To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy.
Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn.
The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater.
Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial.
economic impact; input-output modeling; program assessment
The purpose of this article is to provide a description of a clinical pharmacy services program implemented in a renal transplant clinic to improve medication access and adherence as well as health and economic outcomes among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Following a team-based planning process and an informal survey of RTRs, a clinical pharmacy service intervention was implemented in the Medical College of Georgia renal transplant clinic. As part of the intervention, a clinical pharmacist reviewed and optimized medication therapy, provided instructions on how to take medication, and assisted with enrollment into medication assistance programs. Significant differences were found between RTRs who did and did not receive clinical pharmacy services on measures of adherence, health, economics, and quality of life. Clinical pharmacy services, as described in this article, have a positive impact on renal transplant recipients’ medication adherence, health and economic outcomes, and health-related quality of life. The findings described here suggest that clinical pharmacy services are a viable and effective option for improving care for RTRs in an outpatient clinic setting.
renal transplant recipients; immunosuppressant therapy adherence; health outcomes; economic outcomes
This study is a cost–benefit analysis that quantifies the social and economic benefits to household lead paint hazard control compared with the investments needed to minimize exposure to these hazards.
This research updates estimates of elevated blood lead levels among a cohort of children ≤ 6 years of age and compiles recent research to determine a range of the costs of lead paint hazard control ($1–$11 billion) and the benefits of reduction attributed to each cohort for health care ($11–$53 billion), lifetime earnings ($165–$233 billion), tax revenue ($25–$35 billion), special education ($30–$146 million), attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder ($267 million), and the direct costs of crime ($1.7 billion).
Each dollar invested in lead paint hazard control results in a return of $17–$221 or a net savings of $181–269 billion.
There are substantial returns to investing in lead hazard control, particularly targeted at early intervention in communities most likely at risk. Given the high societal costs of inaction, lead hazard control appears to be well worth the price.
cost-benefit; economics; housing; lead poisoning
The fall in Shoppers Drug Mart shares last April 8 gave a crystal-clear demonstration of the link between health expenditures and health incomes. Reacting (finally) to the excessive retail prices of generic drugs, the Ontario government effectively halved the rate of reimbursement of ingredient costs and banned the “professional allowances” (kickbacks) paid to pharmacies by generic manufacturers. Taxpayers and private payers will save hundreds of millions of dollars, and pharmacy revenues will fall by an equivalent amount. Patients will still get their drugs, with no loss of quantity, quality or even convenience; no one's health is threatened. But investor profits will fall. There are similar savings opportunities throughout the health system. Health costs are primarily a political, not an economic, problem.
Pharmacists' clinical interventions have been the subject of a substantial body of literature that focuses on the process and outcomes of establishing an intervention documentation program within the acute care setting. Few reports describe intervention documentation as a component of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs; none describe the process of selecting an intervention documentation application to support the complete array of pharmacy practice and experiential sites. The process that a school of pharmacy followed to select and implement a school-wide intervention system to document the clinical and financial impact of an experiential program is described. Goals included finding a tool that allowed documentation from all experiential sites and the ability to assign dollar savings (hard and soft) to all documented interventions. The paper provides guidance for other colleges and schools of pharmacy in selecting a clinical intervention documentation system for program-wide use.
intervention; documentation; software; selection
Objective. To enhance the achievement of a college of pharmacy’s goals for education, research, and service missions by implementing an excellence program based on the Studer Group model for continuous quality improvement.
Methods. The Studer model was combined with university strategic planning for a comprehensive quality-improvement program that was implemented over 5 years. The program included identifying and measuring key performance indicators, establishing specific “pillar” goals, aligning behaviors with goals and values, and training leaders.
Results. Assessment of key performance indicators over 5 years demonstrated progress toward achieving college goals for student and faculty satisfaction, research funding, numbers of students seeking formal postgraduate training, and private giving.
