Selectins have previously been shown to tether a flowing leukocyte to a vessel wall and mediate rolling. Here, we report that an intergrin, VLA- 4, can also support tethering and rolling. Blood T lymphocytes and alpha 4 integrin-transfected cells can tether in shear flow, and then roll, through binding of the intergrin VLA-4 to purified VCAM-1 on the wall of a flow chamber. VLA-4 transfectants showed similar tethering and rolling on TNF-stimulated endothelium. Tethering efficiency, rolling velocity, and resistance to detachment are related to VCAM-1 density. Tethering and rolling did not occur on ICAM-1, fibronectin, or fibronectin fragments, and tethering did not require integrin activation or the presence of an alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain. Arrest of rolling cells on VCAM-1 occurred spontaneously, and/or was triggered by integrin activating agents Mn2+, phorbol ester, and mAb TS2/16. These agents, and the alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain, promoted increased resistance to detachment. Together the results show that VLA-4 is a versatile integrin that can mediate tethering, rolling, and firm arrest on VCAM-1.
Leukocytes extravasate from the blood in response to physiologic or pathologic demands by means of complementary ligand interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The multistep model of leukocyte extravasation involves an initial transient interaction (“rolling” adhesion), followed by secondary (firm) adhesion. We recently showed that binding of CD44 on activated T lymphocytes to endothelial hyaluronan (HA) mediates a primary adhesive interaction under shear stress, permitting extravasation at sites of inflammation. The mechanism for subsequent firm adhesion has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the integrin VLA-4 is used in secondary adhesion after CD44-mediated primary adhesion of human and mouse T cells in vitro, and by mouse T cells in an in vivo model. We show that clonal cell lines and polyclonally activated normal T cells roll under physiologic shear forces on hyaluronate and require VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, as ligand for subsequent firm adhesion. This firm adhesion is also VLA-4 dependent, as shown by antibody inhibition. Moreover, in vivo short-term homing experiments in a model dependent on CD44 and HA demonstrate that superantigen-activated T cells require VLA-4, but not LFA-1, for entry into an inflamed peritoneal site. Thus, extravasation of activated T cells initiated by CD44 binding to HA depends upon VLA-4–mediated firm adhesion, which may explain the frequent association of these adhesion receptors with diverse chronic inflammatory processes.
Leukocyte recruitment to target tissue is initiated by weak rolling attachments to vessel wall ligands followed by firm integrin-dependent arrest triggered by endothelial chemokines. We show here that immobilized chemokines can augment not only arrest but also earlier integrin-mediated capture (tethering) of lymphocytes on inflamed endothelium. Furthermore, when presented in juxtaposition to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), the endothelial ligand for the integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA-4, α4β1), chemokines rapidly augment reversible lymphocyte tethering and rolling adhesions on VCAM-1. Chemokines potentiate VLA-4 tethering within <0.1 s of contact through Gi protein signaling, the fastest inside-out integrin signaling events reported to date. Although VLA-4 affinity is not altered upon chemokine signaling, subsecond VLA-4 clustering at the leukocyte-substrate contact zone results in enhanced leukocyte avidity to VCAM-1. Endothelial chemokines thus regulate all steps in adhesive cascades that control leukocyte recruitment at specific vascular beds.
adhesion; integrin; endothelium; chemokine; shear flow
Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. PCa cells roll on E-selectin+ BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and PCa cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4 and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete PCa cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Herein, we describe how metastatic PCa cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. PCa cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic PCa tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. PCa cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1 and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, PCa cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases (α1,3 FT) in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice dramatically reduced PCa incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating PCa cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight on the role of α1,3 fucosylation in PCa development.
