When glycerol-requiring auxotrophs of Bacillus subtilis are deprived of glycerol, the synthesis of fatty acids continues at an apparent rate of 20 to 50% that of supplemented cultures. The newly synthesized fatty acids are not incorporated into phospholipid and accumulate as free fatty acids. These molecules undergo a much more rapid turnover than phospholipid fatty acids, and the rate of turnover is sufficient to indicate that the rate of fatty acid synthesis in glycerol-deprived cultures is similar to that in supplemented ones. The average chain length of the free fatty acids is greater than that of the phospholipid fatty acids. Cells deprived of required amino acids also show a diminution in the apparent rate of fatty acid synthesis; however, in this case, the fatty acids accumulate in phospholipid, and no increase of the free fatty acid fraction is observed. It is argued on the basis of these findings that the control of lipid synthesis does not operate at the level of transacylation but must act on one or more of the reactions of the fatty acid synthetase.
The plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins is principally determined by the level of LDL receptor activity (Jm) and the LDL-cholesterol production rate (Jt) found in animals or man. This study delineates which saturated fatty acids alter Jm and Jt and so increase the plasma LDL-cholesterol level. Jm and Jt were measured in vivo in hamsters fed a constant level of added dietary cholesterol (0.12%) and triacylglycerol (10%), where the triacylglycerol contained only a single saturated fatty acid varying in chain length from 6 to 18 carbon atoms. After feeding for 30 d, the 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 fatty acids, but not the 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 compounds, became significantly enriched in the liver total lipid fraction of the respective groups fed these fatty acids. However, only the 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 fatty acids, but not the 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, and 18:0 compounds, suppressed Jm, increased Jt, and essentially doubled plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Neither the 16:0 nor 18:0 compound altered rates of cholesterol synthesis in the extrahepatic organs, and both lowered the hepatic total cholesterol pool. Thus, the different effects of the 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids could not be attributed to a difference in cholesterol delivery to the liver. Since these changes in LDL kinetics took place without an apparent alteration in external sterol balance, the regulatory effects of the 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 fatty acids presumably are mediated through some change in a putative intrahepatic regulatory pool of sterol in the liver.
In a glycerol auxotroph of Staphylococcus aureus, the deprivation of glycerol affected the formation of certain membrane components. (i) There was synthesis of fatty acids at the predeprivation rate even though the fatty acids synthesized accumulated as free fatty acids rather than as esterified fatty acids; (ii) there was a complete cessation of phospholipid and vitamin K isoprenologue biosynthesis; (iii) there was conservation of the glycerol esters of the complex phospholipids and glucolipids; (iv) there was an immediate decrease in the rate of synthesis of monoglucoslydiglyceride (30%) and diglucosyldiglyceride (60%); (v) there was a 50% decrease in the rate of synthesis of the polar and nonpolar carotenoids; (vi) there was synthesis of protoheme, heme a, and nonspecific membrane protein at the predeprivation rate; and (vii) there was an abrupt cessation in the formation of new, functional glycine transport activity.
The energy requirements for fatty acid uptake by Mycoplasma capricolum were studied. Fatty acid transport and esterification to phospholipid appeared to be tightly coupled, since there was little intracellular accumulation of free fatty acid. Uptake was blocked by iodoacetate, n-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. Glucose, glycerol, and potassium ions were necessary for fatty acid uptake by whole cells. A reduction in uptake was observed in cells treated with valinomycin or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The effect of temperature on the rate of oleate uptake showed a discontinuity at 24 degrees C. Above 24 degrees C an energy of activation of 4.6 kcal (ca. 19.2 kJ)/mol was obtained. The data suggest that uptake of fatty acid by M. capricolum is an energy-linked, protein-mediated process. A membrane-bound enzyme activity that catalyzed the synthesis of fatty acyl-hydroxamate was demonstrated. This activity was virtually independent or only marginally dependent on coenzyme A, depending on the assay system, but was stimulated approximately twofold by ATP.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Steatosis, the hallmark feature of NAFLD, occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and export (as triglyceride within VLDL). Therefore, an excessive amount of intrahepatic triglyceride represents an imbalance between complex interactions of metabolic events. The presence of steatosis is associated with a constellation of adverse alterations in glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism. It is likely that abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism, in conjunction with adipose tissue, hepatic, and systemic inflammation, are key factors involved in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD. However, it is not clear whether NAFLD causes metabolic dysfunction or whether metabolic dysfunction is responsible for IHTG accumulation, or possibly both. Understanding the precise factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the cardiometabolic complications of obesity.