Conclusions. Implementation of a continuous quality-improvement program based on the Studer program enabled the college to focus on and meet its yearly and strategic goals for all components of its mission.
quality improvement; assessment; goals; leadership
Globally, diabetes is estimated to affect 246 million people and is increasing. In Australia diabetes has been made a national health priority. While the direct costs of treating diabetes are substantial, and rising, the indirect costs are considered greater. There is evidence that interventions to prevent diabetes are effective, and cost-effective, but the impact on labour force participation and income has not been assessed. In this study we quantify the potential impact of implementing a diabetes prevention program, using screening and either metformin or a lifestyle intervention on individual economic outcomes of pre-diabetic Australians aged 45-64.
The output of an epidemiological microsimulation model of the reduction in prevalence of diabetes from a lifestyle or metformin intervention, and another microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, of health and the associated impacts on labour force participation, personal income, savings, government revenue and expenditure were used to quantify the estimated outcomes of the two interventions.
An additional 753 person years in the labour force would have been achieved from 1993 to 2003 for the male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003, if a lifestyle intervention had been introduced in 1983; with 890 person years for the equivalent female group. The impact on labour force participation was lower for the metformin intervention, and increased with age for both interventions. The male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003 would have earned an additional $30 million in income with the metformin intervention, and the equivalent female cohort would have earned an additional $25 million. If the lifestyle intervention was introduced, the same male and female cohorts would have earned an additional $34 million and $28 million respectively from 1993 to 2003. For the individuals involved, on average, males would have earned an additional $44,600 per year and females an additional $31,800 per year, if they had continued to work as a result of preventing diabetes.
In addition to improved health and wellbeing, considerable benefits to individuals, in terms of both additional working years and increased personal income, could be made by introducing either a lifestyle or metformin intervention to prevent diabetes.
The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Accreditation Standards and Guidelines 2007 states that colleges and schools of pharmacy must have a remediation policy. Few comparative studies on remediation have been published by colleges and schools of pharmacy, making it challenging to implement effective and validated approaches. Effective remediation policies should include early detection of problems in academic performance, strategies to help students develop better approaches for academic success, and facilitation of self-directed learning. While the cost of remediation can be significant, revenues generated either cover or exceed the cost of delivering the remediation service. Additional research on remediation in pharmacy education across the United States and abroad is needed to make sound decisions in developing effective policies. This paper provides a review of current practices and recommendations for remediation in pharmacy and health care education.
remediation; cost/benefit analysis; assessment; learning skills
To create a self-sufficient, innovative method for providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education within a college of pharmacy using a student-driven committee, and disseminating CPR education into the community through a service learning experience.
A CPR committee comprised of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy provided CPR certification to all pharmacy students. The committee developed a service learning project by providing CPR training courses in the community. Participants in the course were required to complete an evaluation form at the conclusion of each training course.
The CPR committee successfully certified more than 1,950 PharmD students and 240 community members from 1996 to 2009. Evaluations completed by participants were favorable, with 99% of all respondents (n = 351) rating the training course as either “excellent” or “good” in each of the categories evaluated.
A PharmD student-directed committee successfully provided CPR training to other students and community members as a service learning experience.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation; basic life support; service learning; doctor of pharmacy student
Proximity is an important component of access to healthcare services. Recent changes in generic pricing in Ontario have caused speculation about pharmacy closures. However, there is little information on the current geographic accessibility of pharmacies. Therefore, we studied geographic access to pharmacies and modelled the impact of possible closures.
We used location data on the 3,352 accredited community pharmacies from the Ontario College of Pharmacists and population estimates at the census dissemination block level. Using network analysis, we determined the share of Ontario's population who reside in a census dissemination block within three road travel distances of a community pharmacy: 800 m (walking), 2 km and 5 km (driving). We then simulated the effects on these measures of 10% to 50% reductions in the number of community pharmacies in Ontario.
Approximately 63.6% of the Ontario population reside in a dissemination block located within walking distance of one or more pharmacies; 84.6% and 90.7% reside within 2-km and 5-km driving distances, respectively. Randomly removing 30% of Ontario's community pharmacies reduces these estimates to 56.0%, 81.4% and 89.0% for each distance, respectively; a 50% reduction results in 48.3%, 77.1% and 87.2%, respectively.