fucosyltransferases; integrins; prostate cancer; E-selectin; homing
Hematogenous metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths, yet the mechanism remains unclear. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood may employ different pathways to cross blood endothelial barrier and establish a metastatic niche. Several studies provide evidence that prostate cancer (PCa) cell tethering and rolling on microvascular endothelium via E-selectin/E-selectin ligand interactions under shear flow theoretically promote extravasation and contribute to the development of metastases. However, it is unknown if CTCs from PCa patients interact with E-selectin expressed on endothelium, initiating a route for tumor metastases. Here we report that CTCs derived from PCa patients showed interactions with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing endothelial cells. To examine E-selectin-mediated interactions of PCa cell lines and CTCs derived from metastatic PCa patients, we used fluorescently-labeled anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591-488 which is internalized following cell-surface binding. We employed a microscale flow device consisting of E-selectin-coated microtubes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on parallel-plate flow chamber simulating vascular endothelium. We observed that J591-488 did not significantly alter the rolling behavior in PCa cells at shear stresses below 3 dyn/cm2. CTCs obtained from 31 PCa patient samples showed that CTCs tether and stably interact with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing HUVECs at physiological shear stress. Interestingly, samples collected during disease progression demonstrated significantly more CTC/E-selectin interactions than samples during times of therapeutic response (p=0.016). Analysis of the expression of sialyl Lewis X (sLex) in patient samples showed that a small subset comprising 1.9-18.8% of CTCs possess high sLex expression. Furthermore, E-selectin-mediated interactions between prostate CTCs and HUVECs were diminished in the presence of anti-E-selectin neutralizing antibody. CTC-Endothelial interactions provide a novel insight into potential adhesive mechanisms of prostate CTCs as a means to initiate metastasis.
P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) play important roles in mediating the inflammatory cascade. Selectin kinetics, together with neutrophil hydrodynamics, regulate the fundamental adhesion cascade of cell tethering and rolling on the endothelium. The current study uses the Multiscale Adhesive Dynamics computational model to simulate, for the first time, the tethering and rolling behavior of pseudopod-containing neutrophils as mediated by P-selectin/PSGL-1 bonds. This paper looks at the effect of including P-selectin/PSGL-1 adhesion kinetics. The parameters examined included the shear rate, adhesion on-rate, initial neutrophil position, and receptor number sensitivity. The outcomes analyzed included types of adhesive behavior observed, tether rolling distance and time, number of bonds formed during an adhesive event, contact area, and contact time. In contrast to the hydrodynamic model, P-selectin/PSGL-1 binding slows the neutrophil’s translation in the direction of flow and causes the neutrophil to swing around perpendicular to flow. Several behaviors were observed during the simulations, including tethering without firm adhesion, tethering with downstream firm adhesion, and firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. These behaviors were qualitatively consistent with in vivo data of murine neutrophils with pseudopods. In the simulations, increasing shear rate, receptor count, and bond formation rate increased the incidence of firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. Tethering was conserved across a range of physiological shear rates and was resistant to fluctuations in the number of surface PSGL-1 molecules. In simulations where bonding occurred, interaction with the side of the pseudopod, rather than the tip, afforded more surface area and greater contact time with the endothelial wall.
Neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) under conditions of flow occurs in successive steps, including selectin-dependent primary adhesion and CD18-dependent secondary adhesion. We used a parallel-plate flow chamber to assess the steps in T cell adherence in vitro. On monolayers of L cells transfected with the EC adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin was capable of mediating only primary adhesion, ICAM-1 was capable of mediating only secondary adhesion, and VCAM-1 was capable of mediating both primary and secondary adhesion. Studies using human umbilical vein EC monolayers stimulated for 24 h with IL-1 also revealed distinct primary and secondary steps in T cell adhesion under flow, and the secondary adhesion was inhibited > 90% by blocking both VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and ICAM-1/CD18 integrin pathways. However, the primary adhesion under conditions of flow could not be attributed to any of the mechanisms known to support adhesion of leukocytes to ECs. Alone, this pathway was shown to mediate T cell rolling and was a necessary prerequisite for engagement of the two integrin pathways in this system. Thus, T cell adherence to 24-h IL-1-stimulated human umbilical vein ECs at venular wall shear stresses involves at least two successive steps, with clear molecular distinctions from the mechanisms accounting for neutrophil/EC adhesion.
