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1.  Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the DNA methyltransferase, M.CviBIII, from Chlorella virus NC-1A. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1987;15(23):9807-9823.
The gene encoding the DNA methyltransferase, M.CviBIII, from Chlorella virus NC-1A was cloned and expressed in E. coli plasmid pUC8. Plasmid (pNC-1A.14.8) encoded M.CviBIII methylates adenine in TCGA sequences both in vivo in E. coli and in vitro. Transposon Tn5 mutagenesis localized the M.CviBIII functional domain to a 1.5 kbp region of pNC-1A.14.8 and also indicated that a virus promoter directs transcription of the gene in E. coli. The 2.1 kbp insert containing the M.CviBIII gene was sequenced and a single open reading frame of 1131 bp was identified within the domain determined by Tn5 mutagenesis. When the M.CviBIII gene was fused in-frame with the 19 amino-terminal codons of lacZ a 45 kD polypeptide was identified in maxicells as predicted by the DNA sequence. The M.CviBIII gene was not essential for virus replication since a virus M.CviBIII deletion mutant also replicated in Chlorella.
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PMCID: PMC306533  PMID: 3320956
2.  Cloning of CviPII nicking and modification system from chlorella virus NYs-1 and application of Nt.CviPII in random DNA amplification 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(21):6187-6199.
The cloning and expression of the CviPII DNA nicking and modification system encoded by chlorella virus NYs-1 is described. The system consists of a co-linear MTase encoding gene (cviPIIM) and a nicking endonuclease encoding gene (cviPIINt) separated by 12 nt. M.CviPII possesses eight conserved amino acid motifs (I to VIII) typical of C5 MTases, but, like another chlorella virus MTase M.CviJI, lacks conserved motifs IX and X. In addition to modification of the first cytosine in CCD (D = A, G or T) sequences, M.CviPII modifies both the first two cytosines in CCAA and CCCG sites as well. Nt.CviPII has significant amino acid sequence similarity to Type II restriction endonuclease CviJI that recognizes an overlapping sequence (RG^CY). Nt.CviPII was expressed in Escherichia coli with or without a His-tag in a host pre-modified by M.CviPII. Recombinant Nt.CviPII recognizes the DNA sequence CCD and cleaves the phosphodiester bond 5′ of the first cytosine while the other strand of DNA at this site is not affected. Nt.CviPII displays site preferences with CCR (R = A or G) sites preferred over CCT sites. Nt.CviPII is active from 16 to 65°C with a temperature optimum of 30–45°C. Nt.CviPII can be used to generate single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) for isothermal strand-displacement amplification. Nt.CviPII was used in combination with Bst DNA polymerase I large fragment to rapidly amplify anonymous DNA from genomic DNA or from a single bacterial colony.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh958
PMCID: PMC535667  PMID: 15570069
3.  A single amino acid change restores DNA cytosine methyltransferase activity in a cloned chlorella virus pseudogene. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1992;20(7):1637-1642.
The chlorella virus PBCV-1 contains an open reading frame, named P17-ORF4, which differs by eight amino acids from a DNA cytosine methyltransferase, M.CviJI, encoded by a different chlorella virus IL-3A. Whereas IL-3A expresses M.CviJI, which methylates the central cytosine in (A/G)GC(T/C/G) sequences, P17-ORF4 is non-functional. Gene fusions between P17-ORF4 and M.CviJI and site-directed point mutations revealed that changing Gln188 to Lys188 abolishes M.CviJI methyltransferase activity. Conversely, changing Lys188 in P17-ORF4 to Gln188 results in M.CviJI activity. The other altered seven amino acids do not appear to affect M.CviJI activity.
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PMCID: PMC312249  PMID: 1579454
4.  Characterization of Chlorella virus PBCV-1 CviAII restriction and modification system. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1992;20(20):5351-5356.