Pharmacies are geographically accessible for a majority of the Ontario population. Moreover, it appears that modest closures would have only a small impact on geographic access to pharmacies. However, closures may have other impacts on access, such as cost, waiting time and reduced patient choice.
The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession.
dual degree; residency; graduate program; advanced educational training; leadership; master’s degree
A task force was convened by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and the Pharmaceutical Services Support Center (PSSC) and charged with the development of a curriculum framework to guide pharmacy programs in educating students on caring for the underserved. Utilizing a literature-based model, the task force constructed a framework that delineated evidence-based practice, clinical prevention and health promotion, health systems and policy, and community aspects of practice. Specific learning outcomes tailored to underserved populations were crafted and linked to resources readily available to the academy.
The AACP-PSSC curriculum framework was shared with the academy in 2007. Schools and Colleges are urged to share experiences with implementation so that the impact of the tool can be evaluated. The task force recommends that the AACP Institutional Research Advisory Committee be involved in gathering assessment data. Implementation of the curriculum framework can help the academy fulfill the professional mandate to proactively provide the highest quality care to all, including underserved populations.
underserved populations; curriculum; community-based learning
Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009.
The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government support payments, and total taxation revenue paid, for individuals who are employment full-time, employed part-time and not in the labour force due to ill health was quantified.
It was found that persons out of the labour force due to illness had significantly lower incomes ($218 per week as opposed to $1167 per week for those employed full-time), received significantly higher transfer payments, and paid significantly less tax than those employed full-time or part-time. This results in an annual national loss of income of over $17 billion, an annual national increase of $1.5 billion in spending on government support payments, and an annual loss of $2.1 billion in taxation revenue.
Illness related early retirement has significant economic impacts on both the individual and on governments as a result of lost income, lost taxation revenue and increased government support payments. This paper has quantified the extent of these impacts for Australia.
Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them.
We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007).
Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies.
Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.
Pharmacy support-staff (pharmacy technicians, dispensers and Medicines
Counter Assistants) support the delivery of pharmaceutical and retail
functions of the pharmacy. Workflow is supervised and at times dependent
upon the pharmacist’s presence. Policy makers and pharmacy’s representative
bodies are seeking to extend the community pharmacist's role including
requiring the pharmacist to undertake private consultations away from the
dispensary and shop floor areas. However, support-staff voices are seldom
heard and little is known about the impact such policies have on them.
The objective of this study is to explore the impact and consequences of the
English Medicine Use Review (MUR) service on pharmacy support-staff.
Ten weeks of ethnographic-oriented observations in two English community
pharmacies and interviews with 5 pharmacists and 12 support-staff. A
thematic approach was used to analyse the data.
Despite viewing MURs as a worthwhile activity, interviews with support-staff
revealed that some felt frustrated when they were left to explain to
patients why the pharmacist was not available when carrying out an MUR.
Dependency on the pharmacist to complete professional and accuracy checks on
prescriptions grieved dispensing staff because dispensing workflow was
disrupted and they could not get their work done. Medicines Counter
Assistants were observed to have less dependency when selling medicines but
some still reported concerns over of customers and patients waiting for the
pharmacist. A range of tacit and ad hoc strategies were consequently found
to be deployed to handle situations when the pharmacist was absent
performing an MUR.
Consideration should be given to support-staff and pharmacists’ existing work
obligations when developing new pharmacy extended roles that require private
consultations with patients. Understanding organisational culture and
providing adequate resourcing for new services are needed to avoid
improvisations or enactments by pharmacy support-staff and to allow
successful innovation and policy implementation.
Pharmacists' Aides; Pharmacists; Workflow; Community Pharmacy Services; Drug Utilization Review; Professional Practice; United Kingdom
Aims and objectives
To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs.
The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008.
Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications.
The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79%) the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%.
On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.