Worldwide, hypertension is reported to be in approximately a quarter of the population and is the leading biomedical risk factor for mortality worldwide. In the vasculature hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation leading to atherosclerosis and various disease states such as chronic kidney disease2, stroke3 and heart failure4. An initial step in vascular inflammation leading to atherogenesis is the adhesion cascade which involves the rolling, tethering, adherence and subsequent transmigration of leukocytes through the endothelium. Recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes to the endothelium is mediated by an upregulation of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin as well as increases in cytokine and chemokine release and an upregulation of reactive oxygen species5. In vitro methods such as static adhesion assays help to determine mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell adhesion as well as the analysis of cell adhesion molecules. Methods employed in previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that acute increases in pressure on the endothelium can lead to monocyte adhesion, an upregulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers6 however, similar to many in vitro assays, these findings have not been performed in real time under physiological flow conditions, nor with whole blood. Therefore, in vivo assays are increasingly utilised in animal models to demonstrate vascular inflammation and plaque development. Intravital microscopy is now widely used to assess leukocyte adhesion, rolling, migration and transmigration7-9. When combining the effects of pressure on leukocyte to endothelial adhesion the in vivo studies are less extensive. One such study examines the real time effects of flow and shear on arterial growth and remodelling but inflammatory markers were only assessed via immunohistochemistry10. Here we present a model for recording leukocyte adhesion in real time in intact pressurised blood vessels using whole blood perfusion. The methodology is a modification of an ex vivo vessel chamber perfusion model9 which enables real-time analysis of leukocyte -endothelial adhesive interactions in intact vessels. Our modification enables the manipulation of the intraluminal pressure up to 200 mmHg allowing for study not only under physiological flow conditions but also pressure conditions. While pressure myography systems have been previously demonstrated to observe vessel wall and lumen diameter11 as well as vessel contraction this is the first time demonstrating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in real time. Here we demonstrate the technique using carotid arteries harvested from rats and cannulated to a custom-made flow chamber coupled to a fluorescent microscope. The vessel chamber is equipped with a large bottom coverglass allowing a large diameter objective lens with short working distance to image the vessel. Furthermore, selected agonist and/or antagonists can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms controlling cell adhesion. Advantages of this method over intravital microscopy include no involvement of invasive surgery and therefore a higher throughput can be obtained. This method also enables the use of localised inhibitor treatment to the desired vessel whereas intravital only enables systemic inhibitor treatment.
Chemoattractants and chemokines induce arrest of rolling monocytes during emigration from blood into tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that α4 integrin affinity for vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 was upregulated rapidly and transiently by chemoattractants and stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1α and mediated monocyte arrest. α4 integrin affinity changes were detected and blocked using soluble VCAM-1/Fc (sVCAM-1/Fc). In a flow cytometry assay, markedly increased sVCAM-1/Fc binding to human blood monocytes or U937 cells transfected with formyl peptide (FP) receptor was detected 30 s after FP or SDF-1α treatment and declined after 2 min. In a parallel plate flow chamber assay, FP, C5a, platelet-activating factor, or SDF-1α coimmobilized with VCAM-1 induced leukocyte arrest, which was blocked by inclusion of sVCAM-1/Fc but not soluble nonimmune immunoglobulin G in the assay buffer.
stromal cell–derived factor 1α; chemokines; formyl peptide; very late antigen 4; inflammation
Leukocyte interactions with vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation can be dynamically regulated by activation-dependent adhesion molecules. Current models, primarily based on studies with polymorphonuclear leukocytes, suggest the involvement of multiple members of the selectin, integrin, and immunoglobulin gene families, sequentially, in the process of initial attachment (rolling), stable adhesion (arrest), spreading and ultimate diapedesis. In the current study, IL-4-activated human umbilical vein endothelium, which selectively expresses VCAM-1 and an L-selectin ligand but not E- selectin, and appropriate function blocking monoclonal antibodies, were used to study monocyte-endothelial interactions in an in vitro model that mimics microcirculatory flow conditions. In this system, L- selectin mediates monocyte rolling and also facilitates alpha 4 beta 1- integrin-dependent arrest, whereas beta 2-integrins are required for spreading of firmly attached monocytes on the endothelial cell surface but not their arrest. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence for human monocyte rolling on cytokine-activated endothelium, and suggest a sequential requirement for both beta 1- and beta 2- integrin-dependent adhesive mechanisms in monocyte-endothelial interactions.
T cell homing to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) is defined by a multistep sequence of interactions between lymphocytes and endothelial cells in high endothelial venules (HEVs). After initial tethering and rolling via L-selectin, firm adhesion of T cells requires rapid upregulation of lymphocyte function–associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesiveness by a previously unknown pathway that activates a Gαi-linked receptor. Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (TGFP cells). TCA-4 was constitutively presented on the luminal surface of HEVs, where it was required for LFA-1 activation on rolling TGFP cells. Desensitization of the TCA-4 receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), blocked TGFP cell adherence in wild-type HEVs, whereas desensitization to stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1α (the ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 4 [CXCR4]) did not affect TGFP cell behavior. TCA-4 protein was not detected on the luminal surface of PLN HEVs in plt/plt mice, which have a congenital defect in T cell homing to PLNs. Accordingly, TGFP cells rolled but did not arrest in plt/plt HEVs. When TCA-4 was injected intracutaneously into plt/plt mice, the chemokine entered afferent lymph vessels and accumulated in draining PLNs. 2 h after intracutaneous injection, luminal presentation of TCA-4 was detectable in a subset of HEVs, and LFA-1–mediated TGFP cell adhesion was restored in these vessels. We conclude that TCA-4 is both required and sufficient for LFA-1 activation on rolling T cells in PLN HEVs. This study also highlights a hitherto undocumented role for chemokines contained in afferent lymph, which may modulate leukocyte recruitment in draining PLNs.
