Objective. To measure the impact of a depression training day for pharmacists that included a 75-minute session with a consumer educator.
Design. The training day included interactive lectures on depression; the effects and side effects of and indications for the use of antidepressants; adherence issues; non-drug treatment options for depression; and basic skills in communication. Pharmacists also participated in a session with a consumer educator and in counseling exercises that included role playing.
Assessment. The study used a randomized, clustered, comparative design to measure pharmacists' stigma, attitudes, and current practice related to the provision of pharmaceutical care to people with depression. Mean scores for depression-care practice after the training session were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Analysis of the changes between baseline and postintervention measures in both the control and intervention groups confirmed a significant difference in the change in both social distance and practice but no significant difference in the change in attitude between the 2 groups of pharmacists.
Conclusion. A continuing-education depression training day for pharmacists that involve consumer educators may improve the care delivered in the community pharmacy to people with depression.
community pharmacy; consumer educator; depression; pharmaceutical care; stigma; attitude
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist delivered community-based services to optimise the use of medications for mental illness. Twenty-two controlled (randomised and non-randomised) studies of pharmacists' interventions in community and residential aged care settings identified in international scientific literature were included for review. Papers were assessed for study design, service recipient, country of origin, intervention type, number of participating pharmacists, methodological quality and outcome measurement. Three studies showed that pharmacists' medication counselling and treatment monitoring can improve adherence to antidepressant medications among those commencing treatment when calculated using an intention-to-treat analysis. Four trials demonstrated that pharmacist conducted medication reviews may reduce the number of potentially inappropriate medications prescribed to those at high risk of medication misadventure. The results of this review provide some evidence that pharmacists can contribute to optimising the use of medications for mental illness in the community setting. However, more well designed studies are needed to assess the impact of pharmacists as members of community mental health teams and as providers of comprehensive medicines information to people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Objectives. To measure Croatian community pharmacists’ progress in competency development using the General Level Framework (GLF) as an educational tool in a longitudinal study.
Methods. Patient care competencies of 100 community pharmacists were evaluated twice, in 2009 and in 2010 in a prospective cohort study. During this 12-month period, tailored educational programs based on the GLF were organized and conducted, new services and standard operating procedures were implemented, and documentation of contributions to patient care in the pharmacist’s portfolio became mandatory.
Results. Pharmacists’ development of all GLF patient care competencies was significant with the greatest improvements seen in the following competencies: patient consultation, monitoring drug therapy, medicine information and patient education, and evaluation of outcomes.
Conclusions. This study, which retested the effectiveness of an evidence-based competency framework, confirmed that GLF is a valid educational tool for pharmacist development.
competency development; pharmacist; general level framework; continuing education; continuing professional development; community pharmacy
To implement and evaluate a flexible palliative care education program for Australian community pharmacists.
After identifying pharmacists' education needs, the program content and format were developed. This included identifying expert writers to create modules, assigning education and palliative care specialists to review content, and designing Web hosting of materials. The program was comprised of 11 modules and 79 activities.
An average of 28 responses was posted for each of the 20 noticeboard activities. Of the 60 pharmacists who began the program, 15 contributed to the discussion group, with an average of 3 posts each. Participants' responses to an online questionnaire indicated the program addressed their education needs and improved their knowledge and confidence in providing palliative cancer care.
A program that pharmacists could access at a time and place convenient to them via the Internet was developed. Pharmacists indicated the program positively impacted their practice.
professional development; evaluation; palliative care; pharmacists; continuing education; community pharmacy
To investigate older patient, physician and pharmacist perspectives about the pharmacists’ role in pharmacist-patient interactions.
Eight focus group discussions.
Senior centers, community pharmacies, primary care physician offices.
Forty-two patients aged 63 and older, 17 primary care physicians, and 13 community pharmacists.
Qualitative analysis of focus group discussions.
Participants in all focus groups indicated that pharmacists are a good resource for basic information about medications. Physicians appreciated pharmacists’ ability to identify drug interactions, yet did not comment on other specific aspects related to patient education and care. Physicians noted that pharmacists often were hindered by time constraints that impede patient counseling. Both patient and pharmacist participants indicated that patients often asked pharmacists to expand upon, reinforce, and explain physician-patient conversations about medications, as well as to evaluate medication appropriateness and physician treatment plans. These groups also noted that patients confided in pharmacists about medication-related problems before contacting physicians. Pharmacists identified several barriers to patient counseling, including lack of knowledge about medication indications and physician treatment plans.
