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1.  Clinical Management of Mid-Root Fracture in Maxillary Central Incisors: Case Reports 
Management of mid-root fractures presents a formidable challenge for clinicians because of the difficulty of achieving a stable reunion of fracture fragments. This article presents two varied treatment options for mid-root fractures. A 15-year-old female reported an impact injury to the maxillary anterior teeth 2 days after its occurrence. Clinically, the maxillary left central incisor was palatally-extruded with a negative vitality response and radiographic evidence of an oblique fracture at the middle third of the root. An endodontic implant was employed which utilized an open technique and has been on follow-up for ten months. A 32-year-old male reported an injury, which resulted in a mobile maxillary right central incisor, three months after its occurrence. Through clinical and radiographic means, a discolored, extruded, and non-vital maxillary right central incisor with an oblique root fracture at the alveolar-crest level was observed. Exploratory surgery was performed; an apical barrier was created with a mineral trioxide aggregate and obturated with gutta percha. The fragments were stabilized with a fiber post and patient has been on follow-up for five months. Short-term follow-up for both of the cases showed promising results both clinically and radiographically.
doi:10.4248/IJOS10067
PMCID: PMC3470102  PMID: 21404971
endodontic implant; fiber post; maxillary central incisor; root fracture; titanium min screw
2.  Multidisciplinary Approach for the Treatment of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Anterior Teeth 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2014;2014:472759.
Dental trauma can lead to a wide range of injuries of which crown and root fractures are examples. Crown-root fractures often need complex treatment planning. This case report describes the use of MTA in the multidisciplinary management of a patient with a horizontally fractured central incisor and luxation in a different central incisor. A 42-year-old female patient presented within 1 h of receiving direct trauma to her maxillary area. Clinical examination revealed that the right and left maxillary central incisors presented mobility and sensitivity to percussion and palpation but no sensitivity to thermal stimulations. Occlusal displacement with extrusion in the left maxillary central incisor and luxation in the right maxillary central incisor was observed. Radiographic examination revealed horizontal root fracture at the apical third of the left maxillary central incisor. Root fracture in the right maxillary incisor was not observed. Endodontic and aesthetic restorative treatments were completed. MTA showed a good long-term outcome when used in root-fractured and luxated teeth. In addition, composite resin restoration provided satisfactory aesthetic results even after 15 months.
doi:10.1155/2014/472759
PMCID: PMC4251642  PMID: 25485158
3.  Arterial blood architecture of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens 
Croatian Medical Journal  2013;54(2):180-184.
Aim
To describe vascular anatomy of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens dissected from human cadavers.
Methods
Twenty dentate maxillary specimens were dissected, anatomically prepared, and injected with liquid latex for a better visualization of the maxillary sinus artery.
Results
We found an intraosseous anastomosis in 100% and an extraosseous anastomosis in 90% of the cases. The anterior lateral wall of the maxillary sinus was transversed by two anastomoses between the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) and the infraorbital artery (IOA). The PSAA was divided into a gingival and dental branch. The gingival branch anastomosed with the terminal extraosseous branch of the extraosseous anastomosis (EOA) and the dental branch with the intraosseous branch of the intraosseous anastomosis (IOA). The mean distances from the alveolar ridge to the extraosseus anastomosis were 16 mm for the second maxillary molar, 12.3 mm for the first maxillary molar, and 13.1 mm for the second maxillary premolar. The mean distances from the intraosseous anastomosis to the alveolar ridge were 17.7 mm for the second maxillary molar, 14.5 mm for the first maxillary molar, and 14.66 mm for the second maxillary premolar.
Conclusion
These findings provide relevant data for clinical dentistry in order to avoid bleeding complications and minimize the risk of injury to the arterial network of the maxillary sinus during surgical procedures in the dentate maxilla region.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2013.54.180
PMCID: PMC3641875  PMID: 23630145
4.  Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2014;2014:103808.
Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters.
doi:10.1155/2014/103808
PMCID: PMC3913030  PMID: 24523969
5.  Intraradicular Splinting with Endodontic Instrument of Horizontal Root Fracture 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2015;2015:505370.
Introduction. Root fractures, defined as fractures involving dentine, cementum, and pulpal and supportive tissues, constitute only 0.5–7% of all dental injuries. Horizontal root fractures are commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region and 75% of these fractures occur in the maxillary central incisors. Methods. A 14-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic three days after a traffic accident. In radiographic examination, the right maxillary central incisor was fractured horizontally in apical thirds. Initially, following local infiltrative anesthetics, the coronal fragment was repositioned and this was radiographically confirmed. Then the stabilization splint was applied and remained for three months. After three weeks, according to the results of the vitality tests, the right and left central incisors were nonvital. For the right central incisor, both the coronal and apical fragments were involved in the endodontic preparation. Results. For the right central tooth, both the coronal and apical root fragments were endodontically treated and obturated at a single visit with white mineral trioxide aggregate whilst the fragments were stabilized internally by insertion of a size 40 Hedstrom stainless-steel endodontic file into the canal. Conclusion. Four-year follow-up examination revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic findings with hard tissue repair of the fracture line.
doi:10.1155/2015/505370
PMCID: PMC4306357  PMID: 25648395
6.  Review of secondary alveolar cleft repair 
Introduction:
The alveolar cleft is a bony defect that is present in 75% of the patients with cleft lip and palate. Although secondary alveolar cleft repair is commonly accepted for these patients, nowadays, controversy still remains regarding the surgical technique, the timing of the surgery, the donor site, and whether the use of allogenic materials improve the outcomes. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the protocol, the surgical technique and the outcomes in a large population of patients with alveolar clefts that underwent secondary alveolar cleft repair.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 109 procedures in 90 patients with alveolar cleft were identified retrospectively after institutional review board approval was obtained. The patients were treated at a single institution during a period of 10 years (2001-2011). Data were collected regarding demographics, type of cleft, success parameters of the procedure (oronasal fistulae closure, unification of the maxillary segments, eruption and support of anterior teeth, support to the base of the nose, normal ridge form for prosthetic rehabilitation), donor site morbidity, and complications. Pre- and postoperative radiological examination was performed by means of orthopantomogram and computed tomography (CT) scan.
Results:
The average patient age was 14.2 years (range 4–21.3 years). There were 4 right alveolar-lip clefts, 9 left alveolar-lip clefts, 3 bilateral alveolar-lip clefts, 18 right palate-lip clefts, 40 left palate-lip clefts and 16 bilateral palate-lip clefts. All the success parameters were favorable in 87 patients. Iliac crest bone grafts were employed in all cases. There were three bone graft losses. In three cases, allogenic materials used in a first surgery performed in other centers, underwent infection and lacked consolidation. They were removed and substituted by autogenous iliac crest bone graft.
Conclusions:
The use of autogenous iliac crest for secondary alveolar bone grafting achieves all these several objectives: (1) to obtain maxillary arch continuity, (2) to maximize bone support for the dentition, (3) to stabilize the maxillary segments after orthodontic treatment, (4) to eliminate oronasal fistulae, (5) to provide nasal alar cartilage support, (6) to establish ideal alveolar morphology, and (7) to provide available bone with attached soft tissue for future endosteal implant placement in cases where there is a residual dental space. We advocate for the use of a minimal incision to obtain the iliac crest bone graft and for the use of a corticocancellous block of bone in combination with bone chips.
doi:10.4103/2231-0746.110083
PMCID: PMC3645611  PMID: 23662259
Clinical evaluation; retrospective review; secondary alveolar cleft repair
7.  Subcutaneous dissociative conscious sedation (sDCS) an alternative method for airway regional blocks: a new approach 
BMC Anesthesiology  2011;11:19.