Community pharmacy; Germany; Robotic dispensing machine; Robot
To examine the validity of Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores for predicting grade point averages (GPAs) of students in years 1-4 of pharmacy programs.
Data were collected from 11 colleges and schools of pharmacy: entering cumulative and math/science GPAs, PCAT scaled scores, pharmacy program GPAs for years 1-4, student status after 4 years. Correlation, regression, discriminant, and diagnostic accuracy analyses were used to determine the validity of the PCAT for predicting subsequent GPAs.
PCAT scaled scores and entering GPAs were positively correlated with subsequent GPAs. Regression analyses showed the predictive value of the PCAT scores, especially in combination with entering GPAs. Discriminant and diagnostic accuracy analyses supported these findings and provided practical suggestions regarding optimal PCAT scores for identifying students most likely to succeed.
Both PCAT scaled scores and entering cumulative GPAs showed moderate to strong predictive validity as indicators of candidates likely to succeed in pharmacy school.
Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT); predictive validity
This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college’s pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college’s experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants’ cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.
globalized pharmacy education; international experience; international pharmacy practice; curricular enrichment
This study investigated information-seeking behavior, including use of major bibliographic tools by medical, pharmacy, nursing, and science faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The study assessed the impact of availability of locally mounted databases, determined needs for modification of instructional programs, identified the need for promotional material, and established a baseline for subsequent studies. Results reflected a wide variation in the number and format of secondary services used by faculty. Over 70% of all faculty from the colleges of medicine, pharmacy, and nursing used Index Medicus or MEDLINE. There were statistically significant differences between colleges in their use of mediated and end-user searching of MEDLINE. Colleges exhibited significant differences in use of Current Contents, PsycLIT, ERIC, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Chemical Abstracts, and Science Citation Index. Statistically significant differences also were found among several clinical departments. The study concluded that, as new formats to bibliographic tools become available, traditional formats continue to be used; training sessions must be tailored to the audience; and the availability of local resources and their use by faculty needs to be understood.
Recent attention has focused on access of communities to pharmacy services in rural areas. To increase access to pharmacy services in rural Western Australia some doctors have been granted a licence to dispense medication on the rationale that a pharmacy would not be economically viable in that community. However, there have been no studies conducted on whether a doctor dispensing service adequately provides a pharmacy service with respect to access and quality.
Residents of seven single pharmacy towns and seven non-pharmacy rural towns were surveyed to evaluate pharmacy services delivered by a pharmacist and doctor. The towns were chosen to match closely on key demographic features, with an average population of 1,246 and 1,263 respectively. A random sample of 150 households from each town was sent the questionnaire on pharmacy services (1050 in each group). Data was also collected from the Health Insurance Commission (HIC) on dispensing locations for the residents of the two groups of towns.
There was a significant difference in access to pharmacy services with 82.4% of participants from pharmacy towns accessing medications within their town compared to 51.3% of non-pharmacy town participants. The HIC data supported these trends with pharmacy town residents having relatively higher prescription rates within their town compared to non-pharmacy town residents where they were more likely to access prescriptions out of their town.
Pharmacy town participants were more satisfied with access to health and pharmacy services within their town. Continuation of the doctor dispensing policy requires a greater consideration of the pharmacy needs of rural residents.
To study the impact of various elements of pharmacy benefit design on both the absolute and relative utilization of generics, brands, retail pharmacy, and mail service.
Panel data on 1,074 plan sponsors covering 21.6 million individuals over 12 calendar quarters (2005–2007).
A retrospective analysis of pharmacy claims.
To control for potential endogeneity, linear fixed effects models were estimated for each of six dependent variables: the generic utilization rate, the brand utilization rate, the generic dispensing rate (GDR), the retail pharmacy utilization rate, the mail service utilization rate, and the mail distribution rate.
Most member cost-share variables were nonlinearly associated with changes in prescription drug utilization. Marginal effects were generally greater in magnitude for brand out-of-pocket costs than for generic out-of-pocket costs. Time dummies, as well as other pharmacy benefit design elements, also yielded significant results.
