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PMCID: PMC1583023  PMID: 20323916
2.  Sodium Pentothal in Major Orthopædic Surgery 
PMCID: PMC1582194  PMID: 20323483
3.  Pentothal: a New Intravenous Anæsthetic * 
PMCID: PMC1561783  PMID: 20320275
4.  Intravenous Anaesthesia with Pentothal Sodium 
British Medical Journal  1945;1(4399):592-593.
PMCID: PMC2057254  PMID: 20786036
8.  The pentothal test in the management of orthopaedic patients with hysterical illness. 
Hysterical illness may be defined as symptoms normally associated with disease without pathological basis. Orthopaedics attracts more of these patients than most specialties. They are intensively and expensively investigated, yet clinicians remain anxious they are missing genuine pathology. We use examination under pentothal, without analgesia, to help distinguish real from imagined symptoms. The results of a review of patients evaluated under pentothal over the past two years are presented.
PMCID: PMC1295641  PMID: 8709083
9.  Conscious sedation and analgesia with rectal ketamine in the Macaca fuscata monkey. 
Anesthesia Progress  1991;38(2):50-56.
Conscious sedation is commonly utilized in pediatric dentistry. Although opioid analgesics are often employed, patient safety would be enhanced if nonopioid drugs were used. The purpose of this study was to determine if rectal ketamine could produce plasma concentrations that would achieve both conscious sedation and analgesia to gingival needle puncture. Five 2-year-old male Macaca fuscata monkeys were given rectal ketamine at a dosage of 60 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg one week apart. Blood was drawn at selected times after administration, and vital signs, level of sedation, and consciousness were assessed. Plasma ketamine concentrations ranged from 240 to 820 ng/mL and from 390 to 3120 ng/mL after rectal administration at doses of 60 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg, respectively. Two monkeys after the high dose showed analgesia to a gingival needle puncture at plasma ketamine concentrations that ranged from 1390 to 3120 ng/mL. A good level of sedation was consistently observed in four monkeys (80%) following rectal ketamine at a dosage of 90 mg/kg, whereas one monkey showed a consistently good level at a dosage of 60 mg/kg. Sedation and dose were significantly (P less than 0.001) associated with plasma ketamine concentrations; physiologic parameters were not (P greater than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that rectal ketamine can produce plasma concentrations of the drug sufficient to achieve sedation in the monkey. The attainment of concomitant analgesia to a gingival needle puncture was not as predictable.
PMCID: PMC2148681  PMID: 1811429
10.  Colonoscopy without sedation: Patient factors alone are less likely to influence its uptake 
Endoscopy International Open  2016;4(5):E534-E537.
Background and study aims: Conscious sedation during colonoscopy minimizes discomfort, improves polyp detection rates, and reduces technical failure, but carries medication-related risks and requires dedicated and costly recovery services. Sedation-free procedures may offer a safer alternative. We aimed to compare this group with those receiving sedation to determine differences in patient characteristics, cecal intubation rates, polyp detection rates, discomfort levels and safety in patients for whom anesthesia is high risk.
Patients and methods: Prospectively collected data from all colonoscopies performed over a 1-year period at three district general hospitals were analyzed. Conscious sedation was offered to all patients and outcomes in those who refused were compared with outcomes in those who received sedation.
Results: One hundred ninety-four of 1694 (11 %) colonoscopies were performed without sedation (61 % male, P < 0.001) but rates varied between hospitals. Of these, 55 % were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 3 or more and 5 % experienced moderate discomfort, compared to 40 % (P < 0.0001) and 10 % (P = 0.023) respectively of those receiving sedation. They were more likely to have indications of rectal bleeding or frequency of stool and less likely to have anaemia or macroscopic inflammation at colonoscopy. Complications, completion. and polyp detection rates were similar in both groups.
Conclusions: Colonoscopy without sedation can be completed successfully in select patients without compromising comfort or polyp detection rates and is safe in those for whom anesthesia is high risk. It is therefore a safe alternative for clinicians concerned about sedation, but the findings suggest that hospital, rather than patient factors, may prevent its uptake.
PMCID: PMC4874795  PMID: 27227110
11.  Oral Chloral Hydrate Compare with Rectal Thiopental in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial 
Emergency  2014;2(2):85-89.
The increasing use of diagnostic imaging in pediatric medicine has resulted in growing need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) to minimize motion artifacts during procedures. The drug of choice in pediatric PSA was not introduced until now. The aim of the present study was comparison of oral chloral hydrate (OCH) and rectal sodium thiopental (RST) in pediatric PSA.
In the present randomized clinical trial, 2-6 years old pediatrics who referred for performing brain computed tomography scan was enrolled and were randomly divided in to two groups. OCH (50mg/kg) and RST (25mg/kg) were prescribed and a trained nurse recorded the time from drug prescription to receiving the conscious sedation (onset of action), the total period which the patient has the Ramsay score≥4 (duration of action), and adverse effect of agents. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for comparisons.
One hundred and forty children were entered to two groups of OCH and RST, randomly. The patients of two groups had similar age, sex, weight, and baseline vital signs except for diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001). The onset of action in OCH and RST groups were 24.5±6.1and 28.7±5.2 minutes, respectively (p<0.001). Duration of action in OCH and RST groups were 12.9±2.8 minutes and 13.7±2.6 minutes, respectively (p=0.085). Non-parametric ANCOVA revealed that only diastolic blood pressure was affected by drug prescription (p=0.001). In 11(15.7%) patients in RST group, diarrhea was observed during 24 hours (p=0.001). Oxygen desaturation was observed only in two patients, both in OCH group.
Each of the sedative has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting one for inducing short-term sedation. It seems that rectal sodium thiopental and oral chloral hydrate are equally effective in pediatric PSA and based on patient’s condition we can administrate one of these agents.
PMCID: PMC4614592  PMID: 26495353
Pediatrics; conscious sedation; anesthesia and analgesia; chloral hydrate; thiopental
PMCID: PMC1583272  PMID: 20281813
16.  Pentothal Sodium Anæsthesia 
PMCID: PMC1581691  PMID: 20323098
PMCID: PMC1591774  PMID: 15405939
19.  Rectal Pentothal in Children 
PMCID: PMC1821926  PMID: 14839589
20.  Continuous Pentothal 
British Medical Journal  1945;2(4423):511-512.
PMCID: PMC2059951

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