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1.  Quantifying Published Scholarly Works of Experiential Education Directors 
Objective. To determine the amount and potential impact of scholarly works that directors of experiential education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy have published since 2001.
Methods. A search in Web of Science was used to identify publications and citations for the years 2001-2011 by experiential education directors as identified by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Roster of Faculty and Professional Staff in 2011. Publication productivity was analyzed by position title, faculty rank, and type of institution (public vs private, research vs nonresearch-intensive). Types of published works were characterized, related citations were identified, and a reported h-index was collected for each person who published during this period.
Results. Ninety-seven of 226 (43%) experiential education directors published 344 scholarly works which had received 1841 citations, for an average of 1 publication every 3 years and an average citation rate of 5.3 per publication. Directors at publicly funded and research-intensive institutions published slightly more than did their counterparts at private and nonresearch-intensive schools. Publications were concentrated in 6 journals with a weighted mean publication impact factor of 1.5.
Conclusion. Many experiential education directors have published scholarly works even though their titles and ranks vary widely. While the quantity of such works may not be large, the impact is similar to that of other pharmacy practice faculty members. These results could be used to characterize the scholarly performance of experiential education directors in recent years as well as to establish a culture of scholarship in this emerging career track within pharmacy education.
doi:10.5688/ajpe778167
PMCID: PMC3806951  PMID: 24159208
experiential education; scholarship; scholarly works; publication; culture of scholarship; scholarly performance; publication metrics
2.  A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006).
Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767127
PMCID: PMC3448465  PMID: 23049099
academia; pharmacy practice; faculty; publications; scholarship
3.  Pharmaceutical Science Faculty Publication Records at Research-Intensive Pharmacy Colleges and Schools 
Objective. To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members’ publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated.
Results. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members’ colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (p<0.01 for each). The median number of cumulative publications per faculty member was 34 (range, 0-370).
Conclusion. Significant differences exist in yearly and cumulative publication rates for faculty members and bibliometric indices among pharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.
doi:10.5688/ajpe769173
PMCID: PMC3508487  PMID: 23193337
publications; scholarship; faculty; pharmaceutical sciences; faculty member productivity
4.  Multi-Institutional Study of Women and Underrepresented Minority Faculty Members in Academic Pharmacy 
Objectives. To examine trends in the numbers of women and underrepresented minority (URM) pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years, and determine factors influencing women faculty members’ pursuit and retention of an academic pharmacy career.
Methods. Twenty-year trends in women and URM pharmacy faculty representation were examined. Women faculty members from 9 public colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed regarding demographics, job satisfaction, and their academic pharmacy career, and relationships between demographics and satisfaction were analyzed.
Results. The number of women faculty members more than doubled between 1989 and 2009 (from 20.7% to 45.5%), while the number of URM pharmacy faculty members increased only slightly over the same time period. One hundred fifteen women faculty members completed the survey instrument and indicated they were generally satisfied with their jobs. The academic rank of professor, being a nonpharmacy practice faculty member, being tenured/tenure track, and having children were associated with significantly lower satisfaction with fringe benefits. Women faculty members who were tempted to leave academia for other pharmacy sectors had significantly lower salary satisfaction and overall job satisfaction, and were more likely to indicate their expectations of academia did not match their experiences (p<0.05).
Conclusions. The significant increase in the number of women pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years may be due to the increased number of female pharmacy graduates and to women faculty members’ satisfaction with their careers. Lessons learned through this multi-institutional study and review may be applicable to initiatives to improve recruitment and retention of URM pharmacy faculty members.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7617
PMCID: PMC3298405  PMID: 22412206
underrepresented minority faculty members; women faculty members; recruitment; retention; diversity
5.  Online journals' impact on the citation patterns of medical faculty 
Purpose: The purpose was to determine the impact of online journals on the citation patterns of medical faculty. This study looked at whether researchers were more likely to limit the resources they consulted and cited to those journals available online rather than those only in print.