Background
Predicted difficult airway is a definite indication for awake intubation and spontaneous ventilation. Airway regional blocks which are commonly used to facilitate awake intubation are sometimes impossible or forbidden. On the other hand deep sedation could be life threatening in the case of compromised airway.
The aim of this study is evaluating "Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation" (sDCS) as an alternative method to airway regional blocks for awake intubation.
Methods
In this prospective, non-randomized study, 30 patients with predicted difficult airway (laryngeal tumors), who were scheduled for direct laryngoscopic biopsy (DLB), underwent "Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation" (sDCS) exerted by intravenous fentanyl 3-4ug/kg and subcutaneous ketamine 0.6-0.7 mg/kg. The tongue and pharynx were anesthetized with lidocaine spray (4%). 10 minutes after a subcutaneous injection of ketamine direct laryngoscopy was performed. Extra doses of fentanyl 50-100 ug were administered if the patient wasn't cooperative enough for laryngoscopy.
Patients were evaluated for hemodynamic stability (heart rate and blood pressure), oxygen saturation (Spo2), patient cooperation (obedient to open the mouth for laryngoscopy and the number of tries for laryngoscopy), patient comfort (remaining moveless), hallucination, nystagmus and salivation (need for aspiration before laryngoscopy).
Results
Direct laryngoscopy was performed successfully in all patients. One patient needed extra fentanyl and then laryngoscopy was performed successfully on the second try. All patients were cooperative enough during laryngoscopy. Hemodynamic changes more than 20% occurred in just one patient. Oxygen desaturation (spo2< 90%) didn't occur in any patient.
Conclusions
Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation (sDCS) as a new approach to airway is an acceptable and safe method for awake intubation and it can be suggested as a noninvasive substitute of low complication rate for regional airway blocks.
Registration ID in IRCT
IRCT201012075333N1
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-11-19
PMCID: PMC3217901  PMID: 22029736
8.  Implant Site Development by Orthodontic Forced Eruption of Nontreatable Teeth: A Case Report 
The Open Dentistry Journal  2012;6:99-104.
Background:
Loss of bone and soft tissue attachment are common sequelae of periodontitis that may jeopardize the aesthetic outcome and compromise the functional and aesthetic outcomes of treatment. The following case report describes one of the most predictable techniques of vertical ridge augmentation, which is orthodontic extrusion or forced eruption of hopeless teeth.
Method:
A 34-year-old woman who presented with severe attachment loss and deep pockets was diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The mobile maxillary incisors were consequently extracted and were replaced with dental implants. However, prior to extraction, orthodontic extrusion of the hopeless incisors was performed to correct vertical ridge defects. Following extrusion and extraction of the maxillary incisors, to prevent soft tissue collapse and to preserve the papillae during socket healing, the crowns of the extracted teeth were used as pontics on a removable partial provisional denture. After 8 weeks, the implants were placed, and an immediate functional restoration was delivered. After 4 months of healing, a fixed definitive partial prosthesis was fabricated and delivered.
Result:
After periodontal treatment, over a 2-year period, the progression of aggressive periodontitis was controlled. The mean vertical movement of marginal bone was 3.6 mm. The use of the crowns of extracted teeth appears to be an effective method to maintain papillae.
Conclusions:
Orthodontic extrusion is a predictable method for the correction of vertical ridge defects. Orthodontic treatment does not aggravate or hasten the progression of aggressive periodontitis.
doi:10.2174/1874210601206010099
PMCID: PMC3377904  PMID: 22715348
Bone augmentation; dental implants; dental papilla; forced eruption; orthodontic extrusion; vertical ridge augmentation.
9.  Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2014;5(4):545-549.
