Selectins have previously been shown to tether a flowing leukocyte to a vessel wall and mediate rolling. Here, we report that an intergrin, VLA- 4, can also support tethering and rolling. Blood T lymphocytes and alpha 4 integrin-transfected cells can tether in shear flow, and then roll, through binding of the intergrin VLA-4 to purified VCAM-1 on the wall of a flow chamber. VLA-4 transfectants showed similar tethering and rolling on TNF-stimulated endothelium. Tethering efficiency, rolling velocity, and resistance to detachment are related to VCAM-1 density. Tethering and rolling did not occur on ICAM-1, fibronectin, or fibronectin fragments, and tethering did not require integrin activation or the presence of an alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain. Arrest of rolling cells on VCAM-1 occurred spontaneously, and/or was triggered by integrin activating agents Mn2+, phorbol ester, and mAb TS2/16. These agents, and the alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain, promoted increased resistance to detachment. Together the results show that VLA-4 is a versatile integrin that can mediate tethering, rolling, and firm arrest on VCAM-1.
Memory T lymphocytes extravasate at sites of inflammation, but the mechanisms employed by these cells to initiate contact and tethering with endothelium are incompletely understood. An important part of leukocyte extravasation is the initiation of rolling adhesions on endothelial selectins; such events have been studied in monocytes and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. In this study, the potential of T lymphocytes to adhere and roll on endothelial selectins in vitro was investigated. We demonstrate that T cells can form tethers and rolling adhesions on P selectin and E selectin under physiologic flow conditions. Tethering and rolling on P selectin was independent of cell- surface cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) expression, which correlated strictly with the capacity of T cells to form rolling adhesions under flow on E selectin. T cell tethering to P selectin was abolished by selective removal of cell surface sialomucins by a P. haemolytica O- glycoprotease, while cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression was unaffected. A sialomucin molecule identical or closely related to P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), the major P selectin ligand on neutrophils and HL-60 cells, appears to be a major T cell ligand for P selectin. P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 does not appear to support T cell rolling on E selectin. In turn, E selectin ligands do not appear to be associated with sialomucins. These data demonstrate the presence of structurally distinct ligands for P or E selectins on T cells, provide evidence that both ligands can be coexpressed on a single T cell, and mediate tethering and rolling on the respective selectins in a mutually exclusive fashion.
Intracellular calcium flux is an early step in the signaling cascade that bridges ligation of selectin and chemokine receptors to activation of adhesive and motile functions during recruitment on inflamed endothelium. Calcium flux was imaged in real time and provided a means of correlating signaling events in neutrophils rolling on E-selectin and stimulated by chemokine in a microfluidic chamber. Integrin dependent neutrophil arrest was triggered by E-selectin tethering and ligation of IL-8 seconds before a rapid rise in intracellular calcium, which was followed by the onset of pseudopod formation. Calcium flux on rolling neutrophils increased in a shear dependent manner, and served to link integrin adhesion and signaling of cytoskeletally driven cell polarization. Abolishing calcium influx through membrane expressed store operated calcium channels inhibited activation of high affinity β2 integrin and subsequent cell arrest. We conclude that calcium influx at the plasma membrane integrates chemotactic and adhesive signals, and functions to synchronize signaling of neutrophil arrest and migration in a shear stress dependent manner.
Neutrophils; Shear stress; Calcium signaling; Integrin affinity
We have used intravital microscopy to study physiologically perfused microvessels in murine bone marrow (BM). BM sinusoids and venules, but not adjacent bone vessels, supported rolling interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Rolling did not involve L-selectin, but was partially reduced in wild-type mice treated with antibodies to P- or E-selectin and in mice that were deficient in these two selectins. Selectin-independent rolling was mediated by α4 integrins, which interacted with endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Parallel contribution of the endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 is not known to direct blood cell trafficking to other noninflamed tissues. This combination of constitutively expressed adhesion molecules may thus constitute a BM-specific recruitment pathway for progenitor cells analogous to the vascular addressins that direct selective lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs.