Setting: Faculty publications from the college of medicine at a large urban university were examined for this study. The faculty publications from a regional medical college of the same university were also examined in the study. The number of online journals available for faculty, staff, and students at this institution has increased from an initial core of 15 online journals in 1998 to over 11,000 online journals in 2004.
Methodology: Searches by author affiliation were performed in the Web of Science to find all articles written by faculty members in the college of medicine at the selected institution. Searches were conducted for the following years: 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2002. Cited references from each faculty-authored article were recorded, and the corresponding cited journals were coded into four categories based on their availability at the institution in this study: print only, print and online, online only, and not owned. Results were analyzed using SPSS.
Results: The number of journals cited per year continued to increase from 1993 to 2002. The results did not indicate that researchers were more likely to cite online journals or were less likely to cite journals only in print. At the regional location where the number of print-only journals was minimal, use of the print-only journals did decrease in 2002, although not significantly.
Conclusion/Discussion: It is possible that electronic access to information (i.e., online databases) has had a positive impact on the number of articles faculty will cite. Results of this study suggest, at this point, that faculty are still accessing the print-only collection, at least for research purposes, and are therefore not sacrificing quality for convenience.
PMCID: PMC1082939  PMID: 15858625
6.  Status of Pharmacy Practice Experience Education Programs 
Objective. To assess financial, personnel, and curricular characteristics of US pharmacy practice experiential education programs and follow-up on results of a similar survey conducted in 2001.
Methods. Experiential education directors at 118 accredited US pharmacy colleges and schools were invited to participate in a blinded, Web-based survey in 2011. Aggregate responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and combined with data obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to assess program demographics, faculty and administrative organizational structure, and financial support.
Results. The number of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites had increased by 24% for medium, 50% for large, and 55% for very large colleges and schools. Introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) sites outnumbered APPEs twofold. The average experiential education team included an assistant/associate dean (0.4 full-time equivalent [FTE]), a director (1.0 FTE), assistant/associate director (0.5 FTE), coordinator (0.9 FTE), and multiple administrative assistants (1.3 FTE). Most faculty members (63%-75%) were nontenure track and most coordinators (66%) were staff members. Estimated costs to operate an experiential education program represented a small percentage of the overall expense budget of pharmacy colleges and schools.
Conclusion. To match enrollment growth, pharmacy practice experiential education administrators have expanded their teams, reorganized responsibilities, and found methods to improve cost efficiency. These benchmarks will assist experiential education administrators to plan strategically for future changes.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78472
PMCID: PMC4028581  PMID: 24850934
experiential learning; experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; introductory pharmacy practice experiences; pharmacy faculty; faculty development; administration; organizational structure; financial support; salary; budget
7.  Essential Elements for a Pharmacy Practice Mentoring Program 
Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty members has dramatically increased. While some faculty members gain teaching experience during postgraduate residency training, new pharmacy practice faculty members often need professional development to meet the demands of their academic responsibilities. A mentoring program can be 1 means of improving faculty success and retention. Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have developed formal mentoring programs, whereas several others have informal processes in place. This paper discusses those programs and the literature available, and makes recommendations on the structure of mentoring programs.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77223
PMCID: PMC3602847  PMID: 23519448
mentoring; faculty development; mentor; pharmacy practice; faculty
8.  Pharmacy Students' Participation in a Research Experience Culminating in Journal Publication 
Objectives
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy.
Methods
A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy.
Results
Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2865413  PMID: 20498740
pharmacy student; publication; scholarship; faculty recruitment; journal
9.  Research productivity of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2006;82(969):462-464.
Objective
To analyse the quality and quantity of scientific publications of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut (AUB) during a six year period (1996–2001)
Methods
The study included all faculty members in the medical school of AUB in the year 2001. A Medline search inclusive of the years 1996–2001 was done for each faculty member and a total number of 881 publications was obtained.