A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.142829
PMCID: PMC4229770  PMID: 25395777
Congenitally missing mandibular central incisors; orthodontic space closure; traumatized maxillary Incisors
10.  Intubation Methods by Novice Intubators in a Manikin Model 
Tracheal Intubation is an important yet difficult skill to learn with many possible methods and techniques. Direct laryngoscopy is the standard method of tracheal intubation, but several instruments have been shown to be less difficult and have better performance characteristics than the traditional direct method. We compared 4 different intubation methods performed by novice intubators on manikins: conventional direct laryngoscopy, video laryngoscopy, Airtraq® laryngoscopy, and fiberoptic laryngoscopy. In addition, we attempted to find a correlation between playing videogames and intubation times in novice intubators. Video laryngoscopy had the best results for both our normal and difficult airway (cervical spine immobilization) manikin scenarios. When video was compared to direct in the normal airway scenario, it had a significantly higher success rate (100% vs 83% P=.02) and shorter intubation times (29.1±27.4 sec vs 45.9±39.5 sec, P=.03). In the difficult airway scenario video laryngoscopy maintained a significantly higher success rate (91% vs 71% P=0.04) and likelihood of success (3.2±1.0 95%CI [2.9–3.5] vs 2.4±0.9 95%CI [2.1–2.7]) when compared to direct laryngoscopy. Participants also reported significantly higher rates of self-confidence (3.5±0.6 95%CI [3.3–3.7]) and ease of use (1.5±0.7 95%CI [1.3–1.8]) with video laryngoscopy compared to all other methods. We found no correlation between videogame playing and intubation methods.
PMCID: PMC3796783  PMID: 24167768
11.  Difficult laryngoscopy and intubation in the Indian population: An assessment of anatomical and clinical risk factors 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(6):569-575.
Background and Aim:
Differences in patient characteristics due to race or ethnicity may influence the incidence of difficult airway. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation, as well as the anatomical features and clinical risk factors that influence them, in the Indian population.
Methods:
In 330 adult patients receiving general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation, airway characteristics and clinical factors were determined and their association with difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane grade 3 and 4) was analysed. Intubation Difficulty Scale score was used to identify degree of difficult laryngoscopy.
Results:
The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation was 9.7% and 4.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age and weight, male gender, modified Mallampati class (MMC) 3 and 4 in sitting and supine positions, inter-incisor distance (IID) ≤3.5 cm, thyromental (TMD) and sternomental distance, ratio of height and TMD, short neck, limited mandibular protrusion, decreased range of neck movement, history of snoring, receding mandible and cervical spondylosis were associated with difficult laryngoscopy. Multivariate analysis identified four variables that were independently associated with difficult laryngoscopy: MMC class 3 and 4, range of neck movement <80°, IID ≤ 3.5 cm and snoring.
Conclusions:
We found an incidence of 9.7% and 4.5% for difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation, respectively, in Indian patients with apparently normal airways. MMC class 3 and 4, range of neck movement <80°, IID ≤ 3.5 cm and snoring were independently related to difficult laryngoscopy. There was a high incidence (48.5%) of minor difficulty in intubation.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.123329
PMCID: PMC3883391  PMID: 24403616
Airway evaluation; difficult intubation; difficult laryngoscopy; intubation difficulty scale
12.  Prosthodontic rehabilitation of patient with flabby ridges with different impression techniques 
Indian Journal of Dentistry  2014;5(2):110-113.
A fibrous or flabby ridge is a superficial area of mobile soft tissue affecting the maxillary or mandibular alveolar ridges. It can develop when hyperplastic soft tissue replaces the alveolar bone and is a common finding particularly in the upper anterior region of long term denture wearers. Masticatory forces can displace this mobile denture-bearing tissue, leading to altered denture positioning and loss of peripheral seal. Forces exerted during the act of impression making can result in distortion of the mobile tissue. Unless managed appropriately by special impression techniques, such ‘flabby ridges’ adversely affect the support, retention and stability of complete dentures. This paper presents three case reports for prosthodontic rehabilitation of patient with flabby ridges with three different impression techniques.
doi:10.4103/0975-962X.135296
PMCID: PMC4184326  PMID: 25565737
Flabby tissue; impressions; irreversible hydrocolloid
13.  Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Rehabilitation of a Traumatised Deficient Maxillary Alveolar Ridge Using Symphyseal Block Graft Placement 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2013;2013:748405.