Transport of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and of fatty acids in triglycerides of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-TGFA) was studied in two normal subjects, five patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, and two patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. After intravenous pulse-labeling with albumin-bound 1-palmitate-14C, specific radioactivity of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA were determined at intervals up to 24 hr. The results were analyzed using several different multicompartmental models each compatible with the experimental data. Fractional transport of VLDL-TGFA was distinctly lower (no overlap) in the type IV patients than in the control subjects, both on a usual balanced diet (40% of calories from carbohydrate) and on a high-carbohydrate diet (80% of calories). However, net or total transport of VLDL-TGFA in the type IV patients was not clearly distinguishable from that in the control subjects, there being considerable overlap on either diet. The results suggest that in this group of type IV patients the underlying defect leading to the increased pool size of VLDL-TGFA is not overproduction but a relative defect in mechanisms for removal of VLDL-TGFA. Since some of these type IV patients had only a moderate degree of hypertriglyceridemia at the time they were studied, and since it is not established that patients with the type IV phenotype constitute a biochemically homogeneous population, the present results should not be generalized.
Four studies were done (in two control subjects and two type IV patients) in which the kinetic parameters in the same individual were determined on the balanced diet and on the high-carbohydrate diet. All subjects showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA pool size. Using two of the models for analysis, all showed an increase in net transport of VLDL-TGFA; using the third model, three of the four studies showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA transport. The results are compatible with the interpretation that the carbohydrate-induced increase in VLDL-TGFA, both in controls and type IV patients, is at least in part due to an increased rate of production of VLDL-TGFA. The magnitude of the increase was approximately the same in controls and patients. Thus, metabolic adjustment to a high-carbohydrate regimen in these type IV patients may not be basically different from that in normal controls; the higher levels of VLDL-TGFA reached may simply be another reflection of a defective removal mechanism. An alternative interpretation, compatible with the data, would involve both a carbohydrate-induced increase in fractional rate of release of VLDL-TGFA from liver to plasma and a decrease in fractional removal of VLDL-TGFA from plasma without increase in net production rate. The simpler hypothesis of a single primary effect on net VLDL-TGFA production from FFA seems more likely.
The process of removal of triglyceride from the plasma may involve a sequential conversion of larger to smaller glyceride-rich lipoproteins. This has been studied within the species of lipoproteins comprising the very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) which transport the bulk of endogenously formed triglyceride. Palmitic acid-14C which was used to label the plasma glycerides was administered either as a prolonged constant infusion or as a pulse label. The specific activity-time curves of triglyceride fatty acids (TGFA) were analyzed both in total VLDL and in two subfractions of VLDL. The nature of the curves for total VLDL that were observed during the constant infusions were consistent with slow isotopic equilibration of precursors of VLDL-TGFA or with the presence of a precursor-product relationship between different components of VLDL-TGFA. The curves did not indicate any detectable differences in (fractional) turnover rates of independently metabolized pools of VLDL-TGFA. Differences in the specific activity-time curves of TGFA in two subfractions of VLDL (Sf > 100 and Sf 20-100) were consistent with a precursor-product relationship between TGFA in the two subfractions; again there was no indication of significant differences in (fractional) turnover rates. The specific activity-time curves of TGFA in the two subfractions of VLDL that were obtained with single injections of radio-palmitate showed a consistent difference in the rates at which TGFA became labeled in the two subfractions, being slower in the Sf 20-100 fraction. The findings from all experiments when considered together, were compatible with a precursor-product relationship that suggested that larger VLDL were converted to progressively smaller species as triglyceride was being removed.