homing; intravital microscopy; adhesion; T cell
E-selectin is a type-1 membrane protein on microvascular endothelial cells that helps initiate recruitment of circulating leukocytes to cutaneous, bone and inflamed tissues. E-selectin expression is constitutive on dermal and bone microvessels and is inducible by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α/ and TNF-α, on microvessels in inflamed tissues. This lectin receptor mediates weak binding interactions with carbohydrate counter-receptor ligands on circulating leukocytes, which results in a characteristic rolling behavior. Because these interactions precede more stable adhesive events and diapedesis activity, characterization of leukocyte rolling activity and identification of leukocyte E-selectin ligands have been major goals in studies of leukocyte trafficking and inflammation and in the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics (1-5). The intent of this report is to provide a visual, comprehensive description of the most widely-used technology for studying E-selectin E-selectin ligand interactions under physiologic blood flow conditions. Our laboratory in conjunction with the Harvard Skin Disease Research Center uses a state-of-the-art parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus accompanied by digital visualization and new recording software, NIS-Elements. This technology allows us to analyze adhesion events in real time for onscreen visualization as well as record rolling activity in a video format. Cell adhesion parameters, such as rolling frequency, shear resistance and binding/tethering efficiency, are calculated with NIS-Elements software, exported to an Excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. In the demonstration presented here, we employed the parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling activity on live human bone marrow endothelial cells (hBMEC). Human hematopoietic progenitor KG1a cells, which express a high level of E-selectin ligand, were used as our leukocyte model, while an immortalized hBMEC cell line, HBMEC-60 cells, was used as our endothelial cell model (6). To induce and simulate native E-selectin expression in the flow chamber, HBMEC-60 cells were first activated with IL-1 . Our video presentation showed that parallel-plate flow analysis is a suitable method for studying physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling activities and that functional characterization of leukocyte E-selectin ligand(s) in the flow chamber can be ascertained by implementing protease or glycosidase digestions.
Leukocyte trafficking to acute sites of injury or infection requires spatial and temporal cues that fine tune precise sites of firm adhesion and guide migration to endothelial junctions where they undergo diapedesis to sites of insult. Many detailed studies on the location and gradient of chemokines such as IL-8 and other CXCR ligands reveal that their recognition shortly after selectin-mediated capture and rolling exerts acute effects on integrin activation and subsequent binding to their ligands on the endothelium, which directs firm adhesion, adhesion strengthening, and downstream migration. In this process, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling has been found to play an integral role in activating and mobilizing intracellular stores of calcium, GTPases such as Rap-1 and Rho and cytokeletal proteins such as Talin and F-actin to facilitate cell polarity and directional pseudopod formation. A critical question remaining is how intracellular Ca2+ flux from CRAC channels such as Orai1 synergizes with cytosolic stores to mediate a rapid flux which is critical to the onset of PMN arrest and polarization. Our review will highlight a specific role for calcium as a signaling messenger in activating focal clusters of integrins bound to the cytoskeleton which allows the cell to attain a migratory phenotype. The precise interplay between chemokines, selectins, and integrins binding under the ubiquitous presence of shear stress from blood flow provides an essential cooperative signaling mechanism for effective leukocyte recruitment.
