The objective of the present study was to develop new directly compressed, double-layer tablets (DLTs) of lornoxicam, a highly potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with short half-life, that are characterized by initial burst drug release in the stomach and comply with the release requirements of sustained-release products. Each of the proposed DLTs is composed of a fast-release layer and a sustained-release layer, anticipating rapid drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain protracted analgesic effect. An amorphous, freeze-dried inclusion complex of lornoxicam with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, present in 1:2 (drug/cyclodextrin) molar ratio, was employed in the fast-release layer to enhance the dissolution of lornoxicam in the stomach and assure rapid onset of its analgesic effect. Xanthan gum (XG), a hydrophilic matrix-forming agent, was integrated in the sustained-release layer to provide appropriate sustainment of drug release. The weight ratios between the sustained-release layer and fast-release layer present in DLTs were adjusted to reach optimal formulations. DLTs composed of sustained-release layer (40% XG) to fast-release layer in 2:1 weight ratio and those composed of sustained-release layer (50% XG) to fast-release layer in 1:1 weight ratio showed the desired release profile. The drug contained in the fast-release layer showed an initial burst drug release of more than 30% of its drug content during the first 30 min of the release study followed by gradual release of the drug for a period of 8 h.
cyclodextrins; double-layer tablets; lornoxicam; sustained release; xanthan gum
In the central nervous system, most synapses show a fast mode of neurotransmitter release known as synchronous release followed by a phase of asynchronous release, which extends over tens of milliseconds to seconds. Synapsin II (SYN2) is a member of the multigene synapsin family (SYN1/2/3) of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins that modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity, and are mutated in epileptic patients. Here we report that inhibitory synapses of the dentate gyrus of Syn II knockout mice display an upregulation of synchronous neurotransmitter release and a concomitant loss of delayed asynchronous release. Syn II promotes γ-aminobutyric acid asynchronous release in a Ca2+-dependent manner by a functional interaction with presynaptic Ca2+ channels, revealing a new role in synaptic transmission for synapsins.
The arrival of action potentials at nerve terminals often leads to synchronous neurotransmitter release. Medrihan and colleagues use electrophysiology on mouse hippocampal neurons to show that the vesicle protein Synapsin II promotes GABAergic asynchronous release by interacting with calcium channels.
A new assay for the precise measurement of microbial killing by leukocytes is presented. The method assumes that release of radioactively labeled DNA from the microbe is direct evidence of cell death. Human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with [14C]thymidine-labeled Salmonella typhimurium released 32 to 59% of the radioactivity after 4 h and 63 to 75% after 18 h. Inactivated leukocytes released less than 5% of the radioactivity. None of the released radioactivity is retained within the leukocyte, and 60% remains precipitable with trichloroacetic acid. Leukocytes released substantial radioactivity from labeled Escherichia coli but only a slight amount from staphylococci. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were also shown to release radioactivity from Salmonella. The DNA release assay avoids the errors inherent in prior killing methods which measure viability by growth inhibition. It is rapid, reproducible, and highly specific.
New facts have emerged about growth hormone (hgh) secretion in man giving rise to new conceptions and to new questions.
• In well-nourished, lean human beings growth hormone is released in early deep sleep and the pattern of release observed from night to night is fairly constant.
• The release of growth hormone in sleep occurs when plasma glucose is not fluctuating and after insulin has fallen to a very low level. Plasma-free fatty acids may rise about two hours later but insulin does not rise in response to nocturnal hgh release.
• The releases of growth hormone in sleep appear to meet the needs for a physiological test for the study of problems of growth. Correlations of this test with the many pharmacologic maneuvers in current use for diagnosis remain to be made.
• Growth hormone secretion as judged by plasma concentrations relates to protein intake, such that protein depletion initiates compensatory elevation of plasma concentrations of growth hormone. Further elevations may occur with glucose loading—so-called “paradoxical” responses. In contrast, there is compensatory suppression of growth hormone secretion in obesity. Repletion of protein in the malnourished and reduction of weight in obesity cause return toward normal secretion of hgh.
• Levodopa as a possible specific stimulus to growth hormone release has just been reported and the implications of this finding for the child of short stature cannot yet be assessed.
