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1.  Effects of Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Compared to Textbook Learning on Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study 
Background
By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education.
Objective
To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency).
Methods
A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the “Profile of Mood States” questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity.
Results
Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a selectivity of RPB=0.2. For mARble, fatigue (z=2.214, P=.03) and numbness (z=2.07, P=.04) decreased with statistical significance when comparing pre- and post-tests. Vigor rose slightly, while irritability did not increase significantly. Changes in the control group were insignificant. Regarding hedonic quality (identification, stimulation, attractiveness), there were significant differences between mARble (mean 1.179, CI −0.440 to 0.440) and the book chapter (mean −0.982, CI −0.959 to 0.959); the pragmatic quality mean only differed slightly.
Conclusions
The mARble group performed considerably better regarding learning efficiency; there are hints for activating components of the mAR concept that may serve to fascinate the participants and possibly boost interest in the topic for the remainder of the class. While the small sample size reduces our study’s conclusiveness, its design seems appropriate for determining the effects of interactive eLearning material with respect to emotions, learning efficiency, and hedonic and pragmatic qualities using a larger group.
Trial Registration
German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS), DRKS-ID: DRKS00004685; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00004685.
doi:10.2196/jmir.2497
PMCID: PMC3758026  PMID: 23963306
problem-based learning; cellular phone; education; medical; emotions
2.  Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in medical textbooks of ancient Iran 
Research shows that ancient Iranians were among the pioneers of medical science, and are therefore admired and praised by non-Iranian scholars for their efforts and accomplishments in this field. Investigations of medical and historical texts indicate that between the 10th and the 18th century A.D., ancient Iran experienced a golden age of medicine. Great physicians such as Rhazes, al-Ahwazi, Avicenna and others reviewed the medical textbooks of civilizations such as Greece and India, Theories were scientifically criticized, superstitious beliefs were discarded, valuable innovations were added to pre-existing knowledge and the ultimate achievements were compiled as precious textbooks. Alhawi by Rhazes, Cannon by Avicenna, and Kamil al-Sina’ah by al-Ahwazi are among the works that were treasured by domestic and foreign scientists alike, as well as future generations who continued to appreciate them for centuries.
The above-mentioned textbooks discuss diseases and conditions related to neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ear, nose and throat, gastroenterology, urology, skeletomuscular system and other specialties, as well as cancer and similar subjects. One of the richest texts on the description, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of cancer and therapeutic approaches is Alhawi by Mohammad ibn Zakarya al Razi (Rhazes).
This article presents a brief summary of Rhazes’ views about the definition of cancer, types, signs and symptoms, prevalence, complications, medical care, treatment and even surgical indications and contraindications. Moreover, his opinions are compared against the views of other physicians and theories of modern medicine. It is also recommended to review the medical heritage of Iran and evaluate the proposed treatments based on modern methodologies and scientific approaches.
PMCID: PMC4263387  PMID: 25512835
cancer; Iranian ancient medicine; Rhazes
3.  Towards an Intelligent Textbook of Neurology 
We define an intelligent textbook of medicine to be a computer system that: (1) provides for storage and selective retrieval of synthesized clinical knowledge for reference purposes; and (2) supports the application by computer of its knowledge to patient information to assist physicians with decision making. This paper describes an experimental system called KMS (a Knowledge Management System) for creating and using intelligent medical textbooks. KMS is domain-independent, supports multiple inference methods and representation languages, and is designed for direct use by physicians during the knowledge acquisition process. It is presented here in the context of the development of an Intelligent Textbook of Neurology. We suggest that KMS has the potential to overcome some of the problems that have inhibited the use of knowledge-based systems by physicians in the past.
PMCID: PMC2203647
4.  Analysis of prescription database extracted from standard textbooks of traditional Dai medicine 
Background
Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM) is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions.
Objective
To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM.
Methods
A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated.
Results
A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs.
Conclusion
The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-34
PMCID: PMC3485134  PMID: 22931752
Traditional Dai medicine; Dai medical textbooks; Dai prescription
5.  How Current Are Leading Evidence-Based Medical Textbooks? An Analytic Survey of Four Online Textbooks 
Background
The consistency of treatment recommendations of evidence-based medical textbooks with more recently published evidence has not been investigated to date. Inconsistencies could affect the quality of medical care.
Objective
To determine the frequency with which topics in leading online evidence-based medical textbooks report treatment recommendations consistent with more recently published research evidence.
Methods
Summarized treatment recommendations in 200 clinical topics (ie, disease states) covered in four evidence-based textbooks–UpToDate, Physicians’ Information Education Resource (PIER), DynaMed, and Best Practice–were compared with articles identified in an evidence rating service (McMaster Premium Literature Service, PLUS) since the date of the most recent topic updates in each textbook. Textbook treatment recommendations were compared with article results to determine if the articles provided different, new conclusions. From these findings, the proportion of topics which potentially require updating in each textbook was calculated.
Results
478 clinical topics were assessed for inclusion to find 200 topics that were addressed by all four textbooks. The proportion of topics for which there was 1 or more recently published articles found in PLUS with evidence that differed from the textbooks’ treatment recommendations was 23% (95% CI 17-29%) for DynaMed, 52% (95% CI 45-59%) for UpToDate, 55% (95% CI 48-61%) for PIER, and 60% (95% CI 53-66%) for Best Practice (χ 2 3=65.3, P<.001). The time since the last update for each textbook averaged from 170 days (range 131-209) for DynaMed, to 488 days (range 423-554) for PIER (P<.001 across all textbooks).
Conclusions
In online evidence-based textbooks, the proportion of topics with potentially outdated treatment recommendations varies substantially.
doi:10.2196/jmir.2105
PMCID: PMC3799557  PMID: 23220465
databases, bibliographic; medical informatics; evidence-based medicine
11.  Textbook of Pain 
Anesthesia Progress  2001;48(4):133.
PMCID: PMC2007380
12.  Geriatric Content in Pharmacotherapy and Therapeutics Textbooks 
Objectives
To determine the extent to which therapeutics textbooks address age-related medication information.
Methods
Criteria for 5 disease states prevalent among geriatric patients were developed based on the content of a geriatric textbook and from expert reviewers’ input. The criteria were used to determine the degree to which geriatric content was addressed in 3 therapeutics textbooks.
Results
The therapeutics textbooks contained less than half of the critical points for 3 disease states: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus (31%, 33%, and 46%, respectively). In addition, the textbooks addressed only one half to two thirds of the criteria for the remaining 2 disease states of osteoarthritis and dementia (55% and 68%, respectively). Criteria specific to the elderly were addressed less often than criteria that were important but not unique to the elderly (38% and 63%, respectively).
Conclusions
Current therapeutics textbooks have significant gaps in geriatric medication information. Users of these textbooks must supplement them with primary literature or a geriatric textbook for more comprehensive medication therapy management information.
PMCID: PMC1803689  PMID: 17332856
geriatrics; textbook; education; therapeutics
15.  Textbook of Medical Physiology 
Anesthesia Progress  1966;13(6):183-184.
PMCID: PMC2367353
16.  Textbook of Medicine 
Anesthesia Progress  1967;14(9):255.
PMCID: PMC2235453
17.  A Textbook of Anaesthesia, 4th Edition 
Anesthesia Progress  2005;52(4):151.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006(2005)52[151:ATA]2.0.CO;2
PMCID: PMC1586797

Results 1-25 (41797)