Deficiencies in the alveolar ridges cause multiple problems in achieving aesthetic and functional outcome of implant therapy and are commonly restored by using onlay graft from intraoral source. Careful assessment of the recipient as well as the donor site using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a prerequisite to ideal treatment planning. This paper highlights the critical role of CBCT in planning a successful rehabilitation of traumatised deficient anterior maxillary alveolar ridge using autogenous block graft from mandibular symphysis, followed by implant placement. A 21-year-old male reported with missing right maxillary lateral incisor due to traumatic avulsion 6 months back. A concavity was found on the labial aspect of edentulous area. Serial transplanar images on CBCT revealed gross irregular radiolucency in place of labial cortical plate. Using CBCT, size of the required block was estimated, and mandibular symphyseal area was evaluated for the feasibility of harvesting a graft of suitable dimension. Onlay block graft was harvested from mandibular symphysis and placed at the edentulous site to augment the alveolar ridge. Implants were placed 5 months later and loaded successfully after osseointegration. After 1 year of followup, implant-based prosthesis is working well, without any complications.
doi:10.1155/2013/748405
PMCID: PMC3674654  PMID: 23762650
14.  Submental tracheal intubation in oromaxillofacial surgery 
Background:
Oromaxillofacial surgical procedures present a unique set of problems both for the surgeon and for the anesthesist. Achieving dental occlusion is one of the fundamental aims of most oromaxillofacial procedures. Oral intubation precludes this surgical prerequisite of checking dental occlusion. Having the tube in the field of surgery is often disturbing for the surgeon too, especially in the patient for whom skull base surgery is planned. Nasotracheal intubation is usually contraindicated in the presence of nasal bone fractures seen either in isolation or as a component of Le Fort fractures. We utilized submental endotracheal intubation in such situations and the experience has been very satisfying.
Materials and Methods:
The technique has been used in 20 patients with maxillofacial injuries and those requiring Le Fort I approach with or without maxillary swing for skull base tumors. Initial oral intubation is done with a flexo-metallic tube. A small 1.5 cm incision is given in the submental region and a blunt tunnel is created in the floor of the mouth staying close to the lingual surface of mandible and a small opening is made in the mucosa. The tracheal end of tube is stabilized with Magil′s forceps, and the proximal end is brought out through submental incision by using a blunt hemostat taking care not to injure the pilot balloon. At the end of procedure extubation is done through submental location only.
Results:
The technique of submental intubation was used in a series of twenty patients from January 2005 to date. There were fifteen male patients and five female patients with a mean age of twenty seven years (range 10 to 52). Seven patients had Le Fort I osteotomy as part of the approach for skull base surgery. Twelve patients had midfacial fractures at the Le Fort II level, of which 8 patients in addition had naso-ethomoidal fractures and 10 patients an associated fracture mandible. Twelve patients were extubated in the theatre. Eight patients had delayed extubation in the post-operative ward between 1 and 3 days postoperatively.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, the submental intubation technique has proved to be a simple solution for many a difficult problem one would encounter during oromaxillofacial surgical procedures. It provides a safe and reliable route for the endotracheal tube during intubation while staying clear of the surgical field and permitting the checking of the dental occlusion, all without causing any significant morbidity for the patient. Its usefulness both in the emergency setting and for elective procedures has been proved. The simplicity of the technique with no specialized equipment or technical expertise required makes it especially advantageous. This technique therefore, when used in appropriate cases, allows both the surgeon and the anesthetist deliver a better quality of patient care.
doi:10.4103/0970-0358.41105
PMCID: PMC2739561  PMID: 19753195
Avoiding tracheostomy; oromaxillofacial surgery; intubation
15.  Analysis of location and prevalence of maxillary sinus septa 
Purpose
The sinus lift procedure requires detailed knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy and the possible anatomical variations. This study evaluated the location and prevalence of maxillary sinus septa using computed tomography (CT).
