Type II hyperprolinemia is an inherited abnormality in amino acid metabolism characterized by elevated plasma proline concentrations, iminoglycinuria, and the urinary excretion of delta1-pyrroline compounds. To define the enzymologic defect of this biochemical disorder, we developed a specific, sensitive radioisotopic assay for the proline degradative enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase. Using this assay, we have shown an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the cultured fibroblasts from three patients with type II hyperprolinemia. We confirmed this result on cultured cells by demonstrating a similar absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in extracts prepared from the peripheral leukocytes of these patients. Additionally, we found significantly decreased levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the leukocyte extracts from five obligate heterozygotes for type II hyperprolinemia. We also demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in three successive generations of a family. These results prove that an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase is the enzymologic defect in type II hyperprolinemia and that this defect is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.
Enzymes of proline biosynthesis and proline degradation which act on the same compound, delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, are physically separated in yeast cells. The enzyme responsible for the final step in proline biosynthesis, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline and is located in the cytoplasm. The last enzyme in the proline degradative pathway, pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate and is found in the particulate fraction of the cell, presumably in the mitochondrion. By subcellular compartmentation, yeast cells avoid futile cycling between proline and pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insights into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analog L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75 Å, 1.90 Å and 1.85 Å. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline three-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of twenty (Y540S) and fifty (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.
A mutation resulting in inducer-independent expression of the proline-degradative enzymes was isolated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains carrying the mutation, put3, are partially constitutive for proline oxidase and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase when grown on a medium lacking proline and are hyperinducible for both enzyme activities when grown on a proline-containing medium. put3 segregates as a single nuclear gene, is not linked to either of the presumed structural genes for proline oxidase and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and does not affect proline transport. When heterozygous in diploid strains, put3 behaves neither fully dominant nor fully recessive. Endogenous induction by proline has been eliminated as a cause of the inducer-independent enzyme expression in the put3 mutant and the mutation is believed to be in a regulatory component of the proline-degradative pathway.
The PRO3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the 286-amino-acid protein delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase [L-proline:NAD(P+) 5-oxidoreductase; EC 220.127.116.11], which catalyzes the final step in proline biosynthesis. The protein has substantial similarity to the pyrroline carboxylate reductases of diverse bacterial species, soybean, and humans. Using RNA hybridization and measurements of enzyme activity, we have determined that the expression of the PRO3 gene appears to be constitutive. It is not repressed by the pathway end product (proline), induced by the initial substrate (glutamate), or regulated by the general control system. Its expression is not detectably altered when cells are grown in a wide range of nitrogen sources or when glycerol and ethanol replace glucose as the carbon source. The possibility that this enzyme has other functions in addition to proline biosynthesis is discussed.
Proline is converted to glutamate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the sequential action of two enzymes, proline oxidase and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase. The levels of these enzymes appear to be controlled by the amount of proline in the cell. The capacity to transport proline is greatest when the cell is grown on poor nitrogen sources, such as proline or urea. Mutants have been isolated which can no longer utilize proline as the sole source of nitrogen. Mutants in put1 are deficient in proline oxidase, and those in put2 lack P5C dehydrogenase. The put1 and put2 mutations are recessive, segregate 2:2 in tetrads, and appear to be unlinked to one another. Proline induces both proline oxidase and P5C dehydrogenase. The arginine-degradative pathway intersects the proline-degradative pathway at P5C. The P5C formed from the breakdown of arginine or ornithine can induce both proline-degradative enzymes by virtue of its conversion to proline.
Results of studies on proline-nonutilizing (Put-) mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that proline is an essential intermediate in the degradation of arginine. Put- mutants excreted proline when grown on arginine or ornithine as the sole nitrogen source. Yeast cells contained a single enzyme, delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase, which is essential for the complete degradation of both proline and arginine. The sole inducer of this enzyme was found to be proline. P5C dehydrogenase converted P5C to glutamate, but only when the P5C was derived directly from proline. When the P5C was derived from ornithine, it was first converted to proline by the enzyme P5C reductase. Proline was then converted back to P5C and finally to glutamate by the Put enzymes proline oxidase and P5C dehydrogenase.