bone marrow; selectins; α4 integrin; intravital microscopy; homing
Understanding the mechanisms by which stem cells home precisely to regions of injury or degeneration is of importance to both basic and applied regenerative medicine. Optimizing regenerative processes may depend on identifying the range of molecules that subserve stem cell trafficking. The “rolling” of extravasating cells on endothelium under conditions of physiological flow is the first essential step in the homing cascade and determines cell adhesion and transmigration. Using a laminar flow chamber to simulate physiological shear stress, we explored an aspect of this process by using human neural stem cells (hNSCs). We observed that the interactions between hNSCs and TNF-α-stimulated human endothelium (simulating an inflamed milieu) are mediated by a subclass of integrins -- α2, α6 and β1, but not α4 and αv or the chemokine-mediated pathway CXCR4-SDF-1α, suggesting not only that the mechanisms mediating hNSC homing via the vasculature differ from the mechanisms mediating homing through parenchyma, but also that each step invokes a distinct pathway mediating a specialized function in the hNSC homing cascade. (TNF-α stimulation also up-regulates VCAM-1 expression on the hNSCs themselves and increases NSC-endothelial interactions.) The selective use of integrin subgroups to mediate homing of cells of neuroectodermal origin may also be used to insure that cells within the systemic circulation are delivered to the pathological region of a given organ to the exclusion of other, perhaps undesired, organs.
We demonstrate an additional step and a positive feedback loop in leukocyte accumulation on inflamed endothelium. Leukocytes in shear flow bind to adherent leukocytes through L-selectin/ligand interactions and subsequently bind downstream and roll on inflamed endothelium, purified E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, VCAM-1, or peripheral node addressin. Thus adherent leukocytes nucleate formation of strings of rolling cells and synergistically enhance leukocyte accumulation. Neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T cell lines, but not peripheral blood T lymphocytes, tether to each other through L-selectin. L- selectin is not involved in direct binding to either E- or P-selectin and is not a major counterreceptor of endothelial selectins. Leukocyte- leukocyte tethers are more tolerant to high shear than direct tethers to endothelial selectins and, like other L-selectin-mediated interactions, require a shear threshold. Synergism between leukocyte- leukocyte and leukocyte-endothelial interactions introduces novel regulatory mechanisms in recruitment of leukocytes in inflammation.
Leukocyte interactions with vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation can be dynamically regulated by activation-dependent adhesion molecules. Current models, primarily based on studies with polymorphonuclear leukocytes, suggest the involvement of multiple members of the selectin, integrin, and immunoglobulin gene families, sequentially, in the process of initial attachment (rolling), stable adhesion (arrest), spreading and ultimate diapedesis. In the current study, IL-4-activated human umbilical vein endothelium, which selectively expresses VCAM-1 and an L-selectin ligand but not E- selectin, and appropriate function blocking monoclonal antibodies, were used to study monocyte-endothelial interactions in an in vitro model that mimics microcirculatory flow conditions. In this system, L- selectin mediates monocyte rolling and also facilitates alpha 4 beta 1- integrin-dependent arrest, whereas beta 2-integrins are required for spreading of firmly attached monocytes on the endothelial cell surface but not their arrest. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence for human monocyte rolling on cytokine-activated endothelium, and suggest a sequential requirement for both beta 1- and beta 2- integrin-dependent adhesive mechanisms in monocyte-endothelial interactions.