Community-based pharmacists may often be presented with opportunities to address questions that can affect patient medication use. Older patients, physicians and pharmacists all value greater pharmacist participation in patient care. Suboptimal information flow between physicians and pharmacists may hinder pharmacist interactions with patients and detract from patient medication management. Interventions to integrate pharmacists into the patient healthcare team could improve patient medication management.
pharmacist-patient interactions; provider-patient communication; prescription medication; qualitative research methods
To achieve a significant educational experience that offered effective and lasting change in students' attitudes about expertise and collaboration, the authors designed an interdisciplinary project that purposefully linked students from history of pharmacy and communication studies courses. Over 3 successive semesters, 60 students formed interdisciplinary teams to design, conduct, and transcribe area pharmacists' oral histories. This project challenged students to overcome stereotypes, address anxiety about working with people outside traditional peer groups, and recognize specialized knowledge and skills they offered to the interdisciplinary partnership. Fifty-seven students wrote individual reflective self analyses that examined their own attitudes and experiences prior to, during, and after the project. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the students' accounts provided substantial insight into the value of the interdisciplinary and intergenerational experience as well as students' recognition of disciplinary expertise, both in and outside of their respective majors.
interdisciplinary education; oral history
To evaluate the impact of a tobacco cessation training program on pharmacists' confidence, skills, and practice-change behaviors.
Wisconsin during 2002–2003.
25 community pharmacists.
A continuing education training program was developed and implemented using home and live training components consisting of the national tobacco cessation guidelines, including the 5A's counseling process. The home study component included lectures and readings in CD-ROM format. Consistent with self-efficacy theory, the live training was based on exercises that included modeling, rehearsal, and feedback to learners.
Main outcome measures
Knowledge assessment, pre- and postsurveys assessing confidence and skill levels, and service provision indicators.
Self-efficacy and perceived ability to counsel patients to quit using tobacco improved significantly after the combined program. No significant change in confidence or perceived skills occurred following home study alone, suggesting value in using a combination of teaching strategies (problem solving, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback). Of participants, 92% received a passing knowledge score and 75% attempted to implement a tobacco cessation service posttraining; more than 50% assisted patients up to 1 year posttraining. A relationship between self-efficacy and service provision was found when practice settings were considered.
This program increased pharmacists' knowledge and self-efficacy to counsel patients on tobacco use. Further, the majority of pharmacy participants attempted to implement a tobacco cessation service.
Self-efficacy; continuing education; counseling (patient); tobacco cessation
An academic-community partnership between a Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) clinic and a school of pharmacy was created in 2005 to provide medication education and identify medication related problems. The urban community based HCH clinic in the Richmond, VA area provides primary health care to the homeless, uninsured and underinsured. The center also offers eye care, dental care, mental health and psychiatric care, substance abuse services, case management, laundry and shower facilities, and mail services at no charge to those in need. Pharmacist services are provided in the mental health and medical clinics. A satisfaction survey showed that the providers and staff (n = 13) in the clinic were very satisfied with the integration of pharmacist services. The quality and safety of medication use has improved as a result of the academic-community collaborative. Education and research initiatives have also resulted from the collaborative. This manuscript describes the implementation, outcomes and benefits of the partnership for both the HCH clinic and the school of pharmacy.
Academic-Community partnership; medication therapy management; community engagement; homelessness; medication related problems
Pharmacists, with expertise in optimizing drug therapy outcomes, are valuable components of the healthcare team and are becoming increasingly involved in public health efforts. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in diverse community pharmacy settings can implement a variety of asthma interventions when they are brief, supported by appropriate tools, and integrated into the workflow. The Asthma Friendly Pharmacy (AFP) model addresses the challenges of providing patient-focused care in a community pharmacy setting by offering education to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians on asthma-related pharmaceutical care services, such as identifying or resolving medication-related problems; educating patients about asthma and medication-related concepts; improving communication and strengthening relationships between pharmacists, patients, and other healthcare providers; and establishing higher expectations for the pharmacist’s role in patient care and public health efforts. This article describes the feasibility of the model in an urban community pharmacy setting and documents the interventions and communication activities promoted through the AFP model.