Results
The faculty consisted of 203 members. Their average productivity rate (mean (SD)) was 1.24 (1.38) publications/faculty member/year (PFY), with a mean impact factor of 2.69 (4.63). Eighteen per cent of the faculty did not have any publication in the six year study period, and only 20% had two or more publications per year. There was a significantly higher publication rate among newly recruited faculty members (0.93 (1.40) PFY for those appointed before 1990, 1.45 (1.24) PFY for those appointed during 1990–1995, and 1.67 (1.43) for those appointed after 1995, p = 0.007), and among those who are younger in age (p<0.01). Collaboration with international investigators resulted in more original publications than work done only at AUB (65% v 35%, p<0.001), and a higher journal impact factor for the publications (3.20 (3.85) v 1.71 (2.36), p<0.05).
Conclusions
This is one of the first studies that analyse the research productivity of the medical faculty in a university setting in a developing country. It shows a wide variation in the research productivity of the faculty members that seems to be related to individual as well as institutional characteristics. Further analysis is needed to define and characterise these factors.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2005.042713
PMCID: PMC2563770  PMID: 16822923
research productivity; medical faculty; developing country
10.  Barriers to Scholarship in Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy Practice Faculty 
There has been an increased emphasis on scholarly activities by health sciences faculty members given the importance of the promotion of public health over the last 50 years. Consequently, faculty members are required to place greater emphasis on scholarly activities while maintaining their teaching and service responsibilities. This increasing requirement of scholarly activities has placed great demands on clinical practice faculty members and it has made their management of clinical practice, teaching responsibilities, and expectations for promotion and tenure a difficult task. This retrospective literature review identifies barriers to the scholarship activities of clinical faculty members in dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy and discusses strategies for enabling faculty members to pursue scholarly activities in the current health science academic environment. The review indicates commonalities of barriers across these 4 disciplines and suggests strategies that could be implemented by all of these disciplines to enable clinical practice faculty members to pursue scholarly activities.
PMCID: PMC2064889  PMID: 17998988
scholarship; promotion; practice faculty; medicine; dentistry; pharmacy; nursing
11.  Establishment of a Multi-State Experiential Pharmacy Program Consortium 
In 2002, a regional consortium was created for schools and colleges of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama to assist experiential education faculty and staff members in streamlining administrative processes, providing required preceptor development, establishing a professional network, and conducting scholarly endeavors. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy with many shared experiential practice sites formed a consortium to help experiential faculty and staff members identify, discuss, and solve common experience program issues and challenges. During its 5 years in existence, the Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium has coordinated experiential schedules, developed and implemented uniform evaluation tools, coordinated site and preceptor development activities, established a work group for educational research and scholarship, and provided opportunities for networking and professional development. Several consortium members have received national recognition for their individual experiential education accomplishments. Through the activities of a regional consortium, members have successfully developed programs and initiatives that have streamlined administrative processes and have the potential to improve overall quality of experiential education programs. Professionally, consortium activities have resulted in 5 national presentations.
PMCID: PMC2508716  PMID: 18698386
experiential education; consortium; introductory pharmacy practice experience; advanced pharmacy practice experience
12.  Pharmacy Student Debt and Return on Investment of a Pharmacy Education 
Objective. To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential.
Methods. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor.
Results. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160).
Conclusion. Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7815
PMCID: PMC3930253  PMID: 24558273
13.  Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objectives
To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact.
Design
A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills.
Assessment
The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy.
Conclusion
The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services.
PMCID: PMC2661166  PMID: 19325954
community pharmacy; pharmaceutical services; administration; advanced pharmacy practice experience
14.  Assessment of Full-time Faculty Preceptors By Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico 
Objective. To identify the manner in which colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico assess full-time faculty preceptors.
Methods. Directors of pharmacy practice (or equivalent title) were invited to complete an online, self-administered questionnaire.
