PROFtmb predicts transmembrane beta-barrel (TMB) proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. For each query protein, PROFtmb provides both a Z-value indicating that the protein actually contains a membrane barrel, and a four-state per-residue labeling of upward- and downward-facing strands, periplasmic hairpins and extracellular loops. While most users submit individual proteins known to contain TMBs, some groups submit entire proteomes to screen for potential TMBs. Response time is about 4 min for a 500-residue protein. PROFtmb is a profile-based Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with an architecture mirroring the structure of TMBs. The per-residue accuracy on the 8-fold cross-validated testing set is 86% while whole-protein discrimination accuracy was 70 at 60% coverage. The PROFtmb web server includes all source code, training data and whole-proteome predictions from 78 Gram-negative bacterial genomes and is available freely and without registration at .
Transmembrane β-barrel (TMB) proteins are embedded in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. The cellular location and functional diversity of β-barrel outer membrane proteins makes them an important protein class. At the present time, very few non-homologous TMB structures have been determined by X-ray diffraction because of the experimental difficulty encountered in crystallizing transmembrane (TM) proteins. The transFold web server uses pairwise inter-strand residue statistical potentials derived from globular (non-outer-membrane) proteins to predict the supersecondary structure of TMB. Unlike all previous approaches, transFold does not use machine learning methods such as hidden Markov models or neural networks; instead, transFold employs multi-tape S-attribute grammars to describe all potential conformations, and then applies dynamic programming to determine the global minimum energy supersecondary structure. The transFold web server not only predicts secondary structure and TMB topology, but is the only method which additionally predicts the side-chain orientation of transmembrane β-strand residues, inter-strand residue contacts and TM β-strand inclination with respect to the membrane. The program transFold currently outperforms all other methods for accuracy of β-barrel structure prediction. Available at .
Beta-barrel transmembrane (bbtm) proteins are a functionally important and diverse group of proteins expressed in the outer membranes of bacteria (both gram negative and acid fast gram positive), mitochondria and chloroplasts. Despite recent publications describing reasonable levels of accuracy for discriminating between bbtm proteins and other proteins, screening of entire genomes remains troublesome as these molecules only constitute a small fraction of the sequences screened. Therefore, novel methods are still required capable of detecting new families of bbtm protein in diverse genomes.
We present TMB-Hunt, a program that uses a k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) algorithm to discriminate between bbtm and non-bbtm proteins on the basis of their amino acid composition. By including differentially weighted amino acids, evolutionary information and by calibrating the scoring, an accuracy of 92.5% was achieved, with 91% sensitivity and 93.8% positive predictive value (PPV), using a rigorous cross-validation procedure.
A major advantage of this approach is that because it does not rely on beta-strand detection, it does not require resolved structures and thus larger, more representative, training sets could be used. It is therefore believed that this approach will be invaluable in complementing other, physicochemical and homology based methods. This was demonstrated by the correct reassignment of a number of proteins which other predictors failed to classify. We have used the algorithm to screen several genomes and have discussed our findings.
TMB-Hunt achieves a prediction accuracy level better than other approaches published to date. Results were significantly enhanced by use of evolutionary information and a system for calibrating k-NN scoring. Because the program uses a distinct approach to that of other discriminators and thus suffers different liabilities, we believe it will make a significant contribution to the development of a consensus approach for bbtm protein detection.
Transmembrane β-barrel proteins are a special class of transmembrane proteins which play several key roles in human body and diseases. Due to experimental difficulties, the number of transmembrane β-barrel proteins with known structures is very small. Over the years, a number of learning-based methods have been introduced for recognition and structure prediction of transmembrane β-barrel proteins. Most of these methods emphasize on homology search rather than any biological or chemical basis.
We present a novel graph-theoretic model for classification and structure prediction of transmembrane β-barrel proteins. This model folds proteins based on energy minimization rather than a homology search, avoiding any assumption on availability of training dataset. The ab initio model presented in this paper is the first method to allow for permutations in the structure of transmembrane proteins and provides more structural information than any known algorithm. The model is also able to recognize β-barrels by assessing the pseudo free energy. We assess the structure prediction on 41 proteins gathered from existing databases on experimentally validated transmembrane β-barrel proteins. We show that our approach is quite accurate with over 90% F-score on strands and over 74% F-score on residues. The results are comparable to other algorithms suggesting that our pseudo-energy model is close to the actual physical model. We test our classification approach and show that it is able to reject α-helical bundles with 100% accuracy and β-barrel lipocalins with 97% accuracy.