Asthma; Community pharmacy; Pharmacists; Pharmaceutical care; Collaboration; Communication
The development, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention to facilitate specialized asthma care provision by community pharmacists.
Formative evaluation and a parallel group repeated measures design were used to test the effect of an educational intervention on pharmacist satisfaction and practice behavior as well as patient outcomes. The educational intervention was based on practitioner needs and principles of adult learning using flexible delivery formats.
In the intervention area, 15 pharmacists were trained with the educational intervention, and they provided specialized asthma care to 52 patients over 6 months, while in the control area, 12 pharmacists provided “usual care” to 50 patients. The intervention pharmacists were highly satisfied with the education received and rated most aspects highly. Improvements in patient clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes in the intervention area were obtained.
The positive results of the educational intervention demonstrate the effectiveness of an educational approach grounded in the theory that inducing behavioral changes in pharmacy practitioners results in improved patient outcomes.
community pharmacists; continuing education; asthma care; patient outcomes
The role of the pharmacist as a “communicator” of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important.
communication; educational methods; learning outcomes; pharmacy education
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacist–based home blood pressure (BP) monitoring program.
Trial of a high-intensity (HI) versus low-intensity (LI) intervention randomized in 12 community pharmacies. The HI intervention comprised 4 face-to-face visits with a trained pharmacist. Pharmacists provided patient-specific education about hypertension. Following the first and third visits, patients were provided with a home BP monitoring device and instructed to measure their BP at least once daily for the next month. Home BP readings were used by the pharmacists to develop treatment recommendations for the patient's physician. Recommendations were discussed with the physician and, if approved, implemented by the pharmacist. In the LI intervention, pharmacists measured patients BP in the pharmacy and referred them to their physician for evaluation.
Patients with uncontrolled BP at baseline.
The main outcomes were the differences in systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) from baseline to follow-up between the HI and LI patients.
The study enrolled 125 patients, 64 in the HI and 61 in the LI group. From baseline, SBP declined 13.4 mmHg in the HI group and 9.0 mmHg in the LI group. At the final visit, the difference in SBP/DBP change between the HI and LI group was −4.5/−3.2 mmHg (P=.12 for SBP and P=.03 for DBP).
The HI intervention achieved a lower DBP and this model could be a strategy for patients with hypertension.
hypertension; pharmaceutical care; community-based intervention
Objective. To implement an educational program to improve pediatric content knowledge and confidence in providing pediatric care among health-system pharmacists.
Design. Pharmacists were asked to voluntarily participate in this prospective, observational education program. A demographic assessment, pre- and post-intervention confidence assessments, and pre- and post-lecture competency assessments were conducted to evaluate the program.
Assessment. Five of the 6 confidence scores improved from the preintervention to the postintervention stage. Test scores for 2 of the 8 postlecture tests improved significantly, and the average test scores for all postlecture tests combined were significantly higher than those for the prelecture tests.
Conclusion. This study demonstrated significant improvements in both confidence and competence in pediatric pharmacotherapy among health-system pharmacists following implementation of a pediatric pharmacy education program.
pediatric pharmacy; pharmacy; confidence; competence; health system; postgraduate education
In India, structured continuous professional development modules are not available to update the knowledge and skills of the practicing community pharmacists. A prospective study was designed to develop, validate and implement continuous professional development modules and to assess the impact of training programme on knowledge and skills of community pharmacists. Modules were developed by referring to standard texts and data bases and were validated for the content. The impact of training programme on pharmacists’ knowledge and skills was assessed using suitably designed pre and post training knowledge attitude and practice questionnaires, pre and post training questionnaires for individual continuous professional development training sessions, pre and post training patient counseling skill assessment, blood pressure measurement skill assessment and capillary blood glucose check-up skill assessment check-lists. Data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods using InStat version 3.01 statistical software. Fourty eight community pharmacists were enrolled in to the study. A statistically significant (P<0.05) improvement was observed in post training knowledge attitude and practice scores and in post training scores of individual training sessions. A statistically significant (P<0.05) improvement was also observed in post training scores of professional skills such as Patient counseling, capillary blood glucose recording and blood pressure measurement skills. The study findings conclude that continuous training updates the knowledge and skills in practicing the pharmaceutical care in their pharmacies.