A second DNA site-specific (restriction) endonuclease (R.CviAII) and its cognate adenine DNA methyltransferase (M.CviAII) were isolated from virus PBCV-1 infected Chlorella strain NC64A cells. R.CviAII, a heteroschizomer of the bacterial restriction endonuclease NlaIII, recognizes the sequence CATG, and does not cleave CmATG sequences. However, unlike NlaIII, which cleaves after the G and does not cleave either CmATG or mCATG sequences, CviAII cleaves between the C and A and is unaffected by mCATG methylation. The M.CviAII and R.CviAII genes were cloned and their DNA sequences were determined. These genes are tandemly arranged head-to-tail such that the TAA termination codon of the M.CviAII methyltransferase gene overlaps the ATG translational start site of R.CviAII endonuclease. R.CviAII is the first chlorella virus site-specific endonuclease gene to be cloned and sequenced.
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PMCID: PMC334341  PMID: 1437552
5.  Cloning, characterization and expression of the gene coding for a cytosine-5-DNA methyltransferase recognizing GpC. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1998;26(17):3961-3966.
A novel gene encoding a cytosine-5-DNA methyltransferase recognizing the dinucleotide GpC was cloned from Chlorella virus NYs-1 and expressed in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The gene was sequenced and a predicted polypeptide of 362 amino acids with a molecular weight of 41.903 kDa was identified. The protein contains several amino acid motifs with high similarity to those of other known 5-methylcytosine-forming methyltransferases. In addition, this enzyme, named M. Cvi PI, shares 66% identity and 76% similarity with M. Cvi JI, the only other cytosine-5-DNA methyltransferase cloned from a Chlorella virus. The short, frequently occurring recognition sequence of the new methyltransferase will be very useful for in vivo chromatin structure studies in both yeast and higher organisms.
PMCID: PMC147793  PMID: 9705505
6.  Molecular cloning of the three base restriction endonuclease R.CviJI from eukaryotic Chlorella virus IL-3A. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(13):2463-2469.
R.CviJI is unique among site-specific restriction endonucleases in that its activity can be modulated to recognize either a two or three base sequence. Normally R.CviJI cleaves RGCY sites between the G and C to leave blunt ends. In the presence of ATP R.CviJI* cleaves RGCN and YGCY sites, but not YGCR sites. The gene encoding R.CviJI was cloned from the eukaryotic Chlorella virus IL-3A and expressed in Escherichia coli. The primary E.coli cviJIR gene product is a 278 amino acid protein initiated from a GTG codon, rather than the expected 358 amino acid protein initiated from an in-frame upstream ATG codon. Interestingly, the 278 amino acid protein displays the normal restriction activity but not the R.CviJI* activity of the native enzyme. Nine restriction and modification proteins which recognize a central GC or CG sequence share short regions of identity with R.CviJI amino acids 144-235, suggesting that this region is the recognition and/or catalytic domain.
PMCID: PMC145972  PMID: 8692682
7.  New restriction endonuclease CviRI cleaves DNA at TG/CA sequences. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1994;22(19):3928-3929.
A new type II restriction endonuclease, CviRI, was isolated from virus XZ-6E infected chlorella cells. CviRI is the first restriction endonuclease to recognize the sequence 5'-TGCA-3' and cleaves DNA between the G and C residues to produce blunt-end termini. Methylation of the adenine or cytosine in 5'-TGCA-3' sequences prevents CviRI cleavage. Due to its sequence specificity, CviRI may be especially useful for detecting mutant alleles of many heritable human genetic diseases.
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PMCID: PMC308391  PMID: 7937114
8.  Quorum Sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum: DNA Recognition and Gene Regulation by the CviR Receptor ▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(15):3871-3878.
The bacterial pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum uses a LuxIR-type quorum-sensing system to detect and respond to changes in cell population density. CviI synthesizes the autoinducer C10-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), and CviR is a cytoplasmic DNA binding transcription factor that activates gene expression following binding to C10-HSL. A number of behaviors are controlled by quorum sensing in C. violaceum. However, few genes have been shown to be directly controlled by CviR, in part because the DNA motif bound by CviR is not well characterized. Here, we define the DNA sequence required for promoter recognition by CviR. Using in vivo data generated from a library of point mutations in a CviR-regulated promoter, we find that CviR binds to a palindrome with the ideal sequence CTGNCCNNNNGGNCAG. We constructed a position weight matrix using these in vivo data and scanned the C. violaceum genome to predict CviR binding sites. We measured direct activation of the identified promoters by CviR and found that CviR controls the expression of the promoter for a chitinase, a type VI secretion-related gene, a transcriptional regulator gene, a guanine deaminase gene, and cviI. Indeed, regulation of cviI expression by CviR generates a canonical quorum-sensing positive-feedback loop.
doi:10.1128/JB.05125-11
PMCID: PMC3147534  PMID: 21622734
9.  Characterization and expression of the Escherichia coli Mrr restriction system. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(16):5207-5219.