We show that it is possible to design models for classification and structure prediction for transmembrane β-barrel proteins which do not depend essentially on training sets but on combinatorial properties of the structures to be proved. These models are fairly accurate, robust and can be run very efficiently on PC-like computers. Such models are useful for the genome screening.
Integral membrane proteins constitute about 20–30% of all proteins in the fully sequenced genomes. They come in two structural classes, the α-helical and the β-barrel membrane proteins, demonstrating different physicochemical characteristics, structure and localization. While transmembrane segment prediction for the α-helical integral membrane proteins appears to be an easy task nowadays, the same is much more difficult for the β-barrel membrane proteins. We developed a method, based on a Hidden Markov Model, capable of predicting the transmembrane β-strands of the outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, and discriminating those from water-soluble proteins in large datasets. The model is trained in a discriminative manner, aiming at maximizing the probability of correct predictions rather than the likelihood of the sequences.
The training has been performed on a non-redundant database of 14 outer membrane proteins with structures known at atomic resolution; it has been tested with a jacknife procedure, yielding a per residue accuracy of 84.2% and a correlation coefficient of 0.72, whereas for the self-consistency test the per residue accuracy was 88.1% and the correlation coefficient 0.824. The total number of correctly predicted topologies is 10 out of 14 in the self-consistency test, and 9 out of 14 in the jacknife. Furthermore, the model is capable of discriminating outer membrane from water-soluble proteins in large-scale applications, with a success rate of 88.8% and 89.2% for the correct classification of outer membrane and water-soluble proteins respectively, the highest rates obtained in the literature. That test has been performed independently on a set of known outer membrane proteins with low sequence identity with each other and also with the proteins of the training set.
Based on the above, we developed a strategy, that enabled us to screen the entire proteome of E. coli for outer membrane proteins. The results were satisfactory, thus the method presented here appears to be suitable for screening entire proteomes for the discovery of novel outer membrane proteins. A web interface available for non-commercial users is located at: , and it is the only freely available HMM-based predictor for β-barrel outer membrane protein topology.
TMB-Hunt is a program that uses a modified k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) algorithm to classify protein sequences as transmembrane β-barrel (TMB) or non-TMB on the basis of whole sequence amino acid composition. By including differentially weighted amino acids, evolutionary information and by calibrating the scoring, a discrimination accuracy of 92.5% was achieved, as tested using a rigorous cross-validation procedure. The TMB-Hunt web server, available at , allows screening of up to 10 000 sequences in a single query and provides results and key statistics in a simple colour coded format.
The β-barrel outer membrane proteins constitute one of the two known structural classes of membrane proteins. Whereas there are several different web-based predictors for α-helical membrane proteins, currently there is no freely available prediction method for β-barrel membrane proteins, at least with an acceptable level of accuracy. We present here a web server (PRED-TMBB, http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/PRED-TMBB) which is capable of predicting the transmembrane strands and the topology of β-barrel outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria. The method is based on a Hidden Markov Model, trained according to the Conditional Maximum Likelihood criterion. The model was retrained and the training set now includes 16 non-homologous outer membrane proteins with structures known at atomic resolution. The user may submit one sequence at a time and has the option of choosing between three different decoding methods. The server reports the predicted topology of a given protein, a score indicating the probability of the protein being an outer membrane β-barrel protein, posterior probabilities for the transmembrane strand prediction and a graphical representation of the assumed position of the transmembrane strands with respect to the lipid bilayer.
Prediction of the transmembrane strands and topology of β-barrel outer membrane proteins is of interest in current bioinformatics research. Several methods have been applied so far for this task, utilizing different algorithmic techniques and a number of freely available predictors exist. The methods can be grossly divided to those based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), on Neural Networks (NNs) and on Support Vector Machines (SVMs). In this work, we compare the different available methods for topology prediction of β-barrel outer membrane proteins. We evaluate their performance on a non-redundant dataset of 20 β-barrel outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, with structures known at atomic resolution. Also, we describe, for the first time, an effective way to combine the individual predictors, at will, to a single consensus prediction method.