The enzymes in the arginine breakdown pathway (arginase, ornithine-δ-transaminase, and Δ′-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase) were found to be present in Bacillus licheniformis cells during exponential growth on glutamate. These enzymes could be coincidentally induced by arginine or ornithine to a very high level and their synthesis could be repressed by the addition of glucose, clearly demonstrating catabolite repression control of the arginine degradative pathway. The strongest catabolite repression control of arginase occurred when cells were grown on glucose and this control decreased when cells were grown on glycerol, acetate, pyruvate, or glutamate. The proline catabolite pathway was present in B. licheniformis during exponential growth on glutamate. The proline oxidation and the Δ′-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in this breakdown pathway were induced by l-proline to a high level. The Δ′-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase was found to be under catabolite repression control. Arginase could be induced by proline and arginine addition induced proline oxidation, suggesting a common in vivo inducer for these convergent pathways.
Pseudomonas putida metabolizes D-lysine to delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate and L-pipecolate. The second step of this catabolic pathway is catalyzed by delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase. This enzyme was isolated and purified from cells grown on DL-lysine as substrate. The enzyme was very unstable, resulting in low recovery of activity and low purity after a six-step purification procedure. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.0 to 8.3. The Km values for delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate and NADPH were 0.23 and 0.13 mM, respectively. NADPH at concentrations above 0.15 mM was inhibitory to the enzyme. Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, pyroglutamate, and NADH were poor substrates or coenzyme for delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase. The enzyme reaction from delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate to L-pipecolate was irreversible. EDTA, sodium pyrophosphate, and dithiothreitol at concentrations of 1 mM protected the enzyme during storage. The enzyme was inhibited almost totally by Zn2+, Mn2+, Hg2+ Co2+, and p-chloromercuribenzoate at concentrations of 0.1 mM. The enzyme had a molecular weight of about 200,000. Both D-lysine and L-lysine were good inducers for the enzyme. Neither delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate nor L-pipecolate was an effective inducer for the enzyme. P. putida cells grew on D-lysine only after a 5- to 8-h lag, which could be abolished by adding a supplement of 0.01% alpha-ketoglutarate or other readily metabolizable compounds. Such a supplement also converted the noncoordinate induction of this enzyme and pipecolate oxidase, both of the D-lysine pathway, to coordinacy. However, this effect was not observed if the enzyme pair was from different pathways of lysine metabolism in this organism (i.e., the D- and L-lysine pathways).
The proline catabolic enzymes proline dehydrogenase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase catalyze the 4-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate. These enzymes play important roles in cellular redox control, superoxide generation, apoptosis and cancer. In some bacteria, the two enzymes are fused into the bifunctional enzyme, proline utilization A. Here we review the three-dimensional structural information that is currently available for proline catabolic enzymes. Crystal structures have been determined for bacterial monofunctional proline dehydrogenase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, as well as the proline dehydrogenase and DNA-binding domains of proline utilization A. Some of the functional insights provided by analyses of these structures are discussed, including substrate recognition, catalytic mechanism, biochemical basis of inherited proline catabolic disorders and DNA recognition by proline utilization A.
Proline-Catabolism; Proline metabolism; Protein structure; X-ray crystallography; Proline dehydrogenase; P5C dehydrogenase; Proline utilization A; Ribbon-helix-helix
The pathway for proline degradation in Salmonella typhimurium appears to be identical to that found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) is an intermediate in the pathway; its formation consumes molecular oxygen. Assays were devised for proline oxidase and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific P5C dehydrogenase activities. Both proline-degrading enzymes, proline oxidase and P5C dehydrogenase, are induced by proline and are subject to catabolite repression. Three types of mutants were isolated in which both enzymes are affected: constitutive mutants, mutants with reduced levels of enzyme activity, and mutants unable to produce either enzyme. Most of the mutants isolated for their lack of P5C dehydrogenase activity have a reduced level of proline oxidase activity. All the mutations are cotransducible. A genetic map of some of the mutations is presented. The actual effector of the pathway appears to be proline.
Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH, aka ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here we report the first structure of human P5CDH and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of human P5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 Å) and S352L (2.85 Å) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93%-identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 Å resolution), glutamate (1.5 Å), and NAD+ (1.5 Å) were determined to obtain high resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD+ binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-Å rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD+, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.