Results. Seventy of the 75 respondents (93.3%) confirmed that their college or school assessed full-time pharmacy faculty members based on activities related to precepting students at a practice site. The most commonly reported assessment components were summative student evaluations (98.5%), type of professional service provided (92.3%), scholarly accomplishments (86.2%), and community service (72.3%). Approximately 42% of respondents indicated that a letter of evaluation provided by a site-based supervisor was included in their assessment process. Some colleges and schools also conducted onsite assessment of faculty members.
Conclusions. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy assess full-time faculty-member preceptors via summative student assessments, although other strategies are used. Given the important role of preceptors in ensuring students are prepared for pharmacy practice, colleges and schools of pharmacy should review their assessment strategies for full-time faculty preceptors, keeping in mind the methodologies used by other institutions.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768148
PMCID: PMC3475777  PMID: 23129847
assessment; faculty; preceptors
15.  Health research barriers in the faculties of two medical institutions in India 
Background
Health policy formation refers to the design of a conceptual framework to find possibilities, facilitate feasibilities, and identify strong and weak points, as well as insufficiencies, by research. Doing research should clarify qualities and standards for policy and decision-making to enable the success of development of health care in a country. Evaluation of the impact of health interventions is particularly poorly represented in public health research. This study attempted to identify barriers and facilitators of health research among faculty members in two major institutions in India, ie, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) and the University College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (GTB) Hospital in Delhi.
Methods
The participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that canvassed individual characteristics, ie, years of experience, place of work, academic rank, final educational qualification, work setting, educational group, primary activity, and number of publications in the previous 5 years. Barriers and facilitators were categorized into personal, resources, access, and administration groups. The data were processed using SPSS version 16, independent t-tests, Chi-square tests, and multivariate logistic regression.
Results
The total number of faculty members at both institutions was 599, 456 (76%) of whom participated in this study. The primary activities reported by faculty at UCMS (teaching) and Faculty at AIIMS reported (Research and Provision of health care services) as a major activity (P < 0.01). The majority of faculty members at UCMS and GTB Hospital were professors, whereas most of the faculty members at AIIMS were associate professors (P < 0.01). Of 47 barriers and facilitating factors, there were 26 barriers and 21 facilitating factors at AIIMS and 39 barriers and eight facilitating factors at UCMS. Faculty members at UCMS had 6.572 times more barriers to health research than those at AIIMS.
Conclusion
Close proximity between AIIMS and the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Medical Library, housing, transport, and a good reference library with an adequate knowledge support system provided suitable opportunities for faculty members at AIIMS to do research. To overcome the barriers, institutions must have enough financial support, decreased nonessential clinical, laboratory, and service schedule duties on the part of faculty members, preparation of good and relevant statistical courses and workshops, and access to good statistical software packages.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S27841
PMCID: PMC3422115  PMID: 22973109
health research; barriers; facilitators; medical institutions
16.  A Formalized Teaching, Practice, and Research Partnership with the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System: A Model for Advancing Academic Partnerships 
In 1999, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy expanded its Dallas/Fort Worth presence by creating a regional campus for pharmacy students in their third and fourth years (P3 and P4 years) of the program. This expansion was driven by the need for additional practice sites. The VANTHCS was an obvious choice for the school due to the similarity of missions for clinical practice, education, and research. The VANTHCS and pharmacy school renovated a 4,000 square foot building, which includes classrooms, conference rooms, a student lounge, and faculty offices (expanded to 8,000 square feet in 2003). To date, the school has invested $1 million in the building. From a practice perspective, VANTHCS purchases faculty professional services from the school to augment its clinical specialist staff. These professional practice contracts provide VANTHCS with 12 additional clinical pharmacy specialists serving 50% of their time in multiple specialty areas. The collaboration has also allowed for expansion of clinical teaching, benefitting both institutions. In addition to the pharmacy student interns on P3 and P4 practice experiences, the collaboration allows for 8 to 10 postgraduate pharmacy residents to train with VANTHCS clinical specialists and school faculty members each year. The VANTHCS/pharmacy school collaboration has clearly enhanced the ability of both institutions to exceed their teaching, research, and practice goals in a cost-effective manner.