calcium; chemokine; cytoskeletal proteins; inflammation; integrin affinity; LFA-1; neutrophils; Orai1
The successful clinical implementation of adoptive cell therapeutics, including bone marrow transplantation and other stem cell-based treatments, depends critically on the ability to deliver cells to sites where they are needed. E-selectin, an endothelial C-type lectin, binds sialofucosylated carbohydrate determinants on its pertinent ligands. This molecule is expressed in a constitutive manner on bone marrow and dermal microvascular endothelium, and inducibly on post-capillary venules at all sites of tissue injury. Engagement of E-selectin with relevant ligand(s) expressed on circulating cells mediates initial “tethering/rolling” endothelial adhesive interactions prerequisite for extravasation of blood-borne cells at any target tissue. Most mammalian cells express high levels of a transmembrane glycoprotein known as CD44. A specialized glycoform of CD44 called “Hematopoietic Cell E-/L-selectin Ligand” (HCELL) is a potent E-selectin ligand expressed on human cells. Under native conditions, HCELL expression is restricted to human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We have developed a technology called “Glycosyltransferase-Programmed Stereosubstitution” (GPS) for custom-modifying CD44 glycans to create HCELL on the surface of living cells. GPS-based glycoengineering of HCELL endows cell migration to endothelial beds expressing E-selectin. Enforced HCELL expression targets human mesenchymal stem cell homing to marrow, licensing transendothelial migration without chemokine signaling via a VLA-4/VCAM-1-dependent “Step 2-bypass pathway”. This review presents an historical framework of the homing receptor concept, and will describe the discovery of HCELL, its function as the bone marrow homing receptor, and how enforced expression of this molecule via chemical engineering of CD44 glycans could enable stem cell-based regenerative medicine and other adoptive cell therapeutics.
Multi-step paradigm; selectin; selectin ligand; E-selectin; L-selectin; mesenchymal stem cell; hematopoietic stem cell; adoptive cell therapeutics; Step 2-bypass pathway; glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution
Lung cancer is a severe disease threatening human health worldwide. Distant hematogenous metastasis results in poor prognosis and death of lung cancer patients. In the present study, we investigated the effect of circulatory platelets (PLTs) on hematogenous metastasis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to assay the expression of P-selectin in lung cancer tissue, paracancerous tissue and distant tissue, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to determine P-selectin activation in peripheral blood. Purified PLTs were co-cultured with A549 cells and human vascular endothelial cells (HuvECs). Subsequently, the formation of PLT-lung cancer cell complexes and their effects on rolling and adhesion of A549 on the surface of vascular endothelium were assayed. Integrin α3, α5, β1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNAs and proteins were measured by reverse RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of P-selectin in lung adenocarcinoma tissue was significantly stronger compared to that in paracancerous and distant tissues. P-selectin activation in peripheral blood in lung adenocarcinoma was markedly enhanced. The rolling rate of A549 on HuvECs was significantly slowed down after co-culture of activated PLTs and A549 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of integrin α3, α5, β1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly increased after the co-culture. In conclusion, the PLT-lung cancer cell complexes protected the lung cancer cells from mechanical injury under blood flow. Furthermore, up-regulated integrin α3, α5, β1 and endothelial cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 promoted the adhesion of A549 on vascular endothelial cells, which may be responsible for hematogenous metastasis of lung cancer.
lung cancer; hematogenous metastasis; platelet activation; P-selectin; adhesion
We investigated the role of H-Ras in chemokine-induced integrin regulation in leukocytes. Stimulation of Jurkat T cells with the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) resulted in a rapid increase in the phosphorylation, i.e., activation of extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase (ERK) but not c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase or p38 kinase, and phosphorylation of Akt, reflecting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activation. Phosphorylation of ERK in Jurkat cells was enhanced and attenuated by expression of dominant active (D12) or inactive (N17) forms of H-Ras, respectively, while N17 H-Ras abrogated SDF-1α-induced Akt phosphorylation. SDF-1α triggered a transient regulation of adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mediated by lymphocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), respectively, and a rapid increase in LFA-1 binding to soluble ICAM-1.Ig, which was inhibited by D12 but not N17 H-Ras. Both D12 and N17 H-Ras abrogated the regulation of LFA-1 but not VLA-4 avidity, and impaired LFA-1–mediated transendothelial chemotaxis but not VLA-4–dependent transmigration induced by SDF-1α. Analysis of the mutant Jurkat J19 clone revealed LFA-1 with constitutively high affinity and reduced ERK phosphorylation, which were partially restored by expression of active H-Ras. Inhibition of PI3-K blocked the up-regulation of Jurkat cell adhesion to ICAM-1 by SDF-1α, whereas inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase impaired the subsequent down-regulation and blocking both pathways abrogated LFA-1 regulation. Our data suggest that inhibition of initial PI3-K activation by inactive H-Ras or sustained activation of an inhibitory ERK pathway by active H-Ras prevail to abolish LFA-1 regulation and transendothelial migration induced by SDF-1α in leukocytes, establishing a complex and bimodal involvement of H-Ras.