The mrr gene of Escherichia coli K-12 is involved in the acceptance of foreign DNA which is modified. The introduction of plasmids carrying the HincII, HpaI, and TaqI R and M genes is severely restricted in E. coli strains that are Mrr+. A 2-kb EcoRI fragment from the plasmid pBg3 (B. Sain and N. E. Murray, Mol. Gen. Genet. 180:35-46, 1980) was cloned. The resulting plasmid restores Mrr function to mrr strains of E. coli. The boundaries of the mrr gene were determined from an analysis of subclones, and plasmids with a functional mrr gene produce a polypeptide of 33.5 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the entire fragment was determined; in addition to mrr, it includes two open reading frames, one of which encodes part of the hsdR. By using Southern blot analysis, E. coli RR1 and HB101 were found to lack the region containing mrr. The acceptance of various cloned methylases in E. coli containing the cloned mrr gene was tested. Plasmid constructs containing the AccI, CviRI, HincII, Hinfl (HhaII), HpaI, NlaIII, PstI, and TaqI N6-adenine methylases and SssI and HhaI C5-cytosine methylases were found to be restricted. Plasmid constructs containing 16 other adenine methylases and 12 cytosine methylases were not restricted. No simple consensus sequence causing restriction has been determined. The Mrr protein has been overproduced, an antibody has been prepared, and the expression of mrr under various conditions has been examined. The use of mrr strains of E. coli is suggested for the cloning of N6-adenine and C5-cytosine methyl-containing DNA.
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PMCID: PMC208215  PMID: 1650347
10.  IL-3A virus infection of a Chlorella-like green alga induces a DNA restriction endonuclease with novel sequence specificity. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1987;15(15):6075-6090.
A type II restriction endonuclease, named CviJI, was isolated from a eukaryotic Chlorella-like green alga infected with the dsDNA containing virus IL-3A. CviJI is the first restriction endonuclease to recognize the sequence PuGCPy; CviJI cleaves DNA between the G and C. Methylation of the cytosine in PuGCPy sequences prevents cleavage by CviJI. CviJI cleaved DNA into smaller but defined fragments in the presence of ATP. This "star" activity was stimulated by dithiothreitol and/or S-adenosylmethionine but did not occur under conditions which favor "star" activity of other restriction endonucleases.
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PMCID: PMC306069  PMID: 2819820
11.  Replication-Competent Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes of Marek's Disease Virus: Novel Tools for Generation of Molecularly Defined Herpesvirus Vaccines 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(16):8712-8718.
Marek's disease (MD), a highly infectious disease caused by an oncogenic herpesvirus, is one of the few herpesvirus diseases against which live attenuated vaccines are used as the main strategy for control. We have constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of the CVI988 (Rispens) strain of the virus, the most widely used and effective vaccine against MD. Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable after in vitro and in vivo passages and showed characteristics and growth kinetics similar to those of the parental virus. Molecular analysis of the individual BAC clones showed differences in the structure of the meq gene, indicating that the commercial vaccine contains virus populations with distinct genomic structures. We also demonstrate that, contrary to the published data, the sequence of the L-meq of the BAC clone did not show any frameshift. Virus stocks derived from one of the BAC clones (clone 10) induced 100 percent protection against infection by the virulent strain RB1B, indicating that BAC-derived viruses could be used with efficacies similar to those of the parental CVI988 vaccines. As a DNA vaccine, this BAC clone was also able to induce protection in 6 of 20 birds. Isolation of CVI988 virus from all of these six birds suggested that immunity against challenge was probably dependent on the reconstitution of the virus in vivo and that such viruses are also as immunogenic as the in vitro-grown BAC-derived or parental vaccine viruses. Although the reasons for the induction of protection only in a proportion of birds (33.3%) that received the DNA vaccine are not clear, this is most likely to be related to the suboptimal method of DNA delivery. The construction of the CVI988 BAC is a major step towards understanding the superior immunogenic features of CVI988 and provides the opportunity to exploit the power of BAC technology for generation of novel molecularly defined vaccines.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.16.8712-8718.2003
PMCID: PMC167215  PMID: 12885890
12.  Cloning and sequence analysis of the genes coding for Eco57I type IV restriction-modification enzymes. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1992;20(22):6051-6056.