A new method of optically guided controlled release was experimentally evaluated with liposomes containing a molecular load and gold nanoparticles (NPs). NPs were exposed to short laser pulses to induce transient vapor bubbles around the NPs, plasmonic nanobubbles, in order to disrupt the liposome and eject its molecular contents. The release efficacy was tuned by varying the lifetime and size of the nanobubble with the fluence of the laser pulse. Optical scattering by nanobubbles correlated to the molecular release and was used to guide the release. The release of two fluorescent proteins from individual liposomes has been directly monitored by fluorescence microscopy, while the generation of the plasmonic nanobubbles was imaged and measured with optical scattering techniques. Plasmonic nanobubble-induced release was found to be a mechanical, nonthermal process that requires a single laser pulse and ejects of the liposome contents within a millisecond timescale without damage to the molecular cargo and that can be controlled through the fluence of laser pulse.
liposome; bubble; release; photothermal; gold nanoparticles; pulsed laser
A reservoir-based device constructed of a completely biodegradable elastomer can enable many new implantation and insertion options for localized drug therapy, particularly in the case of urological therapies. We performed an in vitro performance evaluation of an implantable, bioresorbable device that supplies short-term controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl (CIP). The proposed device functions through a combination of osmosis and diffusion mechanisms to release CIP for short-term therapies of a few weeks duration. Poly(glycerol-co-sebacic acid) (PGS) was cast in a tubular geometry with solid drug powder packed into its core and a micro-machined release orifice drilled through its wall. Drug release experiments were performed to determine the effective release rate from a single orifice and the range of orifice sizes in which controlled zero-order release was the main form of drug expulsion from the device. It is demonstrated that PGS is sufficiently permeable to water to allow the design of an elementary osmotic pump for drug delivery. Indeed, PGS's water permeability is several orders of magnitude larger than commonly used cellulose acetate for elementary osmotic pumps.
Elementary osmotic pump; Biodegradable polymers; PGS; Ciprofloxacin; Insertable devices
Norepinephrine (NE) released from the nerve terminal of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons contributes to about 70% of the total extracellular NE in primates brain. In addition, LC neurons also release NE from somatodendritic sites. Quantal NE release from soma of LC neurons has the characteristics of long latency, nerve activity-dependency, and autoinhibition by α2-adrenergic autoreceptor. The distinct kinetics of stimulus-secretion coupling in somata is regulated by action potential patterns. The physiological significance of soma and dendritic release is to produce negative-feedback and to down-regulate neuronal hyperactivity, which consequently inhibit NE release from axon terminal of LC projecting to many brain areas. Recent discoveries about the LC somatodendritic release may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of clinic disease involving LC-NE system dysfunction, and may help developing remedy targeted to the LC area.
norepinephrine; somatodendritic; quantal release; locus coeruleus; α2A-adrenoceptor
Primary care is understudied as a re-entry drug and alcohol treatment setting. This study compared treatment retention and opioid misuse among opioid dependent adults seeking buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance in an urban primary care clinic following release from jail vs. community referrals. Post-release patients were either; a) induced to buprenorphine in-jail as part of a clinical trial, or, b) seeking buprenorphine induction post-release. From 2007–2008, N=142 patients were new to primary care buprenorphine: n=32 post-release; n=110 induced after community referral and without recent incarceration. Jail-released patients were more likely African American or Hispanic and uninsured. Treatment retention rates for post-release (37%) vs. community (30%) referrals were similar at 48 weeks. Rates of opioid positive urines and self-reported opioid misuse were also similar between groups. Post-release patients in primary care buprenorphine treatment had equal treatment retention and rates of opioid abstinence vs. community-referred patients.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of plasma in which several growth factors are concentrated at high levels. The active soluble releasate isolated following platelet activation of PRP (PRP-releasate) has been demonstrated to stimulate the metabolism of IVD cells in vitro. The in vivo effect of PRP-releasate on degenerated IVD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the reparative effects of autologous PRP-releasate on degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs).