CD47 plays an important but incompletely understood role in innate and adaptive immune responses. CD47 associates in cis with T-cell LFA-1 integrins and regulates expression of high-affinity conformations of both LFA-1 and VLA-4.
CD47 plays an important but incompletely understood role in the innate and adaptive immune responses. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein, has been demonstrated to associate in cis with β1 and β3 integrins. Here we test the hypothesis that CD47 regulates adhesive functions of T-cell α4β1 (VLA-4) and αLβ2 (LFA-1) in in vivo and in vitro models of inflammation. Intravital microscopy studies reveal that CD47−/− Th1 cells exhibit reduced interactions with wild-type (WT) inflamed cremaster muscle microvessels. Similarly, murine CD47−/− Th1 cells, as compared with WT, showed defects in adhesion and transmigration across tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)–activated murine endothelium and in adhesion to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) under flow conditions. Human Jurkat T-cells lacking CD47 also showed reduced adhesion to TNF-α–activated endothelium and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In cis interactions between Jurkat T-cell β2 integrins and CD47 were detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Unexpectedly, Jurkat CD47 null cells exhibited a striking defect in β1 and β2 integrin activation in response to Mn2+ or Mg2+/ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid treatment. Our results demonstrate that CD47 associates with β2 integrins and is necessary to induce high-affinity conformations of LFA-1 and VLA-4 that recognize their endothelial cell ligands and support leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration.
Leukocyte activation is a complex process that involves multiple cross- regulated cell adhesion events. In this report, we investigated the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), the third identified ligand for the beta 2 integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), in the regulation of leukocyte adhesion to ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the 38- and 80-kD fragments of fibronectin (FN40 and FN80). The activating anti-ICAM-3 HP2/19, but not other anti-ICAM-3 mAb, was able to enhance T lymphoblast adhesion to these proteins when combined with very low doses of anti-CD3 mAb, which were unable by themselves to induce this phenomenon. In contrast, anti-ICAM-1 mAb did not enhance T cell attachment to these substrata. T cell adhesion to ICAM-1, VCAM-1, FN40, and FN80 was specifically blocked by anti-LFA-1, anti-VLA alpha 4, and anti-VLA alpha 5 mAb, respectively. The activating anti-ICAM-3 HP2/19 was also able to specifically enhance the VLA-4- and VLA-5-mediated binding of leukemic T Jurkat cells to VCAM-1, FN40, and FN80, even in the absence of cooccupancy of the CD3-TcR complex. We also studied the localization of ICAM-3, LFA-1, and the VLA beta 1 integrin, by immunofluorescence microscopy, on cells interacting with ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and FN80. We found that the anti-ICAM-3 HP2/19 mAb specifically promoted a dramatic change on the morphology of T lymphoblasts when these cells were allowed to interact with those adhesion ligands. Under these conditions, it was observed that a large cell contact area from which an uropod-like structure (heading uropod) was projected toward the outer milieu. However, when T blasts were stimulated with other adhesion promoting agents as the activating anti-VLA beta 1 TS2/16 mAb or phorbol esters, this structure was not detected. The anti-ICAM-3 TP1/24 mAb was also unable to induce this phenomenon. Notably, a striking cell redistribution of ICAM-3 was induced specifically by the HP2/19 mAb, but not by the other anti-ICAM-3 mAb or the other adhesion promoting agents. Thus, ICAM-3 was almost exclusively concentrated in the most distal portion of the heading uropod whereas either LFA-1 or the VLA beta 1 integrin were uniformly distributed all over the large contact area. Moreover, this phenomenon was also observed when T cells were specifically stimulated with the HP2/19 mAb to interact with TNF alpha-activated endothelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Endothelial-colony forming cells (ECFCs) can be readily expanded from human umbilical cord blood and can facilitate repair of endothelial injury. E-selectin and SDF-1α are produced following endothelial injury and can regulate endothelial progenitor homing. Mechanisms of vascular repair specific to the mode of injury have not been well described in homogenous cell populations such as ECFCs and are needed for development of more effective vascular repair strategies.