We assess the statistical significance of the performance of each prediction scheme and conclude that Hidden Markov Model based methods, HMM-B2TMR, ProfTMB and PRED-TMBB, are currently the best predictors, according to either the per-residue accuracy, the segments overlap measure (SOV) or the total number of proteins with correctly predicted topologies in the test set. Furthermore, we show that the available predictors perform better when only transmembrane β-barrel domains are used for prediction, rather than the precursor full-length sequences, even though the HMM-based predictors are not influenced significantly. The consensus prediction method performs significantly better than each individual available predictor, since it increases the accuracy up to 4% regarding SOV and up to 15% in correctly predicted topologies.
The consensus prediction method described in this work, optimizes the predicted topology with a dynamic programming algorithm and is implemented in a web-based application freely available to non-commercial users at .
Motivation: One of the most successful methods to date for recognizing protein sequences that are evolutionarily related has been profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). However, these models do not capture pairwise statistical preferences of residues that are hydrogen bonded in beta sheets. These dependencies have been partially captured in the HMM setting by simulated evolution in the training phase and can be fully captured by Markov random fields (MRFs). However, the MRFs can be computationally prohibitive when beta strands are interleaved in complex topologies. We introduce SMURFLite, a method that combines both simplified MRFs and simulated evolution to substantially improve remote homology detection for beta structures. Unlike previous MRF-based methods, SMURFLite is computationally feasible on any beta-structural motif.
Results: We test SMURFLite on all propeller and barrel folds in the mainly-beta class of the SCOP hierarchy in stringent cross-validation experiments. We show a mean 26% (median 16%) improvement in area under curve (AUC) for beta-structural motif recognition as compared with HMMER (a well-known HMM method) and a mean 33% (median 19%) improvement as compared with RAPTOR (a well-known threading method) and even a mean 18% (median 10%) improvement in AUC over HHPred (a profile–profile HMM method), despite HHpred's use of extensive additional training data. We demonstrate SMURFLite's ability to scale to whole genomes by running a SMURFLite library of 207 beta-structural SCOP superfamilies against the entire genome of Thermotoga maritima, and make over a 100 new fold predictions.
Availability and implementaion: A webserver that runs SMURFLite is available at: http://smurf.cs.tufts.edu/smurflite/
Motivation: Transmembrane β-barrels exist in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria as well as in chloroplast and mitochondria. They are often involved in transport processes and are promising antimicrobial drug targets. Structures of only a few β-barrel protein families are known. Therefore, a method that could automatically generate such models would be valuable. The symmetrical arrangement of the barrels suggests that an approach based on idealized geometries may be successful.
Results: Here, we present tobmodel; a method for generating 3D models of β-barrel transmembrane proteins. First, alternative topologies are obtained from the BOCTOPUS topology predictor. Thereafter, several 3D models are constructed by using different angles of the β-sheets. Finally, the best model is selected based on agreement with a novel predictor, ZPRED3, which predicts the distance from the center of the membrane for each residue, i.e. the Z-coordinate. The Z-coordinate prediction has an average error of 1.61 Å. Tobmodel predicts the correct topology for 75% of the proteins in the dataset which is a slight improvement over BOCTOPUS alone. More importantly, however, tobmodel provides a Cα template with an average RMSD of 7.24 Å from the native structure.
Availability: Tobmodel is freely available as a web server at: http://tobmodel.cbr.su.se/. The datasets used for training and evaluations are also available from this site.
Beta-barrel membrane proteins (MP) are found in Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. They play important roles in metabolism of bacteria, where they are involved in transport of solutes in and out of the cell. Beta-barrel proteins may also act as proteases, lipases and may be important for cell-cell adhesion. Currently, there are about 30 non-redundant solved structures of β-barrels. Although the number of b-barrel folds is fairly small, it is possible to expand the amount of available structural information by homology modeling using existing structures as templates. The scope of structure prediction may be widened by finding remote homologues of the existing structures. To improve the sensitivity of the database searches and the quality of sequence alignments, we first study evolutionary history of transmembrane segments of 7 β-barrel membrane proteins by estimating substitution rates with a Bayesian Monte Carlo approach. Next, we calculate amino acid substitution matrices, beta-barrel Transmembrane scoring Matrices (bbTM), specifically tuned for TM regions, which can be used to detect remote homologues. We then test bbTM matrices by comparing their performance with membrane-protein derived scoring matrices PHAT and SLIM. Our results demonstrate that bbTM matrices have higher selectivity towards transmembrane β-barrel proteins and may be used with higher confidence in database searches for remote homologues of this class of proteins.
