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1.  Economic Impact of Pharmacy Graduates on a Regional Economy 
Objectives
To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy.
Methods
Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn.
Results
The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater.
Conclusions
Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial.
PMCID: PMC2701241  PMID: 19564989
economic impact; input-output modeling; program assessment
2.  Impact of clinical pharmacy services on renal transplant recipients’ adherence and outcomes 
The purpose of this article is to provide a description of a clinical pharmacy services program implemented in a renal transplant clinic to improve medication access and adherence as well as health and economic outcomes among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Following a team-based planning process and an informal survey of RTRs, a clinical pharmacy service intervention was implemented in the Medical College of Georgia renal transplant clinic. As part of the intervention, a clinical pharmacist reviewed and optimized medication therapy, provided instructions on how to take medication, and assisted with enrollment into medication assistance programs. Significant differences were found between RTRs who did and did not receive clinical pharmacy services on measures of adherence, health, economics, and quality of life. Clinical pharmacy services, as described in this article, have a positive impact on renal transplant recipients’ medication adherence, health and economic outcomes, and health-related quality of life. The findings described here suggest that clinical pharmacy services are a viable and effective option for improving care for RTRs in an outpatient clinic setting.
PMCID: PMC2770420  PMID: 19920975
renal transplant recipients; immunosuppressant therapy adherence; health outcomes; economic outcomes
3.  Role of Pharmacy Education in Growing the Pharmacy Practice Model 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(4):338-342.
The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on pharmacy academia’s (“Academy”) role in transforming an organization’s pharmacy practice model. Pharmacy students can assume an integrated and accountable role in the practice model by having defined responsibilities for patient care. This role will produce students who are best trained to meet the challenges of pharmacy practice and health care reform. To make the students successful in this role, the pharmacy director must have a specific plan for integrating pharmacy students into the model and establishing relationships with Academy leadership, most importantly with the dean of the school or college of pharmacy. If successfully executed, the relationship between the Academy and the pharmacy department will enhance the mission of developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
doi:10.1310/hpj4804-338
PMCID: PMC3839450  PMID: 24421485
4.  Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2009;117(7):1162-1167.
Background
This study is a cost–benefit analysis that quantifies the social and economic benefits to household lead paint hazard control compared with the investments needed to minimize exposure to these hazards.
Objectives
This research updates estimates of elevated blood lead levels among a cohort of children ≤ 6 years of age and compiles recent research to determine a range of the costs of lead paint hazard control ($1–$11 billion) and the benefits of reduction attributed to each cohort for health care ($11–$53 billion), lifetime earnings ($165–$233 billion), tax revenue ($25–$35 billion), special education ($30–$146 million), attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder ($267 million), and the direct costs of crime ($1.7 billion).
Results
Each dollar invested in lead paint hazard control results in a return of $17–$221 or a net savings of $181–269 billion.
Conclusions
There are substantial returns to investing in lead hazard control, particularly targeted at early intervention in communities most likely at risk. Given the high societal costs of inaction, lead hazard control appears to be well worth the price.
doi:10.1289/ehp.0800408
PMCID: PMC2717145  PMID: 19654928
cost-benefit; economics; housing; lead poisoning
5.  The TSX Gives a Short Course in Health Economics: It's the Prices, Stupid! 
Healthcare Policy  2010;6(2):13-23.
The fall in Shoppers Drug Mart shares last April 8 gave a crystal-clear demonstration of the link between health expenditures and health incomes. Reacting (finally) to the excessive retail prices of generic drugs, the Ontario government effectively halved the rate of reimbursement of ingredient costs and banned the “professional allowances” (kickbacks) paid to pharmacies by generic manufacturers. Taxpayers and private payers will save hundreds of millions of dollars, and pharmacy revenues will fall by an equivalent amount. Patients will still get their drugs, with no loss of quantity, quality or even convenience; no one's health is threatened. But investor profits will fall. There are similar savings opportunities throughout the health system. Health costs are primarily a political, not an economic, problem.
PMCID: PMC3016632  PMID: 22043220
6.  Selecting a Clinical Intervention Documentation System for an Academic Setting 
Pharmacists' clinical interventions have been the subject of a substantial body of literature that focuses on the process and outcomes of establishing an intervention documentation program within the acute care setting. Few reports describe intervention documentation as a component of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs; none describe the process of selecting an intervention documentation application to support the complete array of pharmacy practice and experiential sites. The process that a school of pharmacy followed to select and implement a school-wide intervention system to document the clinical and financial impact of an experiential program is described. Goals included finding a tool that allowed documentation from all experiential sites and the ability to assign dollar savings (hard and soft) to all documented interventions. The paper provides guidance for other colleges and schools of pharmacy in selecting a clinical intervention documentation system for program-wide use.