To induce disc degeneration, New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) received anular puncture in two noncontiguous discs. Autologous PRP and PPP (platelet-poor plasma) were isolated from fresh blood using two centrifugation techniques. Four weeks after the initial puncture, releasate isolated from clotted PPP or PRP (PPP- or PRP-releasate), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; control) was injected into the punctured discs. Disc height, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-mapping and histology were assessed.
Anular puncture produced a consistent disc narrowing within four weeks. PRP-releasate induced a statistically significant restoration of disc height (PRP vs. PPP and PBS, P<0.05). In T2-quantification, the mean T2-values of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and anulus fibrosus (AF) of the discs were not significantly different among the three treatment groups. Histologically, the number of chondrocyte-like cells was significantly higher in the discs injected with PRP-releasate compared to that with PBS.
The administration of active PRP-releasate induced a reparative effect on rabbit degenerated IVDs. The results of this study suggest that the use of autologous PRP-releasate is safe and can lead to a clinical application for IVD degeneration.
Of the established Ca2+ mobilizing messengers, NAADP is arguably the most tantalizing. It is the most potent, often efficacious at low nanomolar concentrations. Recent studies have identified a new class of calcium release channel, the two-pore channels (TPCs), as the likely targets for NAADP. These channels are endolysosomal in localization where they mediate local Ca2+ release, and have highlighted a new role of acidic organelles as targets for messenger-evoked Ca2+ mobilization. Three distinct roles of TPCs have been identified. The first is to effect local Ca2+ release that may play a role in endolysosomal function including vesicular fusion and trafficking. The second is to trigger global calcium release by recruiting Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) channels at lysosomal-ER junctions. The third is to regulate plasma membrane excitability by the targeting of Ca2+ release from appropriately positioned subplasma membrane stores to regulate plasma membrane Ca2+-activated channels. In this review, I discuss the role of NAADP-mediated Ca2+ release from endolysosomal stores as a widespread trigger for intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms, and how studies of TPCs are beginning to enhance our understanding of the central role of lysosomes in Ca2+ signaling.
NAADP is thought to trigger release of calcium from endolysosomes via TPC channels. This regulates vesicle trafficking, triggers global calcium release, and modulates plasma membrane excitability.
A new method to precisely monitor rapid release kinetics from polymeric particles using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, specifically by measuring spin-spin relaxation time (T2), is reported. Previously, we have published the formulation of logic gate particles from an acid-sensitive poly-β-aminoester ketal-2 polymer. Here, a series of poly-β-aminoester ketal-2 polymers with varying hydrophobicities were synthesized and used to formulate particles. We attempted to characterize particle release kinetics via fluorescence of encapsulated Nile red to determine whether the chemistry designed into the polymers could finely tune the release kinetics in the minutes time regime; however, standard fluorescence-based techniques did not differentiate the release kinetics among our new series of polymeric particles. Thus, a new method based on encapsulation of iron oxide nanoparticles was developed, which enabled us to resolve the release kinetics of our particles. Moreover, the kinetics matched the relative hydrophobicity order determined by octanol-water partition coefficient. To the best of our knowledge, this method provides the highest resolution of release kinetics to date.
Iron oxide nanoparticles; magnetic resonance; monitoring release; rapidly degradable particles; ketals; Logic Gate particles
The effect of once-daily atenolol, sustained-release oxprenolol (a new formulation of oxprenolol presented as a compressed tablet in a waxed matrix), and long-acting propranolol (a new formulation presented as spheriods in a capsule) was studied in a double-blind crossover trial in 23 carefully selected hypertensive outpatients. After a run-in period with matching placebo each patient received atenolol (100 mg/day), sustained-release oxprenolol (160 mg/day), long-acting propranolol (160 mg/day), and placebo according to a randomised sequence. After four weeks' treatment with sustained-release oxprenolol blood pressure in the two to four hours before the next dose was not significantly lower than after placebo. The effectiveness of atenolol and of the new formulation of propranolol in reducing blood pressure was confirmed. These results suggest that the present formulation of sustained-release oxprenolol should be reconsidered.