Methods and Results
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic injury to mature human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was compared with hypoxic and radiation injury. E-selectin expression in HUVEC cells is markedly increased (208-fold) following LPS-induced injury and facilitates increased ECFC adhesion and migration function in vitro. SDF-1α expression remains unchanged in LPS-treated HUVEC cells but increases more than 2 fold in fibroblasts undergoing similar endotoxic injury. SDF-1α induces expression of E-selectin ligands on ECFCs and facilitates greater E-selectin-mediated adhesion and migration of ECFCs in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Induction of E-selectin expression in HUVECs following hypoxic or radiation injury is negligible, however, while SDF-1α is increased markedly following hypoxia, highlighting injury-specific synergism between mediators of vascular repair.
E-selectin mediates adhesion and migration of ECFCs following endotoxic endothelial injury. SDF-1α augments E-selectin mediated ECFC adhesion and migration in a CXCR4-dependent manner.
Leukocyte emigration possibly requires dynamic regulation of integrin adhesiveness for endothelial and extracellular matrix ligands. Adhesion assays on purified vascular cell adhension molecule (VCAM)-1, fibronectin, and fibronectin fragments revealed distinct kinetic patterns for the regulation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 (alpha 4 beta 1) and VLA-5 (alpha 5 beta 1) avidity by the CC chemokines monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted), or monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in monocytes. CC chemokines induced early activation and subsequent deactivation of VLA-4, whereas upregulation of VLA-5 avidity occurred later and persisted. Controlled detachment assays in shear flow suggested that adhesive strength of VLA-4 for VCAM-1 or the 40-kD fragment of fibronectin (FN40) is more rapidly increased and subsequently reduced by MCP-1 than by MIP-1 alpha, and confirmed late and sustained activation of the adhesive strength of VLA-5 for the 120- kD fragment of fibronectin (FN120). Mn2+ or the stimulating beta 1 mAb TS2/16 strongly and stably enhanced monocyte binding to VCAM-1 or fibronectin, and locked beta 1 integrins in a high avidity state, which was not further modulated by CC chemokines. Mn2+ and mAb TS2/16 inhibited CC chemokine-induced transendothelial migration, particularly chemotaxis across stimulated endothelium that involved VLA-4 and VCAM- 1. VLA-4 on Jurkat cells is of constitutively high avidity and interfered with migration across barriers expressing VCAM-1. Low but not high site densities of VCAM-1 or FN40 promoted, while FN120 impaired, beta 1 integrin-dependent monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1 across filters coated with these substrates. Thus, we show that CC chemokines can differentially and selectively regulate avidity of integrins sharing common beta subunits. Transient activation and deactivation of VLA-4 may serve to facilitate transendothelial diapedesis, whereas late and prolonged activation of VLA-5 may mediate subsequent interactions with the basement membrane and extracellular matrix.
Memory T lymphocytes extravasate at sites of inflammation, but the mechanisms employed by these cells to initiate contact and tethering with endothelium are incompletely understood. An important part of leukocyte extravasation is the initiation of rolling adhesions on endothelial selectins; such events have been studied in monocytes and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. In this study, the potential of T lymphocytes to adhere and roll on endothelial selectins in vitro was investigated. We demonstrate that T cells can form tethers and rolling adhesions on P selectin and E selectin under physiologic flow conditions. Tethering and rolling on P selectin was independent of cell- surface cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) expression, which correlated strictly with the capacity of T cells to form rolling adhesions under flow on E selectin. T cell tethering to P selectin was abolished by selective removal of cell surface sialomucins by a P. haemolytica O- glycoprotease, while cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression was unaffected. A sialomucin molecule identical or closely related to P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), the major P selectin ligand on neutrophils and HL-60 cells, appears to be a major T cell ligand for P selectin. P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 does not appear to support T cell rolling on E selectin. In turn, E selectin ligands do not appear to be associated with sialomucins. These data demonstrate the presence of structurally distinct ligands for P or E selectins on T cells, provide evidence that both ligands can be coexpressed on a single T cell, and mediate tethering and rolling on the respective selectins in a mutually exclusive fashion.
The CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis is involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. Interaction between CRC cells and endothelium is a key event in tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SDF-1 on the adhesion of CRC cells.
Human CRC DLD-1 cells were used to study the effect of SDF-1 on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and cell adhesion to endothelium.
SDF-1 treatment induced adhesion of DLD-1 cells to the endothelium and increased the expression level of the ICAM-1. Inhibition of ICAM-1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited SDF-1-induced cell adhesion. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK, JNK and p38 pathways is critical for SDF-1-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that SDF-1 increased Sp1-, C/EBP-β- and NF-κB-DNA binding activities in DLD-1 cells. Inhibition of Sp1, C/EBP-β and NF-κB activations by specific siRNA blocked the SDF-1-induced ICAM-1 promoter activity and expression. The effect of SDF-1 on cell adhesion was mediated by the CXCR4.