Substitution rate; scoring matrices; beta barrel membrane proteins; bioinformatics
Since membranous proteins play a key role in drug targeting therefore transmembrane proteins prediction is active and
challenging area of biological sciences. Location based prediction of transmembrane proteins are significant for functional
annotation of protein sequences. Hidden markov model based method was widely applied for transmembrane topology
prediction. Here we have presented a revised and a better understanding model than an existing one for transmembrane protein
prediction. Scripting on MATLAB was built and compiled for parameter estimation of model and applied this model on amino acid
sequence to know the transmembrane and its adjacent locations. Estimated model of transmembrane topology was based on
TMHMM model architecture. Only 7 super states are defined in the given dataset, which were converted to 96 states on the basis of
their length in sequence. Accuracy of the prediction of model was observed about 74 %, is a good enough in the area of
transmembrane topology prediction. Therefore we have concluded the hidden markov model plays crucial role in transmembrane
helices prediction on MATLAB platform and it could also be useful for drug discovery strategy.
The database is available for free at firstname.lastname@example.org@bhu.ac.in
Hidden Markov Model; Transmembrane Proteins; MATLAB
β-barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They are important for pore formation, membrane anchoring, enzyme activity, and are often responsible for bacterial virulence. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank. We have developed a computational method for predicting structures of the trans-membrane (TM) domains of β-barrel membrane proteins. Our method based on key organization principles, can predict structures of the TM domain of β-barrel membrane proteins of novel topology, including those from eukaryotic mitochondria. Our method is based on a model of physical interactions, a discrete conformational state-space, an empirical potential function, as well as a model to account for interstrand loop entropy. We are able to construct three dimensional atomic structure of the TM-domains from sequences for a set of 23 non-homologous proteins (resolution 1.8 – 3.0 Å). The median RMSD of TM-domains containing 75–222 residues between predicted and measured structures is 3.9 Å for main chain atoms. In addition, stability determinants and protein-protein interaction sites can be predicted. Such predictions on eukaryotic mitochondria outer membrane protein Tom40 and VDAC are confirmed by independent mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking studies. These results suggest that our model captures key components of the organization principles of β-barrel membrane protein assembly.
This work describes the development of a program that predicts whether or not a polypeptide sequence from a Gram-negative bacterium is an integral β-barrel outer membrane protein. The program, called the β-barrel Outer Membrane protein Predictor (BOMP), is based on two separate components to recognize integral β-barrel proteins. The first component is a C-terminal pattern typical of many integral β-barrel proteins. The second component calculates an integral β-barrel score of the sequence based on the extent to which the sequence contains stretches of amino acids typical of transmembrane β-strands. The precision of the predictions was found to be 80% with a recall of 88% when tested on the proteins with SwissProt annotated subcellular localization in Escherichia coli K 12 (788 sequences) and Salmonella typhimurium (366 sequences). When tested on the predicted proteome of E.coli, BOMP found 103 of a total of 4346 polypeptide sequences to be possible integral β-barrel proteins. Of these, 36 were found by BLAST to lack similarity (E-value score < 1e−10) to proteins with annotated subcellular localization in SwissProt. BOMP predicted the content of integral β-barrels per predicted proteome of 10 different bacteria to range from 1.8 to 3%. BOMP is available at http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/bomp.