Release of mitochondrial cytochrome c resulting in downstream activation of cell death pathways has been suggested to play a role in neurologic diseases featuring cell death. However, the specific biologic importance of cytochrome c release has not been demonstrated in Huntington’s disease (HD). To evaluate the role of cytochrome c release, we screened a drug library to identify new inhibitors of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Drugs effective at the level of purified mitochondria were evaluated in a cellular model of HD. As proof of principle, one drug was chosen for in depth evaluation in vitro and a transgenic mouse model of HD. Our findings demonstrate the utility of mitochondrial screening to identify inhibitors of cell death and provide further support for the important functional role of cytochrome c release in HD. Given that many of these compounds have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical usage and cross the blood– brain barrier, these drugs may lead to trials in patients.
drug screen; inhibitors of cytochrome c release; methazolamide; Huntington’s disease; R6/2 mice; mutant-htt ST14A cells
Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis.
Layered double hydroxide; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Pseudo-second order kinetics; Intercalation; Controlled release
A new solventless photocurable film-coating system was investigated in which nonpareil beads were coated in a minicoating pan with liquid prepolymer (L) and powdered solid pore-forming agents (S) and cured by UV light. Release from the coating could by altered by changing the material, the number of layers, and the coating thickness. Immediate release of a blue dye contained in the nonpareils was obtained with sodium starch glycolate as a pore former that swelled the coating and yielded large pores; through these pores the dye quickly released while leaving behind the scaffold provided by the photocured prepolymer. Simple pore formers (lactose and sodium chloride) dissolved away without swelling and provided a more sustained release. The nature of the scaffold and pore structure of the coating were determined by simultaneously monitoring the release of sodium chloride from the coating and blue dye from the beads. At least 50% of the sodium chloride that was incorporated into the coating released before the dye released through the coating, except at an S/L ratio (ratio of the amount of solid pore-forming agent to the volume of liquid prepolymer) of 2.4, where 40% of the sodium chloride was released before the release of dye. The coupling between dye release and pore formation was found to be dependent on the S/L ratio of the coating. Simulation based on percolation theory showed that the coupling of pore formation and dye release was higher when the variance in tortuosity was lower. The coating was photostable and could withstand normal handling stress.
Coating; photocurable; solventless; photoinitiator; process and formulation parameters; functional release; photostability
Pramipexole, the most commonly prescribed dopamine agonist worldwide, meanwhile serves as a reference substance for evaluation of new drugs. Based on numerous clinical data and vast experiences, efficacy and safety profiles of this non-ergoline dopamine agonist are well characterized. Since October 2009, an extended-release formulation of pramipexole has been available for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole administration can be cut down from three times to once a day due to the newly developed extended-release formulation. This is considerable progress in regard to minimizing pill burden and enhancing compliance. Moreover, the 24 h continuous drug release of the once-daily extended-release formulation results in fewer fluctuations in plasma concentrations over time compared to immediate-release pramipexole, given three times daily. The present study summarizes pharmacokinetics and all essential pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the extended-release formulation. In addition, it provides all study data, available so far, with regard to transition and de-novo administration of extended-release formulation for patients with Parkinson's disease. It further compares efficacy and safety data of immediate-release pramipexole with the extended-release formulation of pramipexole.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the release of chlorhexidine as an antifungal drug from doped self-cured poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) acrylic resin and the effect of the drug released on the growth of Candida albicans.
Release of chlorhexidine was evaluated using liquid chromatography, and the effect of the drug on the growth of C. albicans was investigated microbiologically using a “well” technique on Saboraud culture medium inoculated with a resistant strain of C. albicans.
Chlorhexidine leached steadily out of the acrylic resin into distilled water at mouth temperature, and the sustained drug release continued throughout the 28-day test period. The drug released also demonstrated antifungal activity against the resistant strain of C. albicans.
The findings of this study support the use of chlorhexidine-impregnated self-cured PMMA chair-side resin as a new dosage form for the treatment of denture-induced stomatitis.
chlorhexidine; poly (methyl methacrylate); eluates; antifungal drug; denture stomatitis; Candida albicans
Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis.