Ethanol abuse and chronic ethanol consumption remains a major public health problem and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity. Alcohol-induced fatty liver generally begins as hepatic steatosis, and if the cause persists, this invariably progresses to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The original biochemical explanation for an alcoholic fatty liver centered on the ability of ethanol metabolism to shift the redox state of the liver and inhibit fatty acid oxidation. Subsequent studies found repression of fatty acid oxidation and that the induction of lipogenesis can occur in alcoholic conditions. Ethanol activates sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, inducing a battery of lipogenic enzymes. These effects may be due in part to inhibition of AMP-dependent protein kinase, reduction in plasma adiponectin or increased levels of TNF-α the liver. They in turn activate lipogenic pathways and inhibit fatty acid oxidation. Besides the fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, ethanol also alters lipid droplet (LD, the storage form of triglycerides, TG) metabolism in hepatocytes and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion from liver. Because steatosis is now regarded as a significant risk factor for advanced liver pathology, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms in its etiology provides new therapeutic targets to reverse the alcoholic fatty liver.
Adiponectin; alcohol; adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; lipid droplets; steatosis/fatty liver
The conditional mRNA transport mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acc1-7-1 (mtr7-1), displays a unique alteration of the nuclear envelope. Unlike nucleoporin mutants and other RNA transport mutants, the intermembrane space expands, protuberances extend from the inner membrane into the intermembrane space, and vesicles accumulate in the intermembrane space. MTR7 is the same gene as ACC1, encoding acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (Acc1p), the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Genetic and biochemical analyses of fatty acid synthesis mutants and acc1-7-1 indicate that the continued synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the enzymatic product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is required for an essential pathway which is independent from de novo synthesis of fatty acids. We provide evidence that synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26 atoms) is inhibited in acc1-7-1, suggesting that very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis is required to maintain a functional nuclear envelope.
Inhibition of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis by the antibiotic cerulenin in Bacillus subtilis stopped de novo synthesis of neutral lipids and phospholipids. The bacteria ceased growing but remained completely viable. Addition of 12-methyltetradecanoic acid and palmitic acid to the culture medium of cerulenin-treated cells restored growth of the bacteria, albeit at a reduced rate. Although the de novo synthesis of all lipid components of the membrane was blocked, citrate-Mg2+ transport activity remained inducible, and induced cells did not lose this transport activity when treated with cerulenin. Shortly after the addition of cerulenin, the rate of ribonucleic acid synthesis dropped rapidly and was followed by a slower decrease in the rate of protein synthesis. The rate of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis remained almost unaffected. The rapid decrease of ribonucleic acid synthesis in cerulenin-treated cells might be due to the inhibition of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis or it might be due to a secondary effect of cerulenin in B. subtilis cells.
Thirteen homologous proteins comprise the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), fatty acid transport protein (FATP), and bubblegum (ACSBG) subfamilies that activate long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids to form acyl-CoAs. Gain- and loss-of-function studies show marked differences in the ability of these enzymes to channel fatty acids into different pathways of complex lipid synthesis. Further, the ability of the ACSLs and FATPs to enhance cellular FA uptake does not always require these proteins to be present on the plasma membrane; instead, FA uptake can be increased by enhancing its conversion to acyl-CoA and its metabolism in downstream pathways. Since altered fatty acid metabolism is a hallmark of numerous metabolic diseases and pathological conditions, the ACSL, FATP and ACSBG isoforms are likely to play important roles in disease etiology.