Prior estimates of the effect of member cost sharing on prescription drug utilization may be biased if complex benefit designs, mail service fulfillment, and unmeasured factors such as pharmaceutical pipelines are not accounted for. Commonly cited relative utilization metrics, such as GDR, may be misleading if not examined alongside absolute prescription drug utilization.
Pharmacy benefit design; cost sharing; generic dispensing; mail service utilization
The causal impact of higher education on earnings may be heterogeneous across different members of a population. Using a newly developed instrumental-variable method in economics, we illustrate heterogeneous treatment effects of higher education on earnings resulting from sorting mechanisms that select individuals with certain unobserved attributes into college education. The setting of our empirical work is contemporary Taiwan -- a transitional economy that has recently experienced a rapid expansion in higher education. We find distinct patterns by gender, with selection bias most clearly shown among women but not among men: the college return to earnings is on average greater for women who actually attended college than women who did not attend college.
Returns to Education; Heterogeneity; Selection Bias; Heckman; Taiwan
In many developing countries, private pharmacies play an important role in providing health information and services to local communities for common health issues. The aim of this study was to ascertain medium-term impact of educational interventions on knowledge and practice of pharmacy staff regarding management of childhood diarrhea in Vietnam.
This was a pre- and post-intervention study with 32 and 44 months difference from the time of the baseline survey to the conclusion of trainings and the time of the end-line survey, respectively. Interventions included in-class training for pharmacy staff, printed materials at the pharmacy, and supportive supervision. Knowledge/reported practice and actual practice of pharmacy staff were measured before and after interventions.
After interventions, significant improvements (p<0.01) were observed for all indexes related to pharmacy staff's knowledge about childhood diarrhea; for instance, 31% and 60% of surveyed staff asked about weight of the child and accompanying symptoms of childhood diarrhea, respectively, an increase from 11% and 45% at the baseline. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) was the most frequently reported product recommended (97% to 99%), but probiotics and antidiarrheals were the products most frequently prescribed at pharmacies. Public health facilities remained the preferred choice for referrals from pharmacies, but the use of private clinics was increasing. Consultations and advice provided to caregivers also improved, but considerable gaps between knowledge and actual practice of staff in real pharmacy settings remained.
Educational interventions were effective in improving pharmacy staff knowledge and practice regarding management of childhood diarrhea. Knowledge and actual practice of staff in real pharmacy settings did not always correlate; there is need for a stronger regulatory and law enforcement system. Interventions to improve pharmacy practice in developing countries should be focused, comprehensive, and evidence-based.
Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.
Current hospital and health-system participation in and the future capacity for experiential education for pharmacy students was investigated.
An online survey of ASHP members identified as U.S. pharmacy directors was conducted to assess their current and future involvement in partnering with colleges and schools to meet the experiential education requirements for doctor of pharmacy students and the current status of the student learning experiences. Questionnaire items examined the factors on which expanded involvement in experiential education would depend, the nature of support provided by colleges and schools, the types of experiences available for students, respondents' perceptions of factors influencing the quality of experiential education, the value of experiential education to the sites, respondents' challenges and concerns about experiential education, and respondents' current capacity and projections for introductory and advanced experiences through 2012.
Data from 549 respondents were analyzed. Most respondents indicated that they had conducted advanced experiences for their 2007 graduates and anticipated that they would continue to do so. Among the top challenges identified regarding advanced experiences were concerns about time to serve and be trained as preceptors and a lack of standardization and coordination among colleges and schools. Hospitals forecasting their future capacity to accommodate students indicated that their projections were highly dependent on the number of pharmacists at their hospitals. Many respondents noted that their capacity projections were tied to their ability to expand clinical services at their hospitals.
A survey of pharmacy directors suggested an ability of U.S. hospitals to conduct advanced experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students through 2012 and to expand introductory experiences.
curriculum; data collection; education; pharmaceutical; pharmacy; institutional; hospital; pharmacy