PMCID: PMC3073112  PMID: 21519426
intervention; documentation; software; selection
7.  A Continuous Quality Improvement Program to Focus a College of Pharmacy on Programmatic Advancement 
Objective. To enhance the achievement of a college of pharmacy’s goals for education, research, and service missions by implementing an excellence program based on the Studer Group model for continuous quality improvement.
Methods. The Studer model was combined with university strategic planning for a comprehensive quality-improvement program that was implemented over 5 years. The program included identifying and measuring key performance indicators, establishing specific “pillar” goals, aligning behaviors with goals and values, and training leaders.
Results. Assessment of key performance indicators over 5 years demonstrated progress toward achieving college goals for student and faculty satisfaction, research funding, numbers of students seeking formal postgraduate training, and private giving.
Conclusions. Implementation of a continuous quality-improvement program based on the Studer program enabled the college to focus on and meet its yearly and strategic goals for all components of its mission.
doi:10.5688/ajpe776117
PMCID: PMC3748298  PMID: 23966720
quality improvement; assessment; goals; leadership
8.  The impact of diabetes prevention on labour force participation and income of older Australians: an economic study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:16.
Background
Globally, diabetes is estimated to affect 246 million people and is increasing. In Australia diabetes has been made a national health priority. While the direct costs of treating diabetes are substantial, and rising, the indirect costs are considered greater. There is evidence that interventions to prevent diabetes are effective, and cost-effective, but the impact on labour force participation and income has not been assessed. In this study we quantify the potential impact of implementing a diabetes prevention program, using screening and either metformin or a lifestyle intervention on individual economic outcomes of pre-diabetic Australians aged 45-64.
Methods
The output of an epidemiological microsimulation model of the reduction in prevalence of diabetes from a lifestyle or metformin intervention, and another microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, of health and the associated impacts on labour force participation, personal income, savings, government revenue and expenditure were used to quantify the estimated outcomes of the two interventions.
Results
An additional 753 person years in the labour force would have been achieved from 1993 to 2003 for the male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003, if a lifestyle intervention had been introduced in 1983; with 890 person years for the equivalent female group. The impact on labour force participation was lower for the metformin intervention, and increased with age for both interventions. The male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003 would have earned an additional $30 million in income with the metformin intervention, and the equivalent female cohort would have earned an additional $25 million. If the lifestyle intervention was introduced, the same male and female cohorts would have earned an additional $34 million and $28 million respectively from 1993 to 2003. For the individuals involved, on average, males would have earned an additional $44,600 per year and females an additional $31,800 per year, if they had continued to work as a result of preventing diabetes.
Conclusions
In addition to improved health and wellbeing, considerable benefits to individuals, in terms of both additional working years and increased personal income, could be made by introducing either a lifestyle or metformin intervention to prevent diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-16
PMCID: PMC3295674  PMID: 22225701
9.  A Review of Remediation Programs in Pharmacy and Other Health Professions 
The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Accreditation Standards and Guidelines 2007 states that colleges and schools of pharmacy must have a remediation policy. Few comparative studies on remediation have been published by colleges and schools of pharmacy, making it challenging to implement effective and validated approaches. Effective remediation policies should include early detection of problems in academic performance, strategies to help students develop better approaches for academic success, and facilitation of self-directed learning. While the cost of remediation can be significant, revenues generated either cover or exceed the cost of delivering the remediation service. Additional research on remediation in pharmacy education across the United States and abroad is needed to make sound decisions in developing effective policies. This paper provides a review of current practices and recommendations for remediation in pharmacy and health care education.
PMCID: PMC2856414  PMID: 20414438
remediation; cost/benefit analysis; assessment; learning skills
10.  Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for Pharmacy Students and the Community by a Pharmacy Student Committee 
Objective
To create a self-sufficient, innovative method for providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education within a college of pharmacy using a student-driven committee, and disseminating CPR education into the community through a service learning experience.
Design
A CPR committee comprised of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy provided CPR certification to all pharmacy students. The committee developed a service learning project by providing CPR training courses in the community. Participants in the course were required to complete an evaluation form at the conclusion of each training course.