During caloric deprivation, the septic host may fail to develop ketonemia as an adaptation to starvation. Because the plasma ketone body concentration is a function of the ratio of hepatic production and peripheral usage, a pneumococcal sepsis model was used in rats to measure the complex metabolic events that could account for this failure, including the effects of infection on lipolysis and esterification in adipose tissue, fatty acid transport in plasma and the rates of hepatic ketogenesis and whole body oxidation of ketones. Some of the studies were repeated with tularemia as the model infection. From these studies, it was concluded that during pneumococcal sepsis, the failure of rats to become ketonemic during caloric deprivation was the result of reduced ketogenic capacity of the liver and a possibly decreased hepatic supply of fatty acids. The latter appeared to be a secondary consequence of a severe reduction in circulating plasma albumin, the major transport protein for fatty acids, with no effect on the degree of saturation of the albumin with free fatty acids. Also, the infection had no significant effect on the rate of lipolysis or release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. Ketone body usage (oxidation) was either unaffected or reduced during pneumococcal sepsis in rats. Thus, a reduced rate of ketone production in the infected host was primarily responsible for the failure to develop starvation ketonemia under these conditions. The liver of the infected rat host appears to shuttle the fatty acids away from β-oxidation and ketogenesis and toward triglyceride production, with resulting hepatocellular fatty metamorphosis.
The human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 becomes highly sensitive to Shiga toxin upon treatment with butyric acid. This strong sensitization (> 1000-fold) is accompanied by an increase in the fraction of cell-associated toxin transported to the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, our previous work showed that the length of the fatty acyl chain of Gb3, the Shiga toxin receptor, also was changed (longer fatty acids). We have not investigated the importance of this change by testing whether glycolipid synthesis is required for the changed intracellular sorting and the toxin sensitivity. We demonstrate here that inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis by inhibition of N-acyltransferase with fumonisin B1, by inhibition of glucosylceramide synthetase by PDMP or PPMP, or by inhibition of serine palmitoyl transferase by beta-fluoroalanine, inhibited the butyric acid-induced change in sensitivity and the increase in the fraction of cell-associated Shiga toxin transported to the Golgi apparatus and the ER. The block in butyric acid-induced sensitization caused by beta-fluoroalanine could be abolished by simultaneous addition of sphinganine or sphingosine. Thus, the data suggest that the fatty acyl chain length of glycosphingolipids is important for intracellular sorting and translocation of Shiga toxin to the cytosol.
Klein, Harold P. (Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.). Synthesis of fatty acids by yeast particles. J. Bacteriol. 92:130–135. 1966.—When a mitochondria-free homogenate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was centrifuged at 100,000 × g for 60 min, the sedimented crude particles incorporated acetate into fatty acids, but not into nonsaponifiable lipids. Degradation of the fatty acids formed indicated this to be de novo synthesis rather than chain elongation. Subfractions of the crude particles were obtained. The “ribosomal” fraction was unable to synthesize fatty acids, but had properties indicating the presence of acetokinase, fatty acid desaturase, and, probably, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. A “light” particle fraction with a high specific activity of fatty acid synthetase was also obtained. Fatty acid synthesis by the “soluble” supernatant fluid appeared to be the result of contamination by the “light” particles. The data suggested the presence of several particulate entities in mitochondria-free homogenates.
Increasing availability of free fatty acids (FFA) to liver results in enhanced rates of secretion of triglycerides in lipoproteins. However, as FFA uptake increases, triglyceride secretory rates reach a plateau and esterified fatty acids accumulate intracellularly, suggesting that something is limiting lipid transport out of the liver. One possibility could be the limited availability of apoproteins. To test this hypothesis, primary rat hepatocytes in culture were incubated with increasing amounts of FFA (0-2.1 mumol/dish) and the amounts of lipids and apoproteins inside the cells and in culture media were measured; the latter by specific radioimmunoassays. Media also were fractionated on Sepharose 2B and 6B columns and the elution profiles of apoproteins were obtained. With exposure to increasing amounts of free fatty acids, hepatocytes took up more fatty acids and intracellular levels of triglycerides rose (from 71 to 146 micrograms/mg cell protein). Concomitantly, media triglycerides nearly doubled (31 to 51 micrograms/mg). Incorporation of [3H]glyceride into cellular and media triglyceride also rose. However, levels of apoproteins A-I, B, C-III3, and E in cells and media were unchanged. The increasing amounts of triglycerides in media were present in larger particles, as demonstrated on gel permeation chromatography. The elution profiles of apoproteins B, C-III3, and E were altered in that a greater proportion of the apoproteins eluted with larger particles. Similar results were obtained when hepatocytes were preloaded with increasing amounts of FFA over 12 h and analyses of cells and media were carried out 8 and 22 h after removal of fatty acids from the media. During loading of cells, accumulation of cellular triglycerides was directly related to media FFA concentrations. During unloading, triglyceride secretory rates were related to cellular triglyceride levels. At higher triglyceride secretory rates larger particles were secreted and a greater proportion of apoproteins was associated with the larger particles, but total amounts of apoproteins in the system did not change. These data lead us to suggest that enhanced rates of apoprotein synthesis need not occur in the response to acute changes in hepatic lipid transport, rather, increased secretion of lipid is brought about by augmented intracellular lipid apoprotein association.
Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation.
skin barrier; fatty acids transport; fatty acid activation; FATP4; ichthyosis prematurity syndrome; inflammation
Stearoyl-coA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and in mice SCD1 activity is associated with plasma triglyceride levels.
We used the fatty acid desaturation index (the plasma ratio of 18:1/18:0), as a marker of SCD1 activity to investigate the relationship of SCD1 to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL).
Methods and Results
The fatty acid desaturation index was measured in 400 individuals from 18 extended FCHL pedigrees. FCHL-affected individuals exhibited increased SCD1 activity when compared to unrelated controls (P<0.0001). The fatty acid desaturation index was found to be highly heritable (h2 = 0.48, p= 2.2 × 10−11) in this study sample. QTL analysis in 346 sibling pairs from 18 FCHL families revealed suggestive linkage of the desaturation index to chromosomes 3p26.1-3p13 (z=2.7, P=0.003), containing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) gene, and 20p11.21-20q13.32 (z=1.7, P=0.04), containing the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha (HNF4α) gene. A specific haplotype of HNF4α was found to be associated with the desaturation index in these FCHL families (P=0.002).
Our results demonstrate that the fatty acid desaturation index is a highly heritable trait that is associated with the dyslipidemia observed in FCHL.
familial combined hyperlipidemia; genetics; Stearoyl-coA desaturase 1; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha
Three different multicompartmental models of free fatty acid (FFA) and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride fatty acid (VLDL-TGFA) transport in man are formulated from plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA tracee and tracer data collected over a 24 hr interval after the injection of palmitate-14C. All modeling and data fitting were performed on a digital computer using the SAAM program. Structural differences in the three models relate to the position of the slowly turning over compartment required to generate the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The positions of this slow compartment are along the hepatic pathway from FFA to VLDL-TGFA (model A) or in the distribution system of VLDL-TGFA (model B) or in the distribution system of FFA (model C). Although all three models are equally consistent with our experimental data and are supported by observations of others, each reveals inconsistency with some data obtained from the literature. Consequently, a combination model of FFA-TGFA transport, incorporating properties of models A, B, and C would be more consistent with all available data. Experiments that would help to determine the quantitative significance of each of the slow compartments in the combination model are suggested.
Several other models suggesting recycling of plasma VLDL-TGFA through the plasma FFA pool, kinetic heterogencity of the plasma VLDL-TGFA pool, and contamination of plasma VLDL-TGFA radioactivity with low density lipoprotein (LDL) TGFA radioactivity were tested. The first model does not explain the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The second and third models, while consistent with our tracee and tracer data, have steady-state implications with respect to the extent of kinetic heterogeneity and size of the LDL-TGFA contaminant that make them unlikely.
Assumptions underlying other investigator's models of FFA and TGFA transport in man are reviewed within the logical framework of our models. Quantitative differences among the various models are shown by evaluating all of the models with respect to a common set of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA data.
Fasted dogs prepared with catheters in the femoral artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein and infused intravenously with palmitate-1-14C were used to estimate uptake of free fatty acids in liver and their conversion to major metabolic products secreted into hepatic venous blood. Animals were studied under ordinary conditions and when fat mobilization was increased abruptly by infusing norepinephrine or for a prolonged period by withdrawing insulin from depancreatized dogs. 80% of hepatic blood flow was assumed to be derived from the portal vein.