A 6.3 kb fragment of E.coli RFL57 DNA coding for the type IV restriction-modification system Eco57I was cloned and expressed in E.coli RR1. A 5775 bp region of the cloned fragment was sequenced which contains three open reading frames (ORF). The methylase gene is 1623 bp long, corresponding to a protein of 543 amino acids (62 kDa); the endonuclease gene is 2991 bp in length (997 amino acids, 117 kDa). The two genes are transcribed convergently from different strands with their 3'-ends separated by 69 bp. The third short open reading frame (186 bp, 62 amino acids) has been identified, that precedes and overlaps by 7 nucleotides the ORF encoding the methylase. Comparison of the deduced Eco57I endonuclease and methylase amino acid sequences revealed three regions of significant similarity. Two of them resemble the conserved sequence motifs characteristic of the DNA[adenine-N6] methylases. The third one shares similarity with corresponding regions of the PaeR7I, TaqI, CviBIII, PstI, BamHI and HincII methylases. Homologs of this sequence are also found within the sequences of the PaeR7I, PstI and BamHI restriction endonucleases. This is the first example of a family of cognate restriction endonucleases and methylases sharing homologous regions. Analysis of the structural relationship suggests that the type IV enzymes represent an intermediate in the evolutionary pathway between the type III and type II enzymes.
PMCID: PMC334472  PMID: 1334261
13.  Cloning and characterization of Sse9I DNA-methyltransferase recognizing 5'-AATT-3'. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(14):2790-2792.
The gene from Sporosarcina species 9D encoding Sse9I DNA-methyltransferase (M.Sse9I) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant plasmid pMSse-1 contains the M.Sse9I gene 1086 bp in length, corresponding to a protein of 362 amino acid residues. M.Sse9I recognizes the tetranucleotide sequence 5'-AATT-3' and modifies the second adenine within the recognition sequence. The amino acid sequence of M.Sse9I was compared with those of other methylases. According to mutual positions of four conservative domains the new enzyme belongs to a subgroup of D12 class. This subgroup includes Sse9I, CviAII, NlaIII and N-terminal domains of LlaI, FokI and StsI DNA-methyltransferases.
PMCID: PMC146017  PMID: 8759012
14.  Restriction endonuclease activity induced by NC-1A virus infection of a Chlorella-like green alga. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1986;14(15):6017-6030.
A type II restriction endonuclease, CviBI, was isolated from a eukaryotic, Chlorella-like green alga infected with the dsDNA containing virus NC-1A. The enzyme recognizes the sequence GANTC and cleaves DNA between the G and A. Methylation of deoxyadenosine in the GANTC sequence probably inhibits enzyme activity. In vitro CviBI cleaves host nuclear DNA but not viral DNA. A survey of 18 other viruses which infect the same Chlorella sp. revealed that infection with 5 of these viruses also induced a restriction endonuclease which cleaves DNA into the same size fragments as CviBI.
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PMCID: PMC311618  PMID: 3018667
15.  The construction and characterization of the bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts of Marek's disease viruses 
Virology Journal  2009;6:212.
Background
Marek's disease virus (MDV) has a bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts. By sequencing for the promoters from 8 different strains (CVI988, 814, GA, JM, Md5, G2, RB1B and 648A), it is found, comparing with the other 7 MDV strains, CVI988 has a 5-bp (from -628 to -632) deletion in this region, which caused a Sp1 site destroyed. In order to analysis the activity of the promoter, the complete bi-directional promoters from GA and CVI988 were, respectively, cloned into pCAT-Basic vector in both directions for the recombinants pPGA(pp38)-CAT, pPGA(1.8 kb)-CAT, pPCVI(pp38)-CAT and pPCVI(1.8 kb)-CAT. The complete promoter of GA was divided into two single-direction promoters from the replication of MDV genomic DNA, and cloned into pCAT-Basic for pdPGA(pp38)-CAT and pdPGA(1.8 kb)-CAT as well. The above 6 recombinants were then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) infected with MDV, and the activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) was measured from the lysed CEFs 48 h post transfection.