Blood pressure; capillary blood glucose; continuous professional development; community pharmacists; knowledge attitude and practice; patient counselling
In many countries, community pharmacists can be consulted without appointment in a large number of convenient locations. They are in an ideal position to give advice to patients at the onset of low back pain and also reinforce advice given by other healthcare professionals. There is little specific information about the quality of care provided in the pharmacy for people with back pain. The main objectives of this survey were to determine the attitudes, knowledge and reported practice of English pharmacists advising people who present with acute or chronic low back pain.
A questionnaire was designed for anonymous self-completion by pharmacists attending continuing education sessions. Demographic questions were designed to allow comparison with a national pharmacy workforce survey. Attitudes were measured with the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and questions based on the Working Backs Scotland campaign. Questions about the treatment of back pain in the community pharmacy were written (or adapted) to reflect and characterise the nature of practice. In response to two clinical vignettes, respondents were asked to select proposals that they would recommend in practice.
335 responses from community pharmacists were analysed. Middle aged pharmacists, women, pharmacy managers and locums were over-represented compared to registration and workforce data. The mean (SD) BBQ score for the pharmacists was 31.37 (5.75), which was slightly more positive than in similar surveys of other groups. Those who had suffered from back pain seem to demonstrate more confidence (fewer negative feelings, more advice opportunities and better advice provision) in their perception of advice given in the pharmacy. Awareness of written information that could help to support practice was low. Reponses to the clinical vignettes were generally in line with the evidence base. Pharmacists expressed some caution about recommending activity. Most respondents said they would benefit from more education about back pain.
Those sampled generally expressed positive attitudes about back pain and were able to offer evidence based advice. Pharmacists may benefit from training to increase their ability and confidence to offer support for self-care in back pain. Further research would be useful to clarify the representativeness of the sample.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a community-wide, multi-intervention educational strategy (CoMPLI model) could enhance adoption of clinical guidelines and improve the use of antibiotics. DESIGN: Before-after trial using baseline and study periods with a control group. SETTING: A small community in central Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Health professionals, the general public, and the pharmaceutical industry. INTERVENTIONS: The educational strategy (CoMPLI), carried out during 6 winter months, consisted of continuing medical education sessions for health professionals and pharmaceutical representatives and a parallel public education campaign that included town hall meetings and pamphlets distributed by local pharmacists. The two main messages were: do not use antibiotics for viral respiratory infections, and use drugs recommended in the publication, Anti-infective Guidelines for Community-Acquired Infections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of antibiotic claims and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used to measure the likelihood of physicians prescribing first- or second-line agents compared with the previous year and compared with control physicians. RESULTS: Claims in the study community decreased by nearly 10% during the 6-month study period compared with the baseline period from the previous year. Study physicians were 29% less likely (OR-1 = 0.71, range 0.67 to 0.76) to prescribe second-line antibiotics during the study period than physicians in the rest of the province. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians participating in the pilot study were more likely to follow drug recommendations outlined in published guidelines.
Objective. To describe the implementation of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) designed to contribute to student pharmacists’ confidence and abilities in providing MTM.
Design. Sixty-four student pharmacists provided MTM services during an APPE in a communication and care center.
Assessment. Students conducted 1,495 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) identifying 6,056 medication-related problems. Ninety-eight percent of the students who completed a survey instrument (52 of 53) following the APPE expressed that they had the necessary knowledge and skills to provide MTM services. Most respondents felt that pharmacist participation in providing Medicare MTM could move the profession of pharmacy forward and that pharmacists will have some role in deciding the specific provisions of the Medicare MTM program (92% and 91%, respectively).