L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that tethers leukocytes to the
luminal walls of venules during inflammation and enables them to roll under
the force of blood flow. Clustering of L-selectin during rolling is thought to
promote outside-in signals that lead to integrin activation and chemokine
receptor expression, ultimately contributing to leukocyte arrest. Several
studies have underscored the importance of the L-selectin cytoplasmic tail in
functionally regulating adhesion and signaling. Interestingly, the L-selectin
tail comprises only 17 amino acids, and yet it is thought to bind
simultaneously to several proteins. For example, constitutive association of
calmodulin (CaM) and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) to L-selectin confers
resistance to proteolysis and microvillar positioning, respectively. In this
report we found that recombinant purified CaM and ERM bound non-competitively
to the same tail of L-selectin. Furthermore, molecular modeling supported the
possibility that CaM, L-selectin, and moesin could form a heterotrimeric
complex. Finally, using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to measure
fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it was shown that CaM, L-selectin, and
ERM could interact simultaneously in vivo. Moreover, L-selectin
clustering promoted CaM/ERM interaction in cis (i.e. derived
from neighboring L-selectin tails). These results highlight a novel
intracellular event that occurs as a consequence of L-selectin clustering,
which could participate in transducing signals that promote the transition
from rolling to arrest.
Cancer cell tethering and rolling on the vascular wall is facilitated by various selectin: glycoprotein interactions which lead to eventual extravasation and metastases. The aberrantly underglycosylated mucin MUC1 has been shown to both abundantly express selectin binding moieties (sialyl Lewis x and a) and to consistently expose its core epitope. Flow cytometry was used to determine MUC1 expression on ZR-75-1 and MCF7 cells, while immunofluorescence microscopy was used to confirm the aberrant form of MUC1 and MUC1:ICAM-1 interactions. Each cell line was then perfused through combined E-selectin and ICAM-1 coated microtubes, as a model of the microvascular endothelium. ZR-75-1 and MCF7 were found to express abundant and low levels of underglycosylated MUC1, respectively. The rolling/adhesion profiles showed that ZR-75-1 cells, when compared to MCF7 cells, interact with E-selectin more efficiently resulting in sufficiently slow rolling velocities to form MUC1:ICAM-1 interactions thereby facilitating firm adhesion. The purpose and novelty of this work is the demonstration of the synergistic adhesion capabilities of MUC1 in the metastatic adhesion cascade, where the observed differential adhesion is consistent with the relative metastatic potential of the ZR-75-1 (highly metastatic) and MCF7 (weakly metastatic) cell lines.
adhesion; breast cancer; circulation; E-selectin; ICAM-1; MUC1
Adhesion of blood leukocytes to the endothelium involves multiple steps including initial attachment (tethering), rolling, and firm arrest. Presentation of adhesion molecules on leukocyte microvilli can substantially enhance tethering. Localization of L-selectin to microvilli and of CD44 to the planar cell body have been shown to depend upon their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. We investigated the role of leukocyte integrin transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in initiating adhesion under flow and in microvillous localization. Integrins α4β7, αLβ2, and αMβ2 were heterologously expressed in K562 cells. α4β7 initiated adhesion under flow and localized to microvilli, whereas β2 integrins did not initiate adhesion and localized to the cell body. Chimeric integrins were produced by replacing the α4β7 cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane domains with the homologous domains of αLβ2 or αMβ2. Unexpectedly, these chimeras efficiently mediated adhesion to the α4β7 ligand mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule–1 under flow and localized to microvilli. Therefore, differences between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of α4 and β2 integrins do not account for differences in ability to support attachment under flow or in membrane localization. Integrins α4β1, α5β1, α6Aβ1, αvβ3, and αEβ7 also localized to microvilli. Transmembrane proteins known or suspected to associate with extracellular domains of microvillous integrins, including tetraspans and CD47, were concentrated on microvilli as well. These findings suggest that interactions between the extracellular domains of integrins and associated proteins could direct the assembly of multimolecular complexes on leukocyte microvilli.
The goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which dendritic cells (DCs) in blood could interact with endothelium, a prerequisite to extravasation into tissues. Our results indicate that DCs express both HECA-452–reactive and nonreactive isoforms of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) and can tether and roll efficiently on E- and P-selectin under flow conditions in vitro. Freshly isolated blood DCs were further observed to roll continuously along noninflamed murine dermal endothelium in vivo. This interaction is strictly dependent on endothelial selectins, as shown by experiments with blocking antibodies and with E- and P-selectin–deficient mice. We hypothesize that DCs in blood are constitutively poised at the interface of blood and skin, ready to extravasate upon induction of inflammation, and we showed that cutaneous inflammation results in a rapid recruitment of DCs from the blood to tissues. We propose that this is an important and previously unappreciated element of immunosurveillance.
inflammation; immunosurveillance; selectins; rolling; extravasation
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mediates rolling of leukocytes on P-selectin under flow. The glycoproteins that enable leukocyte tethering to or rolling on E-selectin are not known. We used gene targeting to prepare PSGL-1–deficient (PSGL-1–/–) mice, which were healthy but had moderately elevated total blood leukocytes. Fluid-phase E-selectin bound to approximately 70% fewer sites on PSGL-1–/– than PSGL-1+/+ neutrophils. Compared with PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes, significantly fewer PSGL-1–/– leukocytes rolled on E-selectin in vitro, because their initial tethering to E-selectin was impaired. The residual cells that tethered rolled with the same shear resistance and velocities as PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes. Compared with PSGL-1+/+ mice, significantly fewer PSGL-1–/– leukocytes rolled on E-selectin in TNF-α–treated venules of cremaster muscle in which P-selectin function was blocked by an mAb. The residual PSGL-1–/– leukocytes that tethered rolled with slow velocities equivalent to those of PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes. These results reveal a novel function for PSGL-1 in tethering leukocytes to E-selectin under flow.
Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) were evaluated in vitro for their ability to bind vascular adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins in order to arrest (firmly adhere) under physiological flow conditions. hASCs were flowed through a parallel plate flow chamber containing substrates presenting immobilized Type I Collagen, fibronectin, E-selectin, L-selectin, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) under static and laminar flow conditions (wall shear stress = 1 dyn/cm2). hASCs were able to firmly adhere to Type I Collagen, fibronectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 substrates, but not to any of the selectins. Pretreatment with hypoxia increased the ability of hASCs isolated by liposuction to adhere to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, but this effect was not seen in cells isolated by tissue excision. These results indicate that hASCs possess the ability to adhere key adhesion proteins, illustrate the importance of hASC harvest procedure, and suggest mechanisms for homing in a setting where interaction with inflamed or injured tissue is necessary.
Adipose-derived stromal cells; hypoxia; liposuction; parallel plate flow chamber; adhesion cascade
This report examines the adhesive interactions of human CD4+ T lymphocytes with tumor necrosis factor alpha-activated human endothelial cell monolayers in an in vitro model that mimics microcirculatory flow conditions. Resting CD4+ T cell interactions with activated endothelium consisted of initial attachment followed by rolling, stable arrest, and then spreading and transendothelial migration. P-selectin, but not E-, or L-selectin, mediated most of this initial contact and rolling, whereas beta 1-integrins (alpha 4 beta 1), interacting with endothelial-expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, participated in rolling and mediated stable arrest. In contrast, beta 2-integrins were primarily involved in spreading and transmigration. These findings highlight an important role for P- selectin and suggest discrete functions for beta 1- and beta 2- integrins during lymphocyte recruitment to sites of immune-mediated inflammation.
At sites of inflammation, infection or vascular injury local proinflammatory or pathogen-derived stimuli render the luminal vascular endothelial surface attractive for leukocytes. This innate immunity response consists of a well defined and regulated multistep cascade involving consecutive steps of adhesive interactions between the leukocytes and the endothelium. During the initial contact with the activated endothelium leukocytes roll along the endothelium via a loose bond which is mediated by selectins. Subsequently leukocytes are activated by chemokines presented on the luminal endothelial surface, which results in the activation of leukocyte integrins and the firm leukocyte arrest on the endothelium. After their firm adhesion, leukocytes make use of two transmigration processes to pass the endothelial barrier, the transcellular route through the endothelial cell body or the paracellular route through the endothelial junctions. In addition, further circulating cells, such as platelets arrive early at sites of inflammation contributing to both coagulation and to the immune response in parts by facilitating leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Platelets have thereby been implicated in several inflammatory pathologies. This review summarizes the major mechanisms and molecules involved in leukocyte-endothelial and leukocyte-platelet interactions in inflammation.