X-ray crystallography; aldehyde dehydrogenase; ALDH4A1; proline catabolism; isothermal titration calorimetry; metabolic disorders
A proline analogue, 4,5-dehydro-l-pipecolic acid (baikiain) induces the formation in Salmonella typhimurium of the two enzymes catalyzing the degradation of proline, proline oxidase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) dehydrogenase. The level of induction by 20 mm baikiain is about 10% of the maximum level induced by proline. Since the analogue is a substrate of proline oxidase the first enzyme of the proline catabolic pathway, the oxidation derivative rather than baikiain itself might be the actual effector. Baikiain is also an inducer of proline oxidase in Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli W. An additional effect of this analogue on proline degradation in S. typhimurium is inhibition of P5C dehydrogenase. At a concentration of 5 × 10−4m, baikiain inhibits completely the growth of strains constitutive for proline oxidase. This inhibition, which can be overcome by proline, occurs in the presence or absence of P5C dehydrogenase activity. Three spontaneously occurring mutants resistant to baikiain were isolated from constitutive strains. All are pleiotropic-negative for the proline-degrading enzymes. The sites of these mutations are linked to the put region. Although the mechanism of toxicity has not been determined, baikiain provides a simple and direct selection for obtaining mutants unable to degrade proline. In addition, it allows selection for strains with an inducible rather than constitutive phenotype.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, which converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, has been identified in human erythrocytes. The level of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity in these cells is comparable to the activity levels of major erythrocyte enzymes. The physiologic function of the enzyme in erythrocytes cannot be related to its function in other tissues, i.e., producing proline for protein synthesis. We examined the kinetic properties of erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and compared them to the properties of the enzyme from proliferating cultured human fibroblasts. We found that the kinetic properties and regulation of the erythrocyte enzyme are distinctly different from those for human fibroblast pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. These characteristics are consistent with the interpretation that the function of the enzyme in human erythrocytes may be to generate oxidizing potential in the form of NADP+.
Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other 4 enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Apoptosis; FASTSNP; Functional genomics; OAT; OH-POX; OMIM; P53; Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C); P5CDH; P5CR/PYCR; P5CS/PYCS; POX/PRODH; L-Proline; Promoter analysis; SNP
A cluster of genes essential for degradation of proline to glutamate (put) is located between the pyrC and pyrD loci at min 22 of the Salmonella chromosome. A series of 25 deletion mutants of this region have been isolated and used to construct a fine-structure map of the put genes. The map includes mutations affecting the proline degradative activities, proline oxidase and pyrroline-5-carboxylic dehydrogenase. Also included are mutations affecting the major proline permease and a regulatory mutation that affects both enzyme and permease production. The two enzymatic activities appear to be encoded by a single gene (putA). The regulatory mutation maps between the putA gene and the proline permease gene (putP).
Proline-requiring mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated. Each mutation is recessive and is inherited as expected for a single nuclear gene. Three complementation groups cold be defined which are believed to correspond to mutations in the three genes (pro1, pro2, and pro3) coding for the three enzymes of the pathway. Mutants defective in the pro1 and pro2 genes can be satisfied by arginine or ornithine as well as proline. This suggests that the blocks are in steps leading to glutamate semialdehyde, either in glutamyl kinase or glutamyl phosphate reductase. A pro3 mutant has been shown by enzyme assay to be deficient in delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase which converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. A unique feature of yeast proline auxotrophs is their failure to grown on the rich medium, yeast extract-peptone-glucose. This failure is not understood at present, although it accounts for the absence of proline auxotrophs in previous screening for amino acid auxotrophy.
The multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli performs the oxidation of proline to glutamate in two catalytic steps using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains. In the first reaction, the oxidation of proline is coupled to the reduction of ubiquinone (CoQ) by the PRODH domain, which has a β8α8-barrel structure that is conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic PRODH enzymes. The structural requirements of the benzoquinone moiety were examined by steady-state kinetics using CoQ analogs. PutA displayed activity with all the analogs tested; the highest kcat/Km was obtained with CoQ2. The kinetic mechanism of the PRODH reaction was investigated use a variety of steady-state approaches. Initial velocity patterns measured using proline and CoQ1, combined with dead-end and product inhibition studies, suggested a two-site ping-pong mechanism for PutA. The kinetic parameters for PutA were not strongly influenced by solvent viscosity suggesting that diffusive steps do not significantly limit the overall reaction rate. In summary, the kinetic data reported here, along with analysis of the crystal structure data for the PRODH domain, suggest that the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase reaction of PutA occurs via a rapid equilibrium ping-pong mechanism with proline and ubiquinone binding at two distinct sites.
PutA, proline metabolism; proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; proline dehydrogenase
Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20–30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100–200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA.