Layered double hydroxide; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Pseudo-second order kinetics; Intercalation; Controlled release
We report a new approach to selectively delivering antimicrobials to the sites of bacterial infections by utilizing bacterial toxins to activate drug release from gold nanoparticle-stabilized phospholipid liposomes. The binding of chitosan modified gold nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can effectively prevent them from fusing with one another and from undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. However, once these protected liposomes “see” bacteria that secrete toxins, the toxins will insert into the liposome membranes and form pores, through which the encapsulated therapeutic agents are released. The released drugs subsequently impose antimicrobial effects on the toxin-secreting bacteria. Using methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus (MRSA) as a model bacterium and vacomycin as a model anti-MRSA antibiotic, we demonstrate that the synthesized gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes can completely release the encapsulated vacomycin within 24 h in the presence of MRSA bacteria and lead to inhibition of MRSA growth as effective as an equal amount of vacomycin loaded liposomes (without nanoparticle stabilizers) and free vacomycin. This bacterial toxin enabled drug release from nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes provides a new, safe and effective approach for the treatment of bacterial infections. This technique can be broadly applied to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria that secrete pore-forming toxins.
Nanoparticle-stabilized liposome; Pore-forming protein; Passive targeting; Drug delivery; Controlled release; Methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus
The design and fabrication of sustained/controlled release dosage forms, employing new excipients capable of extending/controlling the release of drugs from the dosage forms over prolonged periods, has worked well in achieving optimally enhanced therapeutic levels of the drugs. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of selected cellulose ether derivatives for use in direct compression (DC) and as efficient drug release controlling agents. Controlled release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin were prepared at different drug-to-polymer (D : P) ratios by direct compression using a fine particle sized ethylcellulose ether derivative (ETHOCEL Standard Premium 7FP) as rate controlling polymer. The tablets obtained were evaluated for various physico-chemical characteristics and in-vitro drug release studies were conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using PharmaTest dissolution apparatus at constant temperature of 37°C ± 0.1. Similarity factor f2 was employed to the release profiles of test formulations and were compared with marketed ciprofloxacin conventional tablets. Drug release mechanism and the kinetics involved were investigated by fitting the release profile data to various kinetic models. It was found that with increasing the proportion of ethylcellulose ether derivative in the matrix, the drug release was significantly extended up to 24 hours. The tablets exhibited zero order or nearly zero order drug transport mechanism. In vivo drug release performance of the developed controlled release tablets and reference conventional tablets containing ciprofloxacin were determined in rabbit serum according to randomized two-way crossover study design using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Several bioavailability parameters of both the test tablets and conventional tablets including Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-t were compared which showed an optimized Cmax and Tmax (P < 0.05). A good correlation was obtained between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug absorption with correlation value (R2 = 0.934). Relative bioavailability was found to be 93%. Reproducibility of manufacturing process and accelerated stability of the developed tablets were performed in stability chamber at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity for a period of 6 months and were found to be stable throughout the stability period.
Anionic polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CELLOGEN® HP-HS and/or HP-12HS) was investigated for its ability to influence the release of three model drugs propranolol hydrochloride, theophylline and ibuprofen from polyethylene oxide (POLYOX™ WSR 1105 and/or Coagulant) hydrophilic matrices. For anionic ibuprofen and non-ionic theophylline, no unusual/unexpected release profiles were obtained from tablets containing a mixture of two polymers. However, for cationic propranolol HCl, a combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) produced a significantly slower drug release compared to the matrices with single polymers. The potential use of this synergistic interaction can be a design of new extended release pharmaceutical dosage forms with a more prolonged release (beyond 12 h) using lower polymer amount, which could be particularly beneficial for freely water-soluble drugs, preferably for once daily oral administration. In order to explain changes in the obtained drug release profiles, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy was performed. A possible explanation for the more prolonged propranolol HCl release from matrices based on both PEO and NaCMC may be due to a chemical bond (i.e. ionic/electrostatic intermolecular interaction) between amine group of the cationic drug and carboxyl group of the anionic polymer, leading to a formation of a new type/form of the active (i.e. salt) with sustained release pattern.