Conclusion. Students completing the MTM APPE received patient-centered experiences that supplemented their confidence, knowledge, and skill in providing MTM services in the future.
medication therapy management; advanced pharmacy practice experience; student pharmacists; patient-centered care
There is scant knowledge of the involvement of developing country pharmacists in mental healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to examine the existing role of Ghanaian community and hospital pharmacists in the management of mental illness, and to determine the barriers that hinder pharmacists' involvement in mental healthcare in Ghana.
A respondent self-completion questionnaire was randomly distributed to 120 superintendent community pharmacists out of an estimated 240 pharmacists in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. A purposive sampling method was utilized in selecting two public psychiatric hospital pharmacists in Accra, the capital city of Ghana for a face-to-face interview. A semi-structured interview guide was employed.
A 91.7% response rate was obtained for the community pharmacists' questionnaire survey. Approximately 65% of community pharmacists were not involved in mental health provision. Of the 35% who were, 57% counseled psychiatric patients and 44% of these dispensed medicines for mental illness. Perceived barriers that hindered community pharmacists' involvement in the management of mental health included inadequate education in mental health (cited by 81% of respondents) and a low level of encounter with patients (72%). The psychiatric hospital pharmacists were mostly involved in the dispensing of medicines from the hospital pharmacy.
Both community and hospital pharmacists in Ghana were marginally involved in the provision of mental healthcare. The greatest barrier cited was inadequate knowledge in mental health.
The pharmaceutical care approach serves as a model for medication review, involving collaboration between GPs, pharmacists, patients, and carers. Its use is advocated with older patients who are typically prescribed several drugs. However, it has yet to be thoroughly evaluated.
To estimate the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care for older people, shared between GPs and community pharmacists in the UK, relative to usual care.
Design of study
Multiple interrupted time-series design in five primary care trusts which implemented pharmaceutical care at 2-month intervals in random order. Patients acted as their own controls, and were followed over 3 years including their 12 months' participation in pharmaceutical care.
In 2002, 760 patients, aged ≥75 years, were recruited from 24 general practices in East and North Yorkshire. Sixty-two community pharmacies also took part. A total of 551 participants completed the study.
Pharmaceutical care was undertaken by community pharmacists who interviewed patients, developed and implemented pharmaceutical care plans together with patients' GPs, and thereafter undertook monthly medication reviews. Pharmacists and GPs attended training before the intervention. Outcome measures were the UK Medication Appropriateness Index, the Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36), and serious adverse events.
The intervention did not lead to any statistically significant change in the appropriateness of prescribing or health outcomes. Although the mental component of the SF-36 decreased as study participants become older, this trend was not affected by pharmaceutical care.
The RESPECT model of pharmaceutical care (Randomised Evaluation of Shared Prescribing for Elderly people in the Community over Time) shared between community pharmacists and GPs did not significantly change the appropriateness of prescribing or quality of life in older patients.
health services for the aged; medication therapy management; pharmaceutical care; polypharmacy; randomised controlled trial
Although the education of student pharmacists and the practice of pharmacy in Canada have many similarities with that in the United States, there also are differences. The planning of curricula in pharmacy education is of particular importance to the advancement of pharmacy in Canada because of significant changes in the scope of practice in several provinces, and in how community pharmacy is reimbursed for the services it can, or should, provide. Greater dialog between Canadian and American pharmacists has the potential not only to impact practice on both sides of the border but also to improve collaborations among Canadian and American pharmacy educators. This article provides background information and some suggestions on how to build partnerships in pharmacy education between Canada and the United States. Consortia-like arrangements have some particular promise, as does engaging border-states and provinces in regional meetings and other activities. By working together, Canadian and US pharmacy educators have the opportunity to implement the best of what each has to offer and to devise new and better ways to educate future and existing pharmacists.
Canada; pharmacy education; international
The family physician's relationship with the community pharmacist has tended to be biased. The physician sees the pharmacist simply as a dispenser of drugs. Physicians and pharmacists are usually physically separated, lessening their chances of a collaborative working relationship. Family physicians' traditional sources of drug information include journals, colleagues and drug company literature. However, when they have some form of regular interaction with a pharmacist, physicians tend to see the pharmacist as a main source of drug information. The proper use of medication involves three critical relationships: doctor/patient, doctor/pharmacist, and pharmacist/patient. The doctor/pharmacist relationship has several components: individual consultations, regular team meetings, and establishment of a limited formulary for physicians and residents. There is evidence that compliance is improved when the pharmacist is involved in patient education.
