic approach and favorable outcome of the surgery. Pre-operative recognition of paragangliomas could lead to better pre-operative preparation, but even high clinical suspicion in undiagnosed forms during surgery and the availability of rapid and short-acting vasodilatators, α-blockers and β-blockers might favor good outcome.
Epidural analgesia; Invasive hemodynamic monitoring; Paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma; Therapeutic protocols
Several cases of accidental subdural injection have been reported, but only few of them are known to be accidental intradural injection during epidural block. Therefore we would like to report our experience of accidental intradural injection. A 68-year-old female was referred to our pain clinic due to severe metastatic spinal pain. We performed a diagnostic epidural injection at T9/10 interspace under the C-arm guided X-ray view. Unlike the usual process of block, onset was delayed and sensory dermatomes were irregular range. We found out a dense collection of localized radio-opaque contrast media on the reviewed X-ray findings. These are characteristic of intradural injection and clearly different from the narrow wispy bands of contrast in the subdural space.
Epidural block; Intradural; Subdural injection
Although most cases of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage either spontaneously resolve or respond to medical management or endoscopic treatment, there are still a significant number of patients who require emergency angiography and transcatheter treatment. Evaluation with noninvasive imaging such as nuclear scintigraphy or computed tomography may localize the bleeding source and/or confirm active hemorrhage prior to angiography. Any angiographic evaluation should begin with selective catheterization of the artery supplying the most likely site of bleeding, as determined by the available clinical, endoscopic and imaging data. If a hemorrhage source is identified, superselective catheterization followed by transcatheter microcoil embolization is usually the most effective means of successfully controlling hemorrhage while minimizing potential complications. This is now well-recognized as a viable and safe alternative to emergency surgery. In selected situations transcatheter intra-arterial infusion of vasopressin may also be useful in controlling acute gastrointestinal bleeding. One must be aware of the various side effects and potential complications associated with this treatment, however, and recognize the high re-bleeding rate. In this article we review the current role of angiography, transcatheter arterial embolization and infusion therapy in the evaluation and management of nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Angiodysplasia; Aneurysm; Digital subtraction angiography; Contrast media; Hemorrhage; Radionuclide angiography; Therapeutic embolization