Methods
This study was based on the analysis of CT images for posterior maxilla which were obtained from patients who visited Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital during the period of June 2007 to December 2008. With the exclusion of cases presenting any pathological changes, 236 maxillary sinuses in 204 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The average age of the patients was 50.9. The cases were divided into two groups, an atrophy/edentulous segment and a non-atrophy/dentate segment, and maxillary sinus septa of less than 2.5 mm were not taken in-to consideration. The location of septa was also divided for analysis into 3 regions: the anterior (1st and 2nd premolar), middle (1st and 2nd molar) and posterior (behind 2nd molar) regions.
Results
In 54 (20.9%) of the 204 patients there were pathologic findings, and those patients were excluded from the analysis. Sinus septa were present in 58 (24.6%) of the 236 maxillary sinuses and in 55 (27%) of the 204 total patients. In the atrophy/edentulous ridge group (148 maxillary sinuses), 41 cases (27.7%) were found, and 17 cases (19.3%) were found in the non-atrophy/dentulous ridge group (88 maxillary sinuses). In terms of location, septa were found in 18 cases (27.3%) in the anterior, in 33 cases (50%) in the middle and in 15 cases (22.7%) in the posterior regions.
Conclusions
In the posterior maxilla, regardless of type of ridge (atrophy/edentulous or non-atrophy/dentate), the anatomical variation of sinus septa is diverse in its prevalence and location. Thus, accurate information on the maxillary sinus of the patient is essential and should be clearly understood by the surgeon to prevent possible complications during sinus lifting.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2010.40.2.56
PMCID: PMC2872816  PMID: 20498761
Computed tomography; Dental implants; Maxillary Sinus
16.  Management of horizontal root fractures by fabrication of canine protected occlusion using composite resin 
Traumatic injuries of the face often involve root fractures especially in anterior teeth. The prognosis and the treatment of the root fracture depend on the extent of the fracture line, general health and patient compliance. This case report outlines a new conservative trial treatment modality to stabilize the maxillary central incisors with horizontal root fracture on the cervical to middle third by fabricating canine guidance to remove loading on the traumatized maxillary central incisors during eccentric movements and thus inducing spontaneous healing of the fractured line between the fragments. Radiographs after thirty months showed adequate healing with no signs of pathological changes including root resorption, ankylosis or displacement. Long term follow-up revealed that vitality, stability and aesthetics were maintained and the patient was satisfied with the outcome.
doi:10.5395/rde.2012.37.3.180
PMCID: PMC3569405  PMID: 23429855
Canine guided occlusion; Root fracture; Spontaneous healing
17.  Pyriform Sinus Localization-Assisted Blind Intubation: Comparison with Laryngoscopic Intubation 
Background
Conventional endotracheal intubation requires laryngoscopy for a direct view of the glottis. However, laryngoscopy is associated with many potential complications. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of pyriform sinus localization-assisted blind orotracheal intubation with those of conventional laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation.
Material/Methods
A randomized, patient-blind, prospective study of 300 patients who underwent various operations was performed. One hundred patients were assigned to the laryngoscopic intubation group (laryngoscopy group), and 200 patients were assigned to the blind intubation group (blind group).
Results
The total intubation success rate in the blind group was similar to that in the laryngoscopy group (100% vs. 99%, respectively; p=0.33). Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in both groups was maintained at >98%. The intubation time was significantly shorter in the blind group than in the laryngoscopy group (9.7±3.4 s vs. 23.0±5.8 s, respectively; p<0.001). Postoperative complication rates were significantly lower in the blind group than in the laryngoscopy group. Recovery time from these symptoms was significantly shorter in the blind group than in the laryngoscopy group (p=0.004).