Hepatic uptake was proportional to net outflow transport of plasma free fatty acids in the three groups and, in each, hepatic extraction fraction was about 25%. Since specific activity of free fatty acids entering and leaving the liver was equal and their composition was closely similar in the three sites sampled, it was concluded that palmitate is a representative tracer for free fatty acids entering the liver and that the liver does not release free fatty acids into the blood.
In norepinephrine-infused dogs, the fraction of free fatty acids secreted in triglycerides (13%) was similar to that of control animals, so that transport of triglycerides was increased. In diabetic dogs no increased transport could be demonstrated since an average of only 2% of free fatty acids was converted to plasma triglyceride fatty acids; the hyperlipemia uniformly observed therefore appeared to result from defective removal of triglycerides from the blood.
A similar fraction of free fatty acids was converted to ketones in normal and norepinephrine-infused dogs. This fraction was somewhat higher in diabetic animals and, in addition, a substantial quantity of ketones was derived from unlabeled precursors. Fractional conversion of free fatty acids to CO2 was similar in normal and norepinephrine-infused dogs, but reduced in the diabetics.
The effects of inhibition of Escherichia coli phospholipid synthesis on the accumulation of intermediates of the fatty acid synthetic pathway have been previously investigated with conflicting results. We report construction of an E. coli strain that allows valid [14C]acetate labeling of fatty acids under these conditions. In this strain, acetate is a specific precursor of fatty acid synthesis and the intracellular acetate pools are not altered by blockage of phospholipid synthesis. By use of this strain, we show that significant pools of fatty acid synthetic intermediates and free fatty acids accumulate during inhibition of phospholipid synthesis and that the rate of synthesis of these intermediates is 10 to 20% of the rate at which fatty acids are synthesized during normal growth. Free fatty acids of abnormal chain length (e.g., cis-13-eicosenoic acid) were found to accumulate in glycerol-starved cultures. Analysis of extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled cells showed that glycerol starvation resulted in the accumulation of several long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) species, with the major species being ACP acylated with cis-13-eicosenoic acid. Upon the restoration of phospholipid biosynthesis, the abnormally long-chain acyl-ACPs decreased, consistent with transfer of the acyl groups to phospholipid. The introduction of multicopy plasmids that greatly overproduced either E. coli thioesterase I or E. coli thioesterase II fully relieved the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis seen upon glycerol starvation, whereas overexpression of ACP had no effect. Thioesterase I overproduction also resulted in disappearance of the long-chain acyl-ACP species. The release of inhibition by thiosterase overproduction, together with the correlation between the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and the presence of abnormally long-chain acyl-ACPs, suggests with that these acyl-ACP species may act as feedback inhibitors of a key fatty acid synthetic enzyme(s).
Plasma transport of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFA) was studied in seven subjects with normal lipid metabolism, one case of total lipodystrophy, and one case of familial hyperlipemia (Type V). Studies were carried out after intravenous injection of radioactive FFA, of lipoproteins previously labeled in vitro in the triglyceride moiety, or both.
Computer techniques were used to evaluate a series of multicompartmental models, and a general model is proposed that yields optimum fitting of experimental data for both FFA and TGFA. The results show that as much as 20-30% of FFA leaving the plasma compartment in normal subjects is transported to an exchanging extravascular pool and quickly reenters the plasma pool as FFA. The rate of irreversible delivery of FFA from plasma to tissues averaged 358 μEq/min in normals. The lipodystrophy patient, despite the virtual absence of adipose tissue (confirmed at autopsy), had a plasma FFA concentration and a total FFA transport, both more than twice normal. Total TGFA transport ranged from 25 to 81 μEq/min in four normal controls. The rate constant for TGFA turnover in the patient with Type V hyperlipemia was so small that total transport could not be quantified from the data available; the TGFA half-life was over 500 min.