Our findings support the hypothesis that ICAM-1 up-regulation stimulated by SDF-1 may play an active role in CRC cell adhesion.
Colorectal cancer; Stromal cell-derived factor-1; Intercellular adhesion molecule-1; Cell adhesion; Transcriptional regulation
Understanding the mechanisms by which stem cells home precisely to regions of injury or degeneration is of importance to both basic and applied regenerative medicine. Optimizing regenerative processes may depend on identifying the range of molecules that subserve stem cell trafficking. The “rolling” of extravasating cells on endothelium under conditions of physiological flow is the first essential step in the homing cascade and determines cell adhesion and transmigration. Using a laminar flow chamber to simulate physiological shear stress, we explored an aspect of this process by using human neural stem cells (hNSCs). We observed that the interactions between hNSCs and TNF-α-stimulated human endothelium (simulating an inflamed milieu) are mediated by a subclass of integrins -- α2, α6 and β1, but not α4 and αv or the chemokine-mediated pathway CXCR4-SDF-1α, suggesting not only that the mechanisms mediating hNSC homing via the vasculature differ from the mechanisms mediating homing through parenchyma, but also that each step invokes a distinct pathway mediating a specialized function in the hNSC homing cascade. (TNF-α stimulation also up-regulates VCAM-1 expression on the hNSCs themselves and increases NSC-endothelial interactions.) The selective use of integrin subgroups to mediate homing of cells of neuroectodermal origin may also be used to insure that cells within the systemic circulation are delivered to the pathological region of a given organ to the exclusion of other, perhaps undesired, organs.
The selectins and the beta 2-integrins (CD11/CD18) mediate distinct adhesive interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells. Selectins are believed to initiate binding by mediating neutrophil rolling, whereas beta 2-integrins are required for subsequent activation-induced firm sticking and emigration. In vitro evidence suggests that two endothelial cell selectins, P- and E-selectin, can mediate rolling by binding to the carbohydrate ligand sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) on neutrophil surface glycoconjugates. To test the relative contribution of selectins and beta 2-integrins in vivo we used intravital microscopy to study the behavior of neutrophils from two patients with distinct inherited leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes. Neutrophils from a patient suffering from CD18 deficiency showed normal rolling behavior but were incapable of sticking or emigrating upon chemotactic stimulation. Neutrophils from a second patient with a newly described adhesion deficiency had normal CD18 but did not express sLex. These neutrophils rolled poorly and also failed to stick in venules under shear force. Under static conditions, however, chemoattractant-induced sticking and emigration could be observed. This demonstrates that both selectin-carbohydrate-mediated initiation of adhesion and subsequent activation-induced beta 2-integrin engagement are essential for the normal function of human neutrophils in vivo.
Endothelial and platelet P-selectin (CD62P) and leukocyte integrin αMβ2 (CD11bCD18, Mac-1) are cell adhesion molecules essential for host defense and innate immunity. Upon inflammatory challenges, P-selectin binds to PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, CD162) to mediate neutrophil rolling, during which integrins become activated by extracellular stimuli for their firm adhesion in a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent mechanism. Here we show that cross-linking of PSGL-1 by dimeric or multimeric forms of platelet P-selectin, P-selectin receptor-globulin, anti-PSGL-1 mAb and its F(ab′)2 induced adhesion of human neutrophils to fibrinogen (Fg) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) and triggered a moderate clustering of αMβ2, but monomeric forms of soluble P-selectin and anti-PSGL-1 Fab did not. Interestingly, P-selectin did not induce a detectable interleukine-8 (IL-8) secretion (<0.1 ng/ml) in 30 minutes, whereas a high concentration of IL-8 (>50 ng/ml) was required to increase neutrophil adhesion to Fg. P-selectin-induced neutrophil adhesion was significantly inhibited by PP2 (a Src kinase inhibitor), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX; a GPCR inhibitor). Activated platelets also increased neutrophil binding to fibrinogen and triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Our results indicate that P-selectin-induced integrin activation (Src kinase-dependent) is distinct from that elicited by cytokines, chemokines, chemoattractants (GPCR-dependent), suggesting that these two signal transduction pathways may cooperate for maximal activation of leukocyte integrins.
P-selectin (CD62P); P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1); integrins; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); human neutrophils; cell adhesion