Results
The results showed the activity of the divided promoters was decreased on both directions. In 1.8-kb mRNA direction, it is nearly down to 2.4% (19/781) of the whole promoter, while it keeps 65% (34/52) activity in pp38 direction. The deletion of Sp1 site in CVI988 causes the 20% activity decreased, and has little influence in pp38 direction.
Conclusion
The present study confirmed their result, and the promoter for the 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts is a much stronger promoter than that in the orientation for pp38.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-212
PMCID: PMC2791765  PMID: 19948021
16.  CHLORELLA VIRUSES 
Advances in virus research  2006;66:293-336.
Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses.
doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(06)66006-5
PMCID: PMC1955756  PMID: 16877063
17.  Characterization of the cvaA and cvi Promoters of the Colicin V Export System: Iron-Dependent Transcription of cvaA Is Modulated by Downstream Sequences 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(7):1662-1672.
Secretion of the Escherichia coli toxin colicin V was previously determined to be iron regulated via the Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein, based on studies in fur mutants. The iron dependence of transcription and expression of cvaA, which encodes a transporter accessory protein, and cvi, encoding the colicin V immunity protein, was assessed under conditions of iron excess or depletion. Immunoblots showed that production of both Cvi and CvaA is iron dependent. The iron-dependent transcriptional start for cvaA identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis, P1, lies 320 bp upstream of the translational start and is associated with a newly identified Fur binding site. β-Galactosidase activity in transcriptional lacZ fusions with the P1 promoter alone is higher than with downstream sequences present and is induced 10-fold by iron depletion. Including immediate downstream regions with P1 enhances activity from P1 even more but reduces the induction by iron depletion fivefold. Including subsequent downstream sequences, however, down-modulates overall transcription from P1 almost fourfold. Deletion of a long stem-loop structure in this region alleviates the down-modulation by increasing transcription, indicating that the sequences or structure of this element may contribute to this down-regulation. Characterization of the cvi promoter by primer extension showed that it resides where predicted, about 50 bp upstream of cvi associated with a previously identified Fur binding site. The cvi promoter is also inducible by iron depletion. The modulating sequences from cvaA were placed downstream of the cvi promoter to test their effects in transcriptional fusions of the cvi promoter to lacZ. The fusion results showed that these sequences also modulate transcription of the cvi promoter in a manner similar to that of the cvaA promoter. The potential for up- and down-regulation within the long untranslated region downstream of the cvaA promoter suggests a novel mechanism that fine-tunes expression of the colicin V secretion genes.
PMCID: PMC107076  PMID: 9537361
18.  MethylViewer: computational analysis and editing for bisulfite sequencing and methyltransferase accessibility protocol for individual templates (MAPit) projects 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(1):e5.
Bisulfite sequencing is a widely-used technique for examining cytosine DNA methylation at nucleotide resolution along single DNA strands. Probing with cytosine DNA methyltransferases followed by bisulfite sequencing (MAPit) is an effective technique for mapping protein–DNA interactions. Here, MAPit methylation footprinting with M.CviPI, a GC methyltransferase we previously cloned and characterized, was used to probe hMLH1 chromatin in HCT116 and RKO colorectal cancer cells. Because M.CviPI-probed samples contain both CG and GC methylation, we developed a versatile, visually-intuitive program, called MethylViewer, for evaluating the bisulfite sequencing results. Uniquely, MethylViewer can simultaneously query cytosine methylation status in bisulfite-converted sequences at as many as four different user-defined motifs, e.g. CG, GC, etc., including motifs with degenerate bases. Data can also be exported for statistical analysis and as publication-quality images. Analysis of hMLH1 MAPit data with MethylViewer showed that endogenous CG methylation and accessible GC sites were both mapped on single molecules at high resolution. Disruption of positioned nucleosomes on single molecules of the PHO5 promoter was detected in budding yeast using M.CviPII, increasing the number of enzymes available for probing protein–DNA interactions. MethylViewer provides an integrated solution for primer design and rapid, accurate and detailed analysis of bisulfite sequencing or MAPit datasets from virtually any biological or biochemical system.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq716
PMCID: PMC3017589  PMID: 20959287
19.  Cloning and Characterization of the ζ-Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41 
To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the ζ-carotene desaturase gene (zds) was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.