Assessment
The CPR committee successfully certified more than 1,950 PharmD students and 240 community members from 1996 to 2009. Evaluations completed by participants were favorable, with 99% of all respondents (n = 351) rating the training course as either “excellent” or “good” in each of the categories evaluated.
Conclusion
A PharmD student-directed committee successfully provided CPR training to other students and community members as a service learning experience.
PMCID: PMC2933009  PMID: 21045942
cardiopulmonary resuscitation; basic life support; service learning; doctor of pharmacy student
11.  Geographic Accessibility of Community Pharmacies in Ontario 
Healthcare Policy  2011;6(3):36-46.
Background:
Proximity is an important component of access to healthcare services. Recent changes in generic pricing in Ontario have caused speculation about pharmacy closures. However, there is little information on the current geographic accessibility of pharmacies. Therefore, we studied geographic access to pharmacies and modelled the impact of possible closures.
Methods:
We used location data on the 3,352 accredited community pharmacies from the Ontario College of Pharmacists and population estimates at the census dissemination block level. Using network analysis, we determined the share of Ontario's population who reside in a census dissemination block within three road travel distances of a community pharmacy: 800 m (walking), 2 km and 5 km (driving). We then simulated the effects on these measures of 10% to 50% reductions in the number of community pharmacies in Ontario.
Results:
Approximately 63.6% of the Ontario population reside in a dissemination block located within walking distance of one or more pharmacies; 84.6% and 90.7% reside within 2-km and 5-km driving distances, respectively. Randomly removing 30% of Ontario's community pharmacies reduces these estimates to 56.0%, 81.4% and 89.0% for each distance, respectively; a 50% reduction results in 48.3%, 77.1% and 87.2%, respectively.
Conclusions:
Pharmacies are geographically accessible for a majority of the Ontario population. Moreover, it appears that modest closures would have only a small impact on geographic access to pharmacies. However, closures may have other impacts on access, such as cost, waiting time and reduced patient choice.
PMCID: PMC3082386  PMID: 22294990
12.  Pharmacy Residencies and Dual Degrees as Complementary or Competitive Advanced Training Opportunities 
The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768145
PMCID: PMC3475774  PMID: 23129844
dual degree; residency; graduate program; advanced educational training; leadership; master’s degree
13.  Curriculum Recommendations of the AACP-PSSC Task Force on Caring for the Underserved 
A task force was convened by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and the Pharmaceutical Services Support Center (PSSC) and charged with the development of a curriculum framework to guide pharmacy programs in educating students on caring for the underserved. Utilizing a literature-based model, the task force constructed a framework that delineated evidence-based practice, clinical prevention and health promotion, health systems and policy, and community aspects of practice. Specific learning outcomes tailored to underserved populations were crafted and linked to resources readily available to the academy.
The AACP-PSSC curriculum framework was shared with the academy in 2007. Schools and Colleges are urged to share experiences with implementation so that the impact of the tool can be evaluated. The task force recommends that the AACP Institutional Research Advisory Committee be involved in gathering assessment data. Implementation of the curriculum framework can help the academy fulfill the professional mandate to proactively provide the highest quality care to all, including underserved populations.
PMCID: PMC2508729  PMID: 18698398
underserved populations; curriculum; community-based learning
14.  Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:418.
Background
Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009.
Methods
The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government support payments, and total taxation revenue paid, for individuals who are employment full-time, employed part-time and not in the labour force due to ill health was quantified.
Results
It was found that persons out of the labour force due to illness had significantly lower incomes ($218 per week as opposed to $1167 per week for those employed full-time), received significantly higher transfer payments, and paid significantly less tax than those employed full-time or part-time. This results in an annual national loss of income of over $17 billion, an annual national increase of $1.5 billion in spending on government support payments, and an annual loss of $2.1 billion in taxation revenue.
Conclusions
Illness related early retirement has significant economic impacts on both the individual and on governments as a result of lost income, lost taxation revenue and increased government support payments. This paper has quantified the extent of these impacts for Australia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-418
PMCID: PMC3117714  PMID: 21627844
15.  Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2014: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning 
Hospital Pharmacy  2014;49(3):295-302.
In 2013, the Director’s Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients’ perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department’s plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department’s goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
doi:10.1310/hpj4903-295
PMCID: PMC3971116  PMID: 24715750
16.  Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan 
Background
Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them.
Methods
We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007).
Results
Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies.
Conclusion
Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-205
PMCID: PMC2914726  PMID: 20626904
17.  A qualitative study exploring the impact and consequence of the medicines use review service on pharmacy support-staff 
Pharmacy Practice  2013;11(2):118-124.