Endothelial cells; Adhesion; Leukocytes; Platelets; Inflammation
Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin–ligand tether bonds exponentially (1, 4) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (14). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.
L-selectin; E-selectin; peripheral node addressin; cell adhesion; microvilli
L-selectin binding activity for its ligand expressed by vascular endothelium is rapidly and transiently increased after leukocyte activation. To identify mechanisms for upregulation and assess how this influences leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions, cell-surface dimers of L-selectin were induced using the coumermycin–GyrB dimerization strategy for cross-linking L-selectin cytoplasmic domains in L-selectin cDNA-transfected lymphoblastoid cells. Coumermycin- induced L-selectin dimerization resulted in an approximately fourfold increase in binding of phosphomanan monoester core complex (PPME), a natural mimic of an L-selectin ligand, comparable to that observed after leukocyte activation. Moreover, L-selectin dimerization significantly increased (by ∼700%) the number of lymphocytes rolling on vascular endothelium under a broad range of physiological shear stresses, and significantly slowed their rolling velocities. Therefore, L-selectin dimerization may explain the rapid increase in ligand binding activity that occurs after leukocyte activation and may directly influence leukocyte migration to peripheral lymphoid tissues or to sites of inflammation. Inducible oligomerization may also be a common mechanism for rapidly upregulating the adhesive or ligand-binding function of other cell-surface receptors.
L-selectin; dimerization; leukocyte/endothelial interaction; rolling; regulation
Engagement of neutrophils by E-selectin results in integrin activation through unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigate primary mouse neutrophils in their native whole blood using intravital microscopy and autoperfused flow chamber approaches. E-selectin-dependent slow rolling on immobilized E-selectin and ICAM-1 required P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1. Slow rolling was dependent on LFA-1 and required continuous E-selectin engagement. Slow rolling was abolished by blocking spleen tyrosine kinases (Syk) using the inhibitor piceatannol and was absent in Syk-/- bone marrow chimeric mice. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α induced further reduction of rolling velocity and CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent leukocyte arrest on E-selectin/ICAM-1. This arrest was dependent on CXCR2 and Gαi and was blocked by an allosteric inhibitor of LFA-1 activation. The physiologic importance of the PSGL-1-Syk pathway is shown by near complete inhibition of neutrophil recruitment into the inflamed peritoneal cavity of PSGL-1-/- mice or Syk-/- bone marrow chimeras treated with pertussis toxin to block Gαi.
neutrophil; E-selectin; G-protein coupled receptor; Syk; integrin
The extravasation of leukocytes from the blood into tissues occurs as a multistep process: an initial transient interaction ("rolling"), generally thought to be mediated by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, followed by firm adhesion, usually mediated by integrins. Using a parallel plate flow chamber designed to approximate physiologic flow in postcapillary venules, we have characterized a rolling interaction between lymphoid cells and adherent primary and cultured endothelial cells that is not selectin mediated. Studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies indicate that this novel interaction is mediated by CD44. Abrogation of the rolling interaction could be specifically achieved using both soluble hyaluronate (HA) and treatment of the adherent cells with HA-reactive substances, indicating that HA is the ligand supporting this rolling interaction. Some B and T cell lines, as well as normal lymphocytes, either constitutively exhibit rolling or can be induced to do so by phorbol ester or in vivo antigen activation. These studies indicate that CD44 and its principal ligand hyaluronate represent another receptor/carbohydrate ligand pair mediating a novel activation-dependent pathway of lymphocyte/endothelial cell adhesion.
Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) can home to the bone marrow (BM) after a simple intravenous injection, but the adhesive mechanisms mediating the initial interactions of human HPCs with the BM endothelium have not been evaluated in vivo. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy and homing assays in NOD/SCID mice, we show that endothelial selectins are necessary for human adult CD34+ cell homing, since rolling on BM endothelium and retention in the BM compartment are drastically reduced (>90%) in endothelial selectin–deficient NOD/SCID mice. Comparative analyses of CD34+ cells collected from adults and from cord blood (CB) reveal that neonatal cells display reduced rolling fractions compared with adult CD34+ cells obtained from peripheral blood or BM, suggesting abnormal selectin ligand function on neonatal progenitors. Flow cytometric and intravital microscopy studies suggest that this defect results from nonfunctional P-selectin ligand on a subset (∼30%) of neonatal CD34+ cells. Further analyses indicate that P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is expressed in a nonfunctional form among neonatal CD34+ cells that do not bind P-selectin and that this subset is enriched in primitive CD34+CD38lo/– progenitors. These results underscore the potential to improve homing of CB CD34+ cells to the BM by manipulation of selectins and their ligands.
Selectins play a critical role in initiating leukocyte binding to vascular endothelium. In addition, in vitro experiments have shown that neutrophils use L-selectin to roll on adherent neutrophils, suggesting that they express a nonvascular L-selectin ligand. Using a L- selectin/IgM heavy chain (mu) chimeric protein as an immunocytological probe, we show here that L-selectin can bind to neutrophils, monocytes, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, and HL-60 and KG-1 myeloid cells. The interaction between L-selectin and leukocytes was protease sensitive and calcium dependent, and abolished by cell treatment with neuraminidase, chlorate, or O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase. These results revealed common features between leukocyte L-selectin ligand and the mucin-like P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1), which mediates neutrophil rolling on P- and E-selectin. The possibility that PSGL-1 could be a ligand for L-selectin was further supported by the ability of P-selectin/mu chimera to inhibit L-selectin/mu binding to leukocytes and by the complete inhibition of both selectin interactions with myeloid cells treated with mocarhagin, a cobra venom metalloproteinase that cleaves the amino terminus of PSGL-1 at Tyr-51. Finally, the abrogation of L- and P-selectin binding to myeloid cells treated with a polyclonal antibody, raised against a peptide corresponding to the amino acid residues 42-56 of PSGL-1, indicated that L- and P-selectin interact with a domain located at the amino- terminal end of PSGL-1. The ability of the anti-PSGL-1 mAb PL-1 to inhibit L- and P-selectin binding to KG-1 cells further supported that possibility. Thus, apart from being involved in neutrophil rolling on P- and E-selectin, PSGL-1 also plays a critical role in mediating neutrophil attachment to adherent neutrophils. Interaction between L- selectin and PSGL-1 may be of major importance for increasing leukocyte recruitment at inflammatory sites.
The effects of ethanol at physiological concentrations on neutrophil membrane tether pulling, adhesion lifetime, rolling, and firm arrest behavior were studied in parallel-plate flow chamber assays with adherent 1-micron diameter P-selectin-coated beads, P-selectin-coated surfaces, or interleukin-1 stimulated human endothelium. Ethanol (0.3% by vol.) had no effect on PSGL-1, CD62L, or CD11b levels, but caused PSGL-1 redistribution. Also, ethanol prevented fMLP-induced CD11b upregulation. During neutrophil collisions with P-selectin-coated beads at venous wall shear rates of 25 to 100 s-1, ethanol increased membrane tether length and membrane growth rate by 2- to 3-fold, but reduced the adhesion efficiency (detectable bonding/total collisions) by 2- to 3-fold, compared to untreated neutrophils. Without ethanol treatment, adhesion efficiency and adhesion lifetime declined as wall shear rate was increased, while ethanol caused the adhesion lifetime over all events to increase from 0.1 sec to 0.5 sec as wall shear rate was increased, an example of pharmacologically induced “hydrodynamic thresholding.” Consistent with this increased membrane fluidity and reduced capture, ethanol reduced rolling velocity by 37 % and rolling flux by 55 % on P-selectin surfaces at 100 s-1, compared to untreated neutrophils. On IL-1 stimulated endothelium, rolling velocity was unchanged by ethanol treatment, but the fraction of cells converting to firm arrest was reduced from 35 % to 24 % with ethanol. Overall, ethanol caused competing biophysical and biochemical effects that: (i) reduced capture due to PSGL-1 redistribution, (ii) reduced rolling velocity due to increased membrane tether growth, and (iii) reduced conversion to firm arrest.