Conclusions
Pyriform sinus localization-assisted blind orotracheal intubation was shown to be more effective than conventional laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation in terms of success rate, intubation time, and postoperative complication rate. Moreover, it is less affected by common risk factors; thus, this method may be more beneficial in patients with difficult airways.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892195
PMCID: PMC4186215  PMID: 25252964
Blindness; Intubation; Intratracheal; Laryngoscopy; Pyriform Sinus
18.  Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown–root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor 
Dental Research Journal  2012;9(3):357-360.
This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.
PMCID: PMC3469907  PMID: 23087746
Complicated crown–root fracture; immature incisor; traumatized tooth
19.  A Rare Complication of Tracheal Intubation: Tongue Perforation 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2012;2012:281791.
Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury.
doi:10.1155/2012/281791
PMCID: PMC3465871  PMID: 23056962
20.  Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique 
Abstract
Luxational injuries to the permanent anterior teeth in children are a cause of concern. Palatal luxation of maxillary left central incisor with bleeding of gingival sulcus and fracture of maxillary right central incisor involving enamel and dentine in a 9-year- old girl is presented. The dental occlusion was deranged due to the luxation. Management consisted of repositioning of the luxated tooth using tongue blade under local anesthesia and composite build up of the fractured incisor. Tooth was stable in position with intact occlusion and no loss of vitality of pulp with a follow-up of 2 years. Tongue blade can be used as an alternative to forceful manual repositioning of teeth in selected cases.
How to cite this article: Sharma A, Hegde AM. Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):207-208.
doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1167
PMCID: PMC4155878  PMID: 25206169
Luxation; Tongue blade; Repositioning teeth; Trauma
21.  Horizontal ridge augmentation using a combination approach 
Resorption of alveolar bone - a common sequel of tooth loss jeopardizes the functional and esthetic outcome of treatment, especially in the maxillary anterior areas. Therefore, augmentation of deficient alveolar ridges is an important aspect of dental implant therapy. A case of severe maxillary ridge deficiency successfully treated with horizontal ridge augmentation to facilitate implant placement is described. Ridge augmentation was achieved using a combination of autogenous block graft, particulate grafting, and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Follow-up was done next day, after ten days, three months, and six months. Various approaches can be followed in order to achieve an increase in the ridge width. In our case, we used a combination of different techniques for ridge augmentation. A significant improvement in ridge width was noticed at six months thus facilitating the placement of implants.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.100928
PMCID: PMC3498720  PMID: 23162345
Autogenous block graft; GBR; ridge augmentation
22.  Reintubation in critically ill patients: procedural complications and implications for care 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):12.
Introduction
In critically ill patients, re-intubation is common and may be a high-risk procedure. Anticipating a difficult airway and identifying high-risk patients can allow time for life-saving preparation. Unfortunately, prospective studies have not compared the difficulty or complication rates associated with reintubation in this population.
Methods
We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective registry of in-hospital emergency airway management, focusing on patients that underwent multiple out-of-operating room intubations during a single hospitalization. Our main outcomes of interest were technical difficulty of intubation (number of attempts, need for adjuncts to direct laryngoscopy, best Cormack-Lehane grade and training level of final intubator) and the frequency of procedural complications (aspiration, arrhythmia, airway trauma, new hypotension, new hypoxia, esophageal intubation and cardiac arrest). We compared the cohort of reintubated patients to a matched cohort of singly intubated patients and compared each repeatedly intubated patient’s first and last intubation.
Results
Our registry included 1053 patients, of which 151 patients (14%) were repeatedly intubated (median two per patient). Complications were significantly more common during last intubation compared to first (13% versus 5%, P = 0.02). The most common complications were hypotension (41%) and hypoxia (35%). These occurred despite no difference in any measure of technical difficultly across intubations.