We have developed an effective pathway for the prediction and characterization of novel transmembrane β-barrel proteins. The Freeman-Wimley algorithm, which is a highly accurate prediction method based on the physicochemical properties of experimentally characterized transmembrane β barrel (TMBB) structures, was used to predict TMBBs in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. The previously uncharacterized product of gene yshA was tested as a model for validating the algorithm. YshA is a highly conserved 230-residue protein that is predicted to have 10 transmembrane β-strands and an N-terminal signal sequence. All of the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties exhibited by YshA are consistent with the prediction that it is a TMBB. Specifically, recombinant YshA localizes to the outer membrane when expressed in Escherichia coli; YshA has β-sheet-rich secondary structure with stable tertiary contacts in the presence of detergent micelles or when reconstituted into a lipid bilayer; when in a lipid bilayer, YshA forms a membrane-spanning pore with an effective radius of ~0.7 nm. Taken together, these data substantiate the predictions made by the Freeman-Wimley algorithm by showing that YshA is a TMBB protein.
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the transmembrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and plastids. Most prediction methods have focused on analogous features, such as alternating hydrophobicity patterns. Here, we start from the observation that almost all β-barrel OMPs are related by common ancestry. We identify proteins as OMPs by detecting their homologous relationships to known OMPs using sequence similarity. Given an input sequence, HHomp builds a profile hidden Markov model (HMM) and compares it with an OMP database by pairwise HMM comparison, integrating OMP predictions by PROFtmb. A crucial ingredient is the OMP database, which contains profile HMMs for over 20 000 putative OMP sequences. These were collected with the exhaustive, transitive homology detection method HHsenser, starting from 23 representative OMPs in the PDB database. In a benchmark on TransportDB, HHomp detects 63.5% of the true positives before including the first false positive. This is 70% more than PROFtmb, four times more than BOMP and 10 times more than TMB-Hunt. In Escherichia coli, HHomp identifies 57 out of 59 known OMPs and correctly assigns them to their functional subgroups. HHomp can be accessed at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/hhomp.
The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM)-barrel fold occurs frequently in the proteomes of different organisms, and the known TIM-barrel proteins have been found to play diverse functional roles. To accelerate the exploration of the sequence-structure protein landscape in the TIM-barrel fold, a computational tool that allows sensitive detection of TIM-barrel proteins is required.
To develop a new TIM-barrel protein identification method in this work, we consider three descriptors: a sequence-alignment-based descriptor using PSI-BLAST e-values and bit scores, a descriptor based on secondary structure element alignment (SSEA), and a descriptor based on the occurrence of PROSITE functional motifs. With the assistance of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the three descriptors were combined to obtain a new method with improved performance, which we call TIM-Finder. When tested on the whole proteome of Bacillus subtilis, TIM-Finder is able to detect 194 TIM-barrel proteins at a 99% confidence level, outperforming the PSI-BLAST search as well as one existing fold recognition method.
TIM-Finder can serve as a competitive tool for proteome-wide TIM-barrel protein identification. The TIM-Finder web server is freely accessible at http://126.96.36.199/TIM-Finder/.
Membrane proteins, which constitute approximately 20% of most genomes, form two main classes: alpha helical and beta barrel transmembrane proteins. Using methods based on Bayesian Networks,
a powerful approach for statistical inference, we have sought to address β-barrel topology prediction. The β-barrel topology predictor reports individual strand accuracies of 88.6%. The method
outlined here represents a potentially important advance in the computational determination of membrane protein topology.
beta barrel transmembrane protein; prokaryotic membrane proteins; Bayesian Networks; prediction method; sub-cellular location
When using conventional transmembrane topology and signal peptide predictors, such as TMHMM and SignalP, there is a substantial overlap between these two types of predictions. Applying these methods to five complete proteomes, we found that 30–65% of all predicted signal peptides and 25–35% of all predicted transmembrane topologies overlap. This impairs predictions of 5–10% of the proteome, hence this is an important issue in protein annotation.
To address this problem, we previously designed a hidden Markov model, Phobius, that combines transmembrane topology and signal peptide predictions. The method makes an optimal choice between transmembrane segments and signal peptides, and also allows constrained and homology-enriched predictions.
We here present a web interface (http://phobius.cgb.ki.se and http://phobius.binf.ku.dk) to access Phobius.
The identification of β-barrel membrane proteins out of a genomic/proteomic background is one of the rapidly developing fields in bioinformatics. Our main goal is the prediction of such proteins in genome/proteome wide analyses.
For the prediction of β-barrel membrane proteins within prokaryotic proteomes a set of parameters was developed. We have focused on a procedure with a low false positive rate beside a procedure with lowest false prediction rate to obtain a high certainty for the predicted sequences. We demonstrate that the discrimination between β-barrel membrane proteins and other proteins is improved by analyzing a length limited region. The developed set of parameters is applied to the proteome of E. coli and the results are compared to four other described procedures.