PMCID: PMC2828302  PMID: 20221334
veterans affairs health system; partnership; practice experiences
17.  A Comprehensive Approach to Faculty Development 
The purpose of this report was to describe the development, implementation, and outcomes from 3 complementary programs to facilitate the development of faculty members. The Faculty Development Committee (FDC) at the University of Tennessee developed 3 new complementary programs: the Individual Faculty Development Program to encourage faculty members to assess and identify their own specific developmental needs; the Seed Research Grant Program to fund scholarly activities by faculty; and the Technology Support Program to foster financial support of technology upgrades crucial for meeting the research, education, and service needs of faculty members. Eighteen faculty members participated in the Individual Faculty Development Program during the first 2 academic years and all provided positive feedback about their experiences. The Seed Research Grant Program funded 6 projects during its inaugural year. Limited outcome data from these 2 programs are extremely favorable relative to grant submissions and publications, and enhanced educational offerings and evaluations. The Technology Support Fund was initiated in the 2005-2006 academic year. The 3 faculty development programs initiated are offered as examples whereby faculty members are given a high degree of self-determination relative to identifying programs that will effectively contribute to their growth as academicians. Other colleges of pharmacy are encouraged to consider similar initiatives to foster individual faculty development at this critical period of growth within academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC1636916  PMID: 17149407
faculty development; research; technology
18.  E-Learning as New Method of Medical Education 
Acta Informatica Medica  2008;16(2):102-117.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED
Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners’ activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article evaluates the current status and level of tele-education development in Bosnia and Herzegovina outlining its components, faculty development needs for implementation and the possibility of its integration as official learning standard in biomedical curricula in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tele-education refers to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance knowledge and performance. Tele-education in biomedical education is widely accepted in the medical education community where it is mostly integrated into biomedical curricula forming part of a blended learning strategy. There are many biomedical digital repositories of e-learning materials worldwide, some peer reviewed, where instructors or developers can submit materials for widespread use. First pilot project with the aim to introduce tele-education in biomedical curricula in Bosnia and Herzegovina was initiated by Department for Medical Informatics at Medical Faculty in Sarajevo in 2002 and has been developing since. Faculty member’s skills in creating tele-education differ from those needed for traditional teaching and faculty rewards must recognize this difference and reward the effort. Tele-education and use of computers will have an impact of future medical practice in a life long learning. Bologna process, which started last years in European countries, provide us to promote and introduce modern educational methods of education at biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cathedra of Medical informatics and Cathedra of Family medicine at Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo started to use Web based education as common way of teaching of medical students. Satisfaction with this method of education within the students is good, but not yet suitable for most of medical disciplines at biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
doi:10.5455/aim.2008.16.102-117
PMCID: PMC3789161  PMID: 24109154
Medical education; Distance learning; Bosnia and Herzegovina
19.  Mental Health and Psychiatric Pharmacy Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses.
Methods
An 11-item survey instrument (54% response) was developed and mailed to 91 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Over 75% of colleges and schools employed a psychiatric pharmacist; however, less than 50% of faculty teaching psychiatric pharmacy content were psychiatric pharmacy specialists as defined in the study. All colleges and schools included psychiatric topics as part of a therapeutics-based course with an average of 9.5% of course content devoted to these topics. About 25% of colleges and schools offered elective didactic courses in psychiatric pharmacy. Only 2 schools required a psychiatric pharmacy advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), but about 92% offered elective APPEs. The mean number of hours spent on lecture- and case-based instruction across all colleges and schools was highest for depression and lowest for personality disorders.