Conclusion
In this cohort of reintubated patients, clinically important procedural complications were significantly more common on last intubation compared to first.
doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0730-7
PMCID: PMC4328699  PMID: 25592172
23.  The Search for the Ideal Fixation of Palatal Fractures: Innovative Experience with a Mini-Locking Plate 
Fractures of the palate have defied conventional management, such that malrotation and disinclination of the palatal shelves occur in a significant number of patients after repair. The fractured palatal shelves of eight patients were first prealigned. To do so, one or more 205-mm ratchet clamps and two intermaxillary fixation (IMF) posts were used. Rigid fixation was then achieved by applying a 2.0-mm mini-locking titanium plate (across the palatal vault) and by applying an adaptation miniplate across the fracture line as it exited the anterior surface of the maxilla. Screws were passed directly through the mucoperiosteum, to engage the palatal shelves and to lock the locking plate into position. Lacerations in the mucoperiosteum were neither used to aid fixation nor used as portals for dissection; incisions and mucoperiosteal flaps in the palatal vault were avoided. Adjuncts, such as intraoral splints, have not been used in cases to date, and early mobilization was allowed. Reconstitution of the craniomaxillofacial buttresses was added in patients with more extensive maxillary injury. The palatal appliance and screws remained rigidly in position in the roof of the mouth, much like an external fixator, until their removal 8 to 12 weeks after the repair. No patient suffered erosion of the mucoperiosteum or other major morbidity, other than a transient fistula of the soft palate. The palatoalveolar segments remained in proper realignment and inclination, and pretraumatic occlusal patterns and the width and depth of the lower face appear to have been restored with one exception. The latter suffered a subtle posterolateral open bite that was corrected orthodontically. Prealignment of fractured palatal shelves with one or more large ratchet clamps and two IMF posts provides several points of forced reduction of the palatal shelves, along the dental arch. In addition, stabilization with mini-locking plate(s) in the palatal vault and an adaptation plate across the fracture line, as it exits the maxilla, appear to have merit, based on this preliminary report (n = 8). Outcomes seen on computed tomography and clinical examination during this 3-year experience have been favorable.
doi:10.1055/s-0028-1098964
PMCID: PMC3052730  PMID: 22110785
Palatal fractures; fixation; mini-locking plate(s)
24.  Esthetic Rehabilitation of Complicated Crown Fractures Utilizing Rapid Orthodontic Extrusion and Two Different Restoration Modalities 
ABSTRACT
This case report describes the management of a crown-root fractured maxillary right central incisor and a crown fractured maxillary left central incisor using two different techniques.
A complex procedure was designed to manage this case including orthodontic extrusion to move the fracture line above the alveolar bone and surgical recontouring of the altered gingival margin. Finally, the right incisor was restored prosthodontically. Prosthetic treatment was based on performing a post and core, and all-ceramic crown on the extruded tooth. The left, less-damaged incisor was restored directly using composite resin.
The treatment resulted in good esthetics and secured periodontal health. This case report demonstrates that a multidisciplinary treatment approach is a reliable and predictable option to save a tooth.
How to cite this article: Ortolan SM, Strujic M, Aurer A, Viskic J, Bergman L, Mehulic K. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Complicated Crown Fractures Utilizing Rapid Orthodontic Extrusion and Two Different Restoration Modalities. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):64-67.
doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1136
PMCID: PMC4093645  PMID: 25206137
Complicated tooth fracture; Orthodontic extrusion; Esthetic rehabilitation; Prosthodontic restoration; Direct adhesive restoration
25.  Complicated Crown-Root Fracture Treated Using Reattachment Procedure: A Single Visit Technique 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2011;2011:401678.
Complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central and lateral incisors is common in case of severe trauma or sports-related injury. It happens because of their anterior positioning in oral cavity and protrusive eruptive pattern. On their first dental visit, these patients are in pain and need emergency care. Because of impaired function, esthetics, and phonetics, such patients are quite apprehensive during their emergency visit. Successful pain management with immediate restoration of function, esthetics and phonetics should be the prime objective while handling such cases. This paper describes immediate treatment of oblique crown root fracture of maxillary right lateral incisor with reattachment procedure using light transmitting fiber post. After two and half years, the reattached fragment still has satisfying esthetics and excellent function.
doi:10.1155/2011/401678
PMCID: PMC3368170  PMID: 22690345

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