extended release; FT-IR; ibuprofen; matrix tablet; polyethylene oxide; polymer combination; propranolol hydrochloride; sodium carboxymethylcellulose; theophylline
This study presents the results of a pilot study of mandatory pre-release testing for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and a behavioral risk survey for male inmates at an Ohio prison. Approximately 4–6 weeks prior to scheduled release, inmates took part in a mandatory blood test and optional genital swab and physical examination to test for STDs. At the time of testing, a voluntary behavioral and knowledge survey was administered to inmates. Pre-release testing identified 53 new cases of STDs among the 916 inmates (5.5%) scheduled for release during the pilot study period. Trichomoniasis and hepatitis C were the most common infections identified through pre-release testing. Nearly all inmates participated in the required blood test. Participation rates for the other testing methods averaged less than 45%. Inmates reported engaging in various risky behaviors during incarceration such as having sex (12.1%), tattooing (36.5%), and drug use (19.5%). Pre-release testing identified several new cases of STDs not identified through existing intake and for-cause testing procedures. Substantial useful information about the prevalence of STD risk behaviors can be obtained through a pre-release survey.
HIV testing; Inmates; Behavioral risk; Pre-release testing
A unique heterocyclic carbamate prodrug of seco-CBI-indole2 that releases no residual byproduct is reported as a new member of a class of hydrolyzable prodrugs of the duocarmycin and CC-1065 family of natural products. The prodrug was designed to be activated by hydrolysis of a carbamate releasing the free drug without the cleavage release of a traceable extraneous group. Unlike prior carbamate prodrugs examined that are rapidly cleaved in vivo, the cyclic carbamate was found to be exceptionally stable to hydrolysis under both chemical and biological conditions providing a slow, sustained release of the exceptionally potent free drug. An in vivo evaluation of the prodrug found that its efficacy exceeded that of the parent drug, that its therapeutic window of efficacy versus toxicity is much larger than the parent drug, and that its slow free drug release permitted the safe and efficacious use of doses 150-fold higher than the parent compound.
There is a need to control the spatio-temporal release kinetics of growth factors in order to mitigate current usage of high doses. A novel delivery system, capable of providing both structural support and controlled release kinetics, has been developed from PLGA microparticles. The inclusion of a hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA triblock copolymer altered release kinetics such that they were decoupled from polymer degradation. A quasi zero order release profile over four weeks was produced using 10% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA whereas complete and sustained release was achieved over ten days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 85:15 PLGA and over four days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA. These three formulations are promising candidates for delivery of growth factors such as BMP-2, PDGF and VEGF. Release profiles were also modified by mixing microparticles of two different formulations providing another route, not previously reported, for controlling release kinetics. This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery with adjustable release profiles, which will improve the efficacy and safety of recombinant growth factor delivery.
► A new delivery system providing controlled release kinetics has been developed. ► Inclusion of hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA decoupled release kinetics from degradation. ► Using 10% triblock copolymer produced quasi zero order release over four weeks. ► Mixing microparticle formulations provided another route for controlling release. ► This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery of growth factors.
Poly (d,l-lactic -co-glycolic acid) (PLGA); Microparticles; Microspheres; Controlled release; Double emulsion solvent evaporation; Growth factor delivery
Study objectives were to develop a unique floating ring capsule dosage form which combines gastric soluble and insoluble portions, and to evaluate its suitability for stomach specific drug delivery. New floating ring capsules were developed using different polymers and were compared for various parameters. The formulation with HPMC and sodium CMC has better floating properties. The effects of polymers concentration on drug release were studies by in vitro release studies. The interaction studies of combined drug with polymers were determined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The entrapped air within the gel barrier and lower densities of HPMC and sodium CMC resulted in better floating behavior. Steady slow gel formations showed prolonged drug release. The in vitro release rates were generally found to be faster with low concentration of carbopol showing release within 2 h, while formulations containing high amount of HPMC showed release in 8 h. In particular, the higher concentration of HPMC formulation shows the best drug release performance. A very low change in peak shift was observed only with sodium alginate formulations. Further, FT-IR measurements confirmed the absence of any chemical interactions. Results indicate that new floating ring capsule is a promise dosage form for stomach specific delivery.
New floating ring capsule; Stomach specific delivery; Polymers; In vitro drug release