Conclusions
There is a need for colleges and schools of pharmacy to better identify and standardize the minimal acceptable level of didactic instruction in psychiatric pharmacy as well as the minimal level of specialty qualifications for faculty members who teach this subject.
PMCID: PMC1847556  PMID: 17429504
psychiatric pharmacy; pharmacy education; curriculum; mental health
20.  A Train-the-Trainer Approach to a Shared Pharmacogenomics Curriculum for US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess pharmacy faculty trainers’ perceptions of a Web-based train-the-trainer program for PharmGenEd, a shared pharmacogenomics curriculum for health professional students and licensed clinicians.
Methods. Pharmacy faculty trainers (n=58, representing 39 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and 1 school from Canada) participated in a train-the-trainer program consisting of up to 9 pharmacogenomics topics. Posttraining survey instruments assessed faculty trainers’ perceptions toward the training program and the likelihood of their adopting the educational materials as part of their institution’s curriculum.
Results. Fifty-five percent of faculty trainers reported no prior formal training in pharmacogenomics. There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in self-reported ability to teach pharmacogenomics to pharmacy students after participants viewed the webinar and obtained educational materials. Nearly two-thirds (64%) indicated at least a “good” likelihood of adopting PharmGenEd materials at their institution during the upcoming academic year. More than two-thirds of respondents indicated interest in using PharmGenEd materials to train licensed health professionals, and 95% indicated that they would recommend the program to other pharmacy faculty members.
Conclusion. As a result of participating in the train-the-trainer program in pharmacogenomics, faculty member participants gained confidence in teaching pharmacogenomics to their students, and the majority of participants indicated a high likelihood of adopting the program at their institution. A Web-based train-the-trainer model appears to be a feasible strategy for training pharmacy faculty in pharmacogenomics.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610193
PMCID: PMC3530055  PMID: 23275658
pharmacogenomics; curriculum; pharmacy colleges and schools; faculty development; train-the-trainer
21.  The Global Health Network and globalization of higher education 
The year 2001 and the next millennium will soon be upon us. The major gains in health in the 20th century were primarily the result of improvements in public health including sanitation and immunization. Global health improvements will occur in the 21st century through improvements in information (in particular health training). We will describe a new paradigm for transnational training, the supercourse. In the next century global lecture-shareware training will take place, with Deming based quality control systems on the Internet. Faculty will thus share their best, most passionate lectures on the internet.
During the past 100 years there has been a 25-year increase in life expectancy. It has been estimated that 24 of the 25 years were the result of prevention. Most prevention activity is sharing of information. We are working with leaders from WHO, the World Bank, IBM, NASA, PAHO to create a discipline called telepreventive medicine. This is the application of low band with information systems (the Internet) to large numbers of well people to prevent disease. One of the most important aspect of this work is the establishment globalisation of prevention education; the Supercourse.
Question: What is the best way to improve health training/research?
Answer: Improve the lectures.
Question: How do we improve health training/research lectures:
Answer: Have academic faculty worldwide share their lectures:
Question: Will faculty share lectures?
Answer: Yes, The Supercourse has 1107 faculty from 101 countries who created a Library of Lectures with 110 lectures on the Internet with quality control, and cutting edge cognitive design. This is being shared worldwide.
We are developing a "Library of Lectures" with passionate lectures in public health from across the world such as seen here from South Africa. We propose to expand this to all areas of research in health. Our program consists of:
Shareware: A Global faculty is developing and sharing their best, most passionate lectures. This benefits all. The experienced faculty member can beef up their lectures that are not cutting edge. New instructors reduce preparation time and improve their lectures, as they can employ state of the art lectures from others. Faculty in developing countries have access to current public health information for the first time. The concept is that of a library of lectures for all to use is in many ways similar to that of "shareware" on the computer.