Background
Pharmacy support-staff (pharmacy technicians, dispensers and Medicines Counter Assistants) support the delivery of pharmaceutical and retail functions of the pharmacy. Workflow is supervised and at times dependent upon the pharmacist’s presence. Policy makers and pharmacy’s representative bodies are seeking to extend the community pharmacist's role including requiring the pharmacist to undertake private consultations away from the dispensary and shop floor areas. However, support-staff voices are seldom heard and little is known about the impact such policies have on them.
Objective
The objective of this study is to explore the impact and consequences of the English Medicine Use Review (MUR) service on pharmacy support-staff.
Methods
Ten weeks of ethnographic-oriented observations in two English community pharmacies and interviews with 5 pharmacists and 12 support-staff. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data.
Results
Despite viewing MURs as a worthwhile activity, interviews with support-staff revealed that some felt frustrated when they were left to explain to patients why the pharmacist was not available when carrying out an MUR. Dependency on the pharmacist to complete professional and accuracy checks on prescriptions grieved dispensing staff because dispensing workflow was disrupted and they could not get their work done. Medicines Counter Assistants were observed to have less dependency when selling medicines but some still reported concerns over of customers and patients waiting for the pharmacist. A range of tacit and ad hoc strategies were consequently found to be deployed to handle situations when the pharmacist was absent performing an MUR.
Conclusions
Consideration should be given to support-staff and pharmacists’ existing work obligations when developing new pharmacy extended roles that require private consultations with patients. Understanding organisational culture and providing adequate resourcing for new services are needed to avoid improvisations or enactments by pharmacy support-staff and to allow successful innovation and policy implementation.
PMCID: PMC3798177  PMID: 24155859
Pharmacists' Aides; Pharmacists; Workflow; Community Pharmacy Services; Drug Utilization Review; Professional Practice; United Kingdom
18.  Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on Business Performance Indicators 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2009;4(4):146-151.
Aims and objectives
To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs.
Setting
The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008.
Method
Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications.
Key findings
The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79%) the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%.
Conclusions
On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.
doi:10.4176/090731
PMCID: PMC3066739  PMID: 21483538
Community pharmacy; Germany; Robotic dispensing machine; Robot
19.  A Predictive Validity Study of the Pharmacy College Admission Test 
Objective
To examine the validity of Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores for predicting grade point averages (GPAs) of students in years 1-4 of pharmacy programs.
Methods
Data were collected from 11 colleges and schools of pharmacy: entering cumulative and math/science GPAs, PCAT scaled scores, pharmacy program GPAs for years 1-4, student status after 4 years. Correlation, regression, discriminant, and diagnostic accuracy analyses were used to determine the validity of the PCAT for predicting subsequent GPAs.
Results
PCAT scaled scores and entering GPAs were positively correlated with subsequent GPAs. Regression analyses showed the predictive value of the PCAT scores, especially in combination with entering GPAs. Discriminant and diagnostic accuracy analyses supported these findings and provided practical suggestions regarding optimal PCAT scores for identifying students most likely to succeed.
Conclusion
Both PCAT scaled scores and entering cumulative GPAs showed moderate to strong predictive validity as indicators of candidates likely to succeed in pharmacy school.
PMCID: PMC1636944  PMID: 17136174
Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT); predictive validity
20.  Drug Monographs: Ziv-aflibercept and Vincristine Sulfate Liposome 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(1):14-22.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4801-14
PMCID: PMC3839431  PMID: 24421416
21.  Carboplatin (Renally Dosed) and Etoposide Regimen for Small-Cell Lung Cancer 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(4):274-279.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4804-274
PMCID: PMC3839449  PMID: 24421475
22.  Drug Monographs: Cabozantanib and Omacetaxine 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(5):373-377.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@aol.com; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4805-373
PMCID: PMC3839469  PMID: 24421492
23.  Enzalutamide and Ruxolitinib 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(2):104-107.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4802-104
PMCID: PMC3839480  PMID: 24421446
24.  Mitomycin and Fluorouracil With Concurrent Radiation (FUMIR) Regimen for Anal Cancer 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(6):464-469.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@aol.com; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4806-464
PMCID: PMC3839500  PMID: 24421505
25.  Drug Monographs: Bosutinib and Regorafenib 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(3):190-194.
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.
doi:10.1310/hpj4803-190
PMCID: PMC3839511  PMID: 24421459

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