In two normal subjects given injections of autologous lipoproteins labeled in vitro with triolein-14C and simultaneously given oleic acid-3H, it was shown that the time course for the disappearance of the TGFA in the in vitro labeled samples conformed almost exactly to that of the physiologically labeled lipoprotein TGFA synthesized from injected FFA (as evidenced by the simultaneous fitting of both sets of data using the same multicompartmental model and the same rate constants). Radioactivity appeared in the plasma FFA fraction at a significant rate after injection of plasma labeled in vitro with TGFA. It was estimated that as much as 50% of the total TGFA transported underwent rapid and rather direct conversion to FFA in the two normal subjects studied this way. The kinetic data suggest that such conversion of TGFA to FFA was not preceded by any extensive dilution, such as would result from complete mixing with tissue triglyceride stores.
The Arabidopsis SUC5 protein represents a classical sucrose/H+ symporter. Functional analyses previously revealed that SUC5 also transports biotin, an essential co-factor for fatty acid synthesis. However, evidence for a dual role in transport of the structurally unrelated compounds sucrose and biotin in plants was lacking. Here we show that SUC5 localizes to the plasma membrane, and that the SUC5 gene is expressed in developing embryos, confirming the role of the SUC5 protein as substrate carrier across apoplastic barriers in seeds. We show that transport of biotin but not of sucrose across these barriers is impaired in suc5 mutant embryos. In addition, we show that SUC5 is essential for the delivery of biotin into the embryo of biotin biosynthesis-defective mutants (bio1 and bio2). We compared embryo and seedling development as well as triacylglycerol accumulation and fatty acid composition in seeds of single mutants (suc5, bio1 or bio2), double mutants (suc5 bio1 and suc5 bio2) and wild-type plants. Although suc5 mutants were like the wild-type, bio1 and bio2 mutants showed developmental defects and reduced triacylglycerol contents. In suc5 bio1 and suc5 bio2 double mutants, developmental defects were severely increased and the triacylglycerol content was reduced to a greater extent in comparison to the single mutants. Supplementation with externally applied biotin helped to reduce symptoms in both single and double mutants, but the efficacy of supplementation was significantly lower in double than in single mutants, showing that transport of biotin into the embryo is lower in the absence of SUC5.
biotin transport; embryo; fatty acid content; endosperm; sucrose transport; AtSUC5
The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is acylated with long-chain fatty acids. In this study we have used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of cloned cDNA and a simian virus 40 expression system to determine the fatty acid binding site in HA and to examine possible functions of covalently linked fatty acids. The results show that the HA is acylated through thioester linkages at three highly conserved cysteine residues located in the cytoplasmic domain and at the carboxy-terminal end of the transmembrane region, whereas a cysteine located in the middle of the membrane-spanning domain is not acylated. Mutants lacking fatty acids at individual or all three attachment sites acquire endoglycosidase H-resistant oligosaccharide side chains, are cleaved into HA1 and HA2 subunits, and are transported to the plasma membrane at rates similar to that of wild-type HA. All mutants are membrane bound and not secreted into the medium. These results exclude transport signal and membrane-anchoring functions of covalently linked fatty acids for this integral membrane glycoprotein. Furthermore, lack of acylation has no obvious influence on the biological activities of HA: cells expressing fatty acid-free HA bind to and, after brief exposure to mildly acidic pH, fuse with erythrocytes; the HA-induced polykaryon formation is not impaired, either. Other possible functions of covalently linked fatty acids in integral membrane glycoproteins which cannot be examined in conventional cDNA expression systems are discussed.
Surfactant synthesis is critically dependent on the availability of fatty acids. One fatty acid source may be circulating triglycerides that are transported in VLDL, and hydrolyzed to free fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). To evaluate this hypothesis, we incubated immortalized or primary rat alveolar pre-type II epithelial cells with VLDL. The cells were observed to surface bind, internalize, and degrade VLDL, a process that was induced by exogenous LPL. LPL induction of lipoprotein uptake significantly increased the rates