Analyzing the β-barrel membrane proteins revealed the presence of a defined membrane inserted β-barrel region. This information can now be used to refine other prediction programs as well. So far, all tested programs fail to predict outer membrane proteins in the proteome of the prokaryote E. coli with high reliability. However, the reliability of the prediction is improved significantly by a combinatory approach of several programs. The consequences and usability of the developed scores are discussed.
New methods, essentially based on hidden Markov models (HMM) and neural
networks (NN), can predict the topography of both β-barrel and all-α membrane
proteins with high accuracy and a low rate of false positives and false negatives.
These methods have been integrated in a suite of programs to filter proteomes of
Gram-negative bacteria, searching for new membrane proteins.
The outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts all contain transmembrane β-barrel proteins. These β-barrel proteins serve essential functions in cargo transport and signaling and are also vital for membrane biogenesis. They have also been adapted to perform a diverse set of important cellular functions including acting as porins, transporters, enzymes, virulence factors and receptors. Recent structures of transmembrane β-barrels include that of a full length autotransporter (EstA), a bacterial heme transporter complex (HasR), a bacterial porin in complex with several ligands (PorB), and the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) from both mouse and human. These represent only a few of the interesting structures of β-barrel membrane proteins recently elucidated. However, they demonstrate many of the advancements made within the field of transmembrane protein structure in the past few years.
We describe here OMPdb, which is currently the most complete and comprehensive collection of integral β-barrel outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. The database currently contains 69 354 proteins, which are classified into 85 families, based mainly on structural and functional criteria. Although OMPdb follows the annotation scheme of Pfam, many of the families included in the database were not previously described or annotated in other publicly available databases. There are also cross-references to other databases, references to the literature and annotation for sequence features, like transmembrane segments and signal peptides. Furthermore, via the web interface, the user can not only browse the available data, but submit advanced text searches and run BLAST queries against the database protein sequences or domain searches against the collection of profile Hidden Markov Models that represent each family’s domain organization as well. The database is freely accessible for academic users at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/OMPdb and we expect it to be useful for genome-wide analyses, comparative genomics as well as for providing training and test sets for predictive algorithms regarding transmembrane β-barrels.
PROTEUS2 is a web server designed to support comprehensive protein structure prediction and structure-based annotation. PROTEUS2 accepts either single sequences (for directed studies) or multiple sequences (for whole proteome annotation) and predicts the secondary and, if possible, tertiary structure of the query protein(s). Unlike most other tools or servers, PROTEUS2 bundles signal peptide identification, transmembrane helix prediction, transmembrane β-strand prediction, secondary structure prediction (for soluble proteins) and homology modeling (i.e. 3D structure generation) into a single prediction pipeline. Using a combination of progressive multi-sequence alignment, structure-based mapping, hidden Markov models, multi-component neural nets and up-to-date databases of known secondary structure assignments, PROTEUS is able to achieve among the highest reported levels of predictive accuracy for signal peptides (Q2 = 94%), membrane spanning helices (Q2 = 87%) and secondary structure (Q3 score of 81.3%). PROTEUS2's homology modeling services also provide high quality 3D models that compare favorably with those generated by SWISS-MODEL and 3D JigSaw (within 0.2 Å RMSD). The average PROTEUS2 prediction takes ∼3 min per query sequence. The PROTEUS2 server along with source code for many of its modules is accessible a http://wishart.biology.ualberta.ca/proteus2.
HHrep is a web server for the de novo identification of repeats in protein sequences, which is based on the pairwise comparison of profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). Its main strength is its sensitivity, allowing it to detect highly divergent repeat units in protein sequences whose repeats could as yet only be detected from their structures. Examples include sequences with β-propellor fold, ferredoxin-like fold, double psi barrels or (βα)8 (TIM) barrels. We illustrate this with proteins from four superfamilies of TIM barrels by revealing a clear 4- and 8-fold symmetry, which we detect solely from their sequences. This symmetry might be the trace of an ancient origin through duplication of a βαβα or βα unit. HHrep can be accessed at .