Statistical Quality Assurance: We have established a Deming Model of statistical quality control to monitor lectures over time
Supporting the teachers: The Library of Lectures consists of exciting lectures by public health experts in the field. The classroom teacher "takes" them out for free like a library book. There is no direct teaching of students from a distance, rather the concept of the system is to provide cutting edge material for all faculty to present.
Hypertext comic book: The lectures are icon driven, and the students can go deep into the Internet for more information through hyperlinks. It is based upon PowerPoint for ease of usage
Presentation Speed: We have discovered technologies to speed access to lectures world wide
Text books: The British Medical Association has put 2 current text books on line for us
Multilingual: For global use, this must be multilingual, the first lecture is in 8 languages
Voice-Sound Video: We are using state of the art Internet voice-video systems. We soon will be using "clickable" voice video
We have published over 68 papers in leading medical journals including the Lancet, British Medical Journal, Nature Medicine among others. We are working with PAHO to put mirrored servers into every medical school in the Americas this year, with 5 years we should reach globally all medical schools. WHO has developed a Supercourse.
Initial pilot studies reveal that 2500 individuals will see each lecture each year, which is 50 times that of our classroom teaching. We have beta tested lectures in 2 centers in Japan and one in South Africa with very positive results. We are now developing a Chinese Heritage course.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1.suppl1.e5
PMCID: PMC1761712
22.  Faculty Attitudes and Scholarly Productivity Resulting From a Seminar Course 
Objectives
To determine faculty attitudes toward a professional seminar course for PharmD students, document scholarly production derived from the course, and ascertain whether that scholarly production or other faculty characteristics affected attitudes toward the course.
Methods
Faculty members served as facilitators for pharmacy students enrolled in a professional seminar course. A 34-item survey instrument intended to identify faculty attitudes toward the course and document scholarly productivity was developed. All 40 faculty facilitators involved in the course were asked to complete the survey instrument.
Results
Of the 30 (75%) faculty members who completed the survey instrument, 20 had an overall positive attitude toward the course. Faculty members had generated approximately 90 peer-reviewed scholarly works over a 9-year period as a result of the course. Significant associations were found between faculty members' attitudes toward the course and academic rank, academic department, and scholarly production derived from the course.
Conclusions
Faculty members who had advanced academic rank, an appointment in the pharmacy practice department, and scholarly productivity as a result of serving as a facilitator for a Professional Seminar Course were more likely to have positive attitudes toward the course.
PMCID: PMC2254233  PMID: 18330047
faculty productivity; research; scholarship; survey
23.  School-wide Clinical Intervention System to Document Pharmacy Students' Impact on Patient Care 
Objectives
To implement and evaluate a school wide, Web-based clinical intervention system to document types and impact of pharmacy students' clinical activities during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Methods
A clinical intervention form was developed by pharmacy practice faculty consensus and uploaded to a secure Web site. Prior to APPEs, all pharmacy students were trained on the purpose and use of the system as well as strategies to document interventions appropriately.
Results
Over the 3-year period of data collection, 15,393 interventions were documented. Most common intervention types included dosage adjustments, education of patients and providers, and optimization of therapeutic regimens. The majority of the interventions were accepted by the medical team and resulted in positive clinical and economic outcomes.
Conclusions
Our school-wide system allowed students and faculty members to document clinical activities. Reporting can serve a number of purposes, including incorporation into student portfolios and faculty merit and promotion dossiers, and demonstration of the positive impact on patient care.
PMCID: PMC2829142  PMID: 20221365
clinical interventions; documentation; patient care; advanced pharmacy practice experience
24.  College and School of Pharmacy Characteristics Associated With US News and World Report Rankings 
Objective. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report.
Methods. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model.
Results. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both).
Conclusion. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77355
PMCID: PMC3631730  PMID: 23610473
pharmacy education; ranking; assessment; teaching; publications; scholarship
25.  Part-time and Job-Share Careers Among Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78349
PMCID: PMC3996381  PMID: 24761010
academia; alternative work schedule; clinical faculty members

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