Pharmacist; family physician; primary care
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) course on Spanish community pharmacists’ participation in a pharmacotherapy follow-up program.
Design. Participation in a CPE course offered 4 times over a 4-year period via satellite teleconferencing was monitored and the data analyzed to determine the course’s impact on community pharmacists’ participation in a pharmacotherapy follow-up program.
Assessment. Community pharmacists’ participation in the pharmaceutical care CPE course had a slightly positive impact on their participation in the pharmacotherapy follow-up program. In the best profiles, there was a probability of 7.3% that participants would participate in the pharmacotherapy follow-up program.
Conclusions. Completion of pharmaceutical care CPE courses did not have a significant impact on pharmacists’ participation in a pharmacotherapy follow-up program.
continuing pharmacy education; distance education; pharmaceutical care; pharmacotherapy follow-up
Objective To determine whether home based medication review by pharmacists affects hospital readmission rates among older people.
Design Randomised controlled trial.
Setting Home based medication review after discharge from acute or community hospitals in Norfolk and Suffolk.
Participants 872 patients aged over 80 recruited during an emergency admission (any cause) if returning to own home or warden controlled accommodation and taking two or more drugs daily on discharge.
Intervention Two home visits by a pharmacist within two weeks and eight weeks of discharge to educate patients and carers about their drugs, remove out of date drugs, inform general practitioners of drug reactions or interactions, and inform the local pharmacist if a compliance aid is needed. Control arm received usual care.
Main outcome measure Total emergency readmissions to hospital at six months. Secondary outcomes included death and quality of life measured with the EQ-5D.
Results By six months 178 readmissions had occurred in the control group and 234 in the intervention group (rate ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.58; P = 0.009, Poisson model). 49 deaths occurred in the intervention group compared with 63 in the control group (hazard ratio = 0.75, 0.52 to 1.10; P = 0.14). EQ-5D scores decreased (worsened) by a mean of 0.14 in the control group and 0.13 in the intervention group (difference = 0.01, -0.05 to 0.06; P = 0.84, t test).
Conclusions The intervention was associated with a significantly higher rate of hospital admissions and did not significantly improve quality of life or reduce deaths. Further research is needed to explain this counterintuitive finding and to identify more effective methods of medication review.
To implement a simulation-based educational experience focused on medical emergencies in an ambulatory pharmacy setting.
Second-year student pharmacists were assigned randomly to groups and played the role of pharmacists in a community pharmacy setting in which a simulated patient experienced 1 of 5 emergency scenarios: medication-related allergic reaction, acute asthma attack, hypoglycemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The students were expected to use patient assessment techniques to determine which emergency the simulated patient was experiencing and the appropriate intervention. Following each simulation, a debriefing session was conducted.
Eighty-two student pharmacists completed the simulation activity. Ninety-three percent of student groups correctly identified the emergency. A post-activity survey instrument was administered, and 83% of responders indicated this activity was effective or very effective.
Simulation of emergencies seen in an ambulatory pharmacy setting allowed students to assert knowledge, practice communication skills, apply assessment techniques, and work as a team in a low-risk environment.
patient simulation; community pharmacy; emergency care; ambulatory care
Objectives. To evaluate hospital and outpatient pharmacists’ pharmacogenomics knowledge before and 2 months after participating in a targeted, case-based pharmacogenomics continuing education program.
Design. As part of a continuing education program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), pharmacists were provided with a fundamental pharmacogenomics education program.
Evaluation. An 11-question, multiple-choice, electronic survey instrument was distributed to 272 eligible pharmacists at a single campus of a large, academic healthcare system. Pharmacists improved their pharmacogenomics test scores by 0.7 questions (pretest average 46%; posttest average 53%, p=0.0003).
Conclusions. Although pharmacists demonstrated improvement, overall retention of educational goals and objectives was marginal. These results suggest that the complex topic of pharmacogenomics requires a large educational effort in order to increase pharmacists’ knowledge and comfort level with this emerging therapeutic opportunity.
pharmacogenomics; continuing education; genetic testing; survey; personalized medicine