doi:10.1155/2011/731542
PMCID: PMC3196254  PMID: 22013384
20.  RNA Triphosphatase Component of the mRNA Capping Apparatus of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(4):1744-1750.
Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) elicits a lytic infection of its unicellular green alga host. The 330-kbp viral genome has been sequenced, yet little is known about how viral mRNAs are synthesized and processed. PBCV-1 encodes its own mRNA guanylyltransferase, which catalyzes the addition of GMP to the 5′ diphosphate end of RNA to form a GpppN cap structure. Here we report that PBCV-1 encodes a separate RNA triphosphatase (RTP) that catalyzes the initial step in cap synthesis: hydrolysis of the γ-phosphate of triphosphate-terminated RNA to generate an RNA diphosphate end. We exploit a yeast-based genetic system to show that Chlorella virus RTP can function as a cap-forming enzyme in vivo. The 193-amino-acid Chlorella virus RTP is the smallest member of a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases that includes the RNA triphosphatases of fungi and other large eukaryotic DNA viruses (poxviruses, African swine fever virus, and baculoviruses). Chlorella virus RTP is more similar in structure to the yeast RNA triphosphatases than to the enzymes of metazoan DNA viruses. Indeed, PBCV-1 is unique among DNA viruses in that the triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase steps of cap formation are catalyzed by separate viral enzymes instead of a single viral polypeptide with multiple catalytic domains.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.4.1744-1750.2001
PMCID: PMC114083  PMID: 11160672
21.  DNA methyltransferase induced by PBCV-1 virus infection of a Chlorella-like green alga. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1986;6(5):1440-1445.
A DNA methyltransferase was isolated from a eucaryotic, Chlorella-like green alga infected with the virus PBCV-1. The enzyme recognized the sequence GATC and methylated deoxyadenosine solely in GATC sequences. Host DNA, which contains GATC sequences, but not PBCV-1 DNA, which contains GmATC sequences, was a good substrate for the enzyme in vitro. The DNA methyltransferase activity was first detected about 1 h after viral infection; PBCV-1 DNA synthesis and host DNA degradation also began at about this time. The appearance of the DNA methyltransferase activity required de novo protein synthesis, and the enzyme was probably virus encoded. Methylation of DNAs with the PBCV-1-induced methyltransferase conferred resistance of the DNAs to a PBCV-1-induced restriction endonuclease enzyme described previously (Y. Xia, D. E. Burbank, L. Uher, D. Rabussay, and J. L. Van Etten, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1430-1439). We propose that the PBCV-1-induced methyltransferase protects viral DNA from the PBCV-1-induced restriction endonuclease and is part of a virus-induced restriction and modification system in PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells.
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PMCID: PMC367668  PMID: 3537703
22.  Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Proteome Reveals Novel Architectural and Regulatory Features of a Giant Virus 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(16):8821-8834.
The 331-kbp chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) genome was resequenced and annotated to correct errors in the original 15-year-old sequence; 40 codons was considered the minimum protein size of an open reading frame. PBCV-1 has 416 predicted protein-encoding sequences and 11 tRNAs. A proteome analysis was also conducted on highly purified PBCV-1 virions using two mass spectrometry-based protocols. The mass spectrometry-derived data were compared to PBCV-1 and its host Chlorella variabilis NC64A predicted proteomes. Combined, these analyses revealed 148 unique virus-encoded proteins associated with the virion (about 35% of the coding capacity of the virus) and 1 host protein. Some of these proteins appear to be structural/architectural, whereas others have enzymatic, chromatin modification, and signal transduction functions. Most (106) of the proteins have no known function or homologs in the existing gene databases except as orthologs with proteins of other chloroviruses, phycodnaviruses, and nuclear-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. The genes encoding these proteins are dispersed throughout the virus genome, and most are transcribed late or early-late in the infection cycle, which is consistent with virion morphogenesis.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00907-12
PMCID: PMC3421733  PMID: 22696644
23.  Restriction endonuclease activity induced by PBCV-1 virus infection of a Chlorella-like green alga. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1986;6(5):1430-1439.