neutrophils; adhesion molecules; cell surface molecules; inflammation
L-selectin is a leukocyte lectin that mediates leukocyte capture and rolling in the vasculature. The cytoplasmic domain of L-selectin has been shown to regulate leukocyte rolling. In this study, the regulatory mechanisms by which this domain controls L-selectin adhesiveness were investigated. We report that an L-selectin mutant generated by truncation of the COOH-terminal 11 residues of L-selectin tail, which impairs association with the cytoskeletal protein α-actinin, could capture leukocytes to glycoprotein L-selectin ligands under physiological shear flow. However, the conversion of initial tethers into rolling was impaired by this partial tail truncation, and was completely abolished by a further four-residue truncation of the L-selectin tail. Physical anchorage of both cell-free tail-truncated mutants within a substrate fully rescued their adhesive deficiencies. Microkinetic analysis of full-length and truncated L-selectin–mediated rolling at millisecond temporal resolution suggests that the lifetime of unstressed L-selectin tethers is unaffected by cytoplasmic tail truncation. However, cytoskeletal anchorage of L-selectin stabilizes the selectin tether by reducing the sensitivity of its dissociation rate to increasing shear forces. Low force sensitivity (reactive compliance) of tether lifetime is crucial for selectins to mediate leukocyte rolling under physiological shear stresses. This is the first demonstration that reduced reactive compliance of L-selectin tethers is regulated by cytoskeletal anchorage, in addition to intrinsic mechanical properties of the selectin–carbohydrate bond.
selectins; inflammation; rolling; leukocyte; cytoskeleton
Leukocyte recruitment to target tissue is initiated by weak rolling attachments to vessel wall ligands followed by firm integrin-dependent arrest triggered by endothelial chemokines. We show here that immobilized chemokines can augment not only arrest but also earlier integrin-mediated capture (tethering) of lymphocytes on inflamed endothelium. Furthermore, when presented in juxtaposition to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), the endothelial ligand for the integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA-4, α4β1), chemokines rapidly augment reversible lymphocyte tethering and rolling adhesions on VCAM-1. Chemokines potentiate VLA-4 tethering within <0.1 s of contact through Gi protein signaling, the fastest inside-out integrin signaling events reported to date. Although VLA-4 affinity is not altered upon chemokine signaling, subsecond VLA-4 clustering at the leukocyte-substrate contact zone results in enhanced leukocyte avidity to VCAM-1. Endothelial chemokines thus regulate all steps in adhesive cascades that control leukocyte recruitment at specific vascular beds.
adhesion; integrin; endothelium; chemokine; shear flow
Flow-enhanced cell adhesion is an unexplained phenomenon that might result from a transport-dependent increase in on-rates or a force-dependent decrease in off-rates of adhesive bonds. L-selectin requires a threshold shear to support leukocyte rolling on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and other vascular ligands. Low forces decrease L-selectin–PSGL-1 off-rates (catch bonds), whereas higher forces increase off-rates (slip bonds). We determined that a force-dependent decrease in off-rates dictated flow-enhanced rolling of L-selectin–bearing microspheres or neutrophils on PSGL-1. Catch bonds enabled increasing force to convert short-lived tethers into longer-lived tethers, which decreased rolling velocities and increased the regularity of rolling steps as shear rose from the threshold to an optimal value. As shear increased above the optimum, transitions to slip bonds shortened tether lifetimes, which increased rolling velocities and decreased rolling regularity. Thus, force-dependent alterations of bond lifetimes govern L-selectin–dependent cell adhesion below and above the shear optimum. These findings establish the first biological function for catch bonds as a mechanism for flow-enhanced cell adhesion.
leukocyte; PSGL-1; inflammation; lymphocyte homing; selectin