Proline Utilization A; PutA; Substrate Channeling; Proline Catabolism; Proline Metabolism; Proline Dehydrogenase; Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase; Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate; Glutamate Semialdehyde; Domain Repeat; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; Flavoenzyme; Remote Homology Detection; Review
Proline is converted to glutamate in two successive steps by the proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme in gram-negative bacteria. PutA contains a proline dehydrogenase domain that catalyzes the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and a P5C dehydrogenase domain that catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of P5C to glutamate. Here, we characterize PutA from Helicobacter hepaticus (PutAHh) and Helicobacter pylori (PutAHp) to provide new insights into proline metabolism in these gastrointestinal pathogens. Both PutAHh and PutAHp lack DNA binding activity, in contrast to PutA from Escherichia coli (PutAEc), which both regulates and catalyzes proline utilization. PutAHh and PutAHp display catalytic activities similar to that of PutAEc but have higher oxygen reactivity. PutAHh and PutAHp exhibit 100-fold-higher turnover numbers (∼30 min−1) than PutAEc (<0. 3 min−1) using oxygen as an electron acceptor during catalytic turnover with proline. Consistent with increased oxygen reactivity, PutAHh forms a reversible FAD-sulfite adduct. The significance of increased oxygen reactivity in PutAHh and PutAHp was probed by oxidative stress studies in E. coli. Expression of PutAEc and PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which exhibit low oxygen reactivity, does not diminish stress survival rates of E. coli cell cultures. In contrast, PutAHp and PutAHh expression dramatically reduces E. coli cell survival and is correlated with relatively lower proline levels and increased hydrogen peroxide formation. The discovery of reduced oxygen species formation by PutA suggests that proline catabolism may influence redox homeostasis in the ecological niches of these Helicobacter species.
The enzymes of the proline utilization pathway (the products of the PUT1 and PUT2 genes) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are coordinately regulated by proline and the PUT3 transcriptional activator. To learn more about the control of this pathway, constitutive mutations in PUT3 as well as in other regulators were sought. A scheme using a gene fusion between PUT1 (S. cerevisiae proline oxidase) and galK (Escherichia coli galactokinase) was developed to select directly for constitutive mutations affecting the PUT1 promoter. These mutations were secondarily screened for their effects in trans on the promoter of the PUT2 (delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase) gene by using a PUT2-lacZ (E. coli beta-galactosidase) gene fusion. Three different classes of mutations were isolated. The major class consisted of semidominant constitutive PUT3 mutations that caused PUT2-lacZ expression to vary from 2 to 22 times the uninduced level. A single dominant mutation in a new locus called PUT5 resulted in low-level constitutive expression of PUT2-lacZ; this mutation was epistatic to the recessive, noninducible put3-75 allele. Recessive constitutive mutations were isolated that had pleiotropic growth defects; it is possible that these mutations are not specific to the proline utilization pathway but may be in genes that control several pathways. Since the PUT3 gene appears to have a major role in the regulation of this pathway, a molecular analysis was undertaken. This gene was cloned by functional complementation of the put3-75 mutation. Strains carrying a complete deletion of this gene are viable, proline nonutilizing, and indistinguishable in phenotype from the original put3-75 allele. The PUT3 gene encodes a 2.8-kilobase-pair transcript that is not regulated by proline at the level of RNA accumulation. The presence of the gene on a high-copy-number plasmid did not alter the regulation of one of its target genes, PUT2-lacZ, suggesting that the PUT3 gene product is not limiting and that a titratable repressor is not involved in the regulation of this pathway.
The multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate in two reaction steps using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains. Here, the kinetic mechanism of PRODH in PutA is studied by stopped-flow kinetics to determine microscopic rate constants for the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase mechanism. Stopped-flow data for proline reduction of the flavin cofactor (reductive half-reaction) and oxidation of reduced flavin by CoQ1 (oxidative half-reaction) were best-fit by a double exponential from which maximum observable rate constants and apparent equilibrium dissociation constants were determined. Flavin semiquinone was not observed in the reductive or oxidative reactions. Microscopic rate constants for steps in the reductive and oxidative half-reactions were obtained by globally fitting the stopped-flow data to a simulated mechanism that includes a chemical step followed by an isomerization event. A microscopic rate constant of 27.5 s−1 was determined for proline reduction of the flavin cofactor followed by an isomerization step of 2.2 s−1. The isomerization step is proposed to report on a previously identified flavin-dependent conformational change (Zhang, W. et al. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 483–491) that is important for PutA functional switching but is not kinetically relevant to the in vitro mechanism. Using CoQ1, a soluble analog of ubiquinone, a rate constant of 5.4 s−1 was obtained for the oxidation of flavin, thus indicating that this oxidative step is rate-limiting for kcat during catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic constants calculated from the microscopic rate constants agree with the experimental kcat and kcat/Km parameters.
Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) catalyze the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate. They are distinct monofunctional enzymes in all eukaryotes and some bacteria, but are fused into bifunctional enzymes known as Proline utilization A (PutA) in other bacteria. Here we report the first structure and biochemical data for a monofunctional PRODH. The 2.0 Å resolution structure of Thermus thermophilus PRODH reveals a distorted (βα)8 barrel catalytic core domain and a hydrophobic α-helical domain located above the carboxyl terminal ends of the strands of the barrel. Although the catalytic core is similar to that of the PutA PRODH domain, the FAD conformation of T. thermophilus PRODH is remarkably different and likely reflects unique requirements for membrane association and communication with P5CDH. Also, the FAD of T. thermophilus PRODH is highly solvent exposed compared to PutA due to a 4-Å shift of helix 8. Structure-based sequence analysis of the PutA/PRODH family led us to identify 9 conserved motifs involved in cofactor and substrate recognition. Biochemical studies show that the midpoint potential of the FAD is −75 mV and the kinetic parameters for proline are Km=27 mM and kcat=13 s−1. 3,4-dehydro-L-proline was found to be an efficient substrate and L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid is a competitive inhibitor (KI=1.0 mM). Finally, we demonstrate that T. thermophilus PRODH reacts with O2 producing superoxide. This is significant because superoxide production underlies the role of human PRODH in p53-mediated apoptosis, implying commonalities between eukaryotic and bacterial monofunctional PRODHs.
Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the first step of proline catabolism, the flavin-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Here we present a structure-based study of the PRODH active site of the multifunctional E. coli Proline Utilization A (PutA) protein using X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetic measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis. Structures of the PutA PRODH domain complexed with competitive inhibitors acetate (Ki = 30 mM), L-lactate (Ki = 1 mM), and L- tetrahydro-2-furoic acid (L-THFA, Ki = 0.2 mM) have been determined to high-resolution limits of 2.1-2.0 Å. The discovery of acetate as a competitive inhibitor suggests the carboxyl is the minimum functional group recognized by the active site, and the structures show how the enzyme exploits hydrogen bonding and non-polar interactions to optimize affinity for the substrate. The PRODH/L-THFA complex is the first structure of PRODH with a 5-membered ring proline analogue bound in the active site, and thus provides new insights into substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism. The ring of L-THFA is nearly parallel to the middle ring of the FAD isoalloxazine, with the inhibitor C5 atom 3.3 Å from the FAD N5. This geometry suggests direct hydride transfer as a plausible mechanism. Mutation of conserved active site residue Leu432 to Pro caused a 5-fold decrease in kcat and a severe loss in thermostability. These changes are consistent with the location of Leu432 in the hydrophobic core near residues that directly contact FAD. Our results suggest that the molecular basis for increased plasma proline levels in schizophrenic subjects carrying the missense mutation L441P is due to decreased stability of human PRODH2.
l-Proline can be used by Bacillus subtilis as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen. We traced l-proline utilization genetically to the putBCP (ycgMNO) locus. The putBCP gene cluster encodes a high-affinity proline transporter (PutP) and two enzymes, the proline dehydrogenase PutB and the Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase PutC, which jointly catabolize l-proline to l-glutamate. Northern blotting, primer extension, and putB-treA reporter gene fusion analysis showed that the putBCP locus is transcribed as an l-proline-inducible operon. Its expression was mediated by a SigA-type promoter and was dependent on the proline-responsive PutR activator protein. Induction of putBCP expression was triggered by the presence of submillimolar concentrations of l-proline in the growth medium. However, the very large quantities of l-proline (up to several hundred millimolar) synthesized by B. subtilis as a stress protectant against high osmolarity did not induce putBCP transcription. Induction of putBCP transcription by external l-proline was not dependent on l-proline uptake via the substrate-inducible PutP or the osmotically inducible OpuE transporter. It was also not dependent on the chemoreceptor protein McpC required for chemotaxis toward l-proline. Our findings imply that B. subtilis can distinguish externally supplied l-proline from internal l-proline pools generated through de novo synthesis. The molecular basis of this regulatory phenomenon is not understood. However, it provides the B. subtilis cell with a means to avoid a futile cycle of de novo
l-proline synthesis and consumption by not triggering the expression of the putBCP
l-proline catabolic genes in response to the osmoadaptive production of the compatible solute l-proline.