An enzyme was isolated from a eucaryotic, Chlorella-like green alga infected with the virus PBCV-1 which exhibits type II restriction endonuclease activity. The enzyme recognized the sequence GATC and cleaved DNA 5' to the G. Methylation of deoxyadenosine in the GATC sequence inhibited enzyme activity. In vitro the enzyme cleaved host Chlorella nuclear DNA but not viral DNA because host DNA contains GATC and PBCV-1 DNA contains GmATC sequences. PBCV-1 DNA is probably methylated in vivo by the PBCV-1-induced methyltransferase described elsewhere (Y. Xia and J. L. Van Etten, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1440-1445). Restriction endonuclease activity was first detected 30 to 60 min after viral infection; the appearance of enzyme activity required de novo protein synthesis, and the enzyme is probably virus encoded. Appearance of enzyme activity coincided with the onset of host DNA degradation after PBCV-1 infection. We propose that the PBCV-1-induced restriction endonuclease participates in host DNA degradation and is part of a virus-induced restriction and modification system in PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells.
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PMCID: PMC367667  PMID: 3023890
24.  Site-selective in vivo targeting of cytosine-5 DNA methylation by zinc-finger proteins 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(22):6493-6501.
Cytosine-5 DNA methylation is a critical signal defining heritable epigenetic states of transcription. As aberrant methylation patterns often accompany disease states, the ability to target cytosine methylation to preselected regions could prove valuable in re-establishing proper gene regulation. We employ the strategy of targeted gene methylation in yeast, which has a naturally unmethylated genome, selectively directing de novo DNA methylation via the fusion of C5 DNA methyltransferases to heterologous DNA-binding proteins. The zinc-finger proteins Zif268 and Zip53 can target DNA methylation by M.CviPI or M.SssI 5–52 nt from single zinc-factor binding sites. Modification at specific GC (M.CviPI) or CG (M.SssI) sites is enhanced as much as 20-fold compared with strains expressing either the free enzyme or a fusion protein with the zinc-finger protein moiety unable to bind to DNA. Interestingly, methylation is also selectively targeted as far as 353 nt from the zinc-finger protein binding sites, possibly indicative of looping, nucleosomes or higher-order chromatin structure. These data demonstrate that methylation can be targeted in vivo to a potentially broad range of sequences using specifically engineered zinc-finger proteins. Further more, the selective targeting of methylation by zinc-finger proteins demonstrates that binding of distinct classes of factors can be monitored in living cells.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkg853
PMCID: PMC275549  PMID: 14602907
25.  Peculiar feature of the organization of rRNA genes of the Chlorella chloroplast DNA. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1986;14(9):3827-3839.
The organization of a cloned rRNA gene cluster from Chlorella ellipsoidea chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) has been analyzed. Southern hybridization experiments with labelled chloroplast rRNAs as probes revealed an extraordinarily large size of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region, ca. 4.8 kbp, almost twice as large as those of most higher plants. The nucleotide sequence determined on this region has shown that: (1) The tRNAIle gene locating in this region is similar to those of higher plant chloroplasts, blue-green algae and E. coli but does not contain any introns in contrast to higher plant chloroplasts. (2) The tRNAAla gene is absent from this region. (3) There are four open reading frames (ORFs) coding for 55, 102, 107 and 110 amino acids, respectively. (4) A few sets of unique sequence were found repeatedly in this region. (5) The 23S rRNA gene is coded on the opposite strand in the reverse order. This arrangement of the 16S-23S rRNA region of Chlorella cpDNA is quite different from any of those reported so far for various organisms.
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PMCID: PMC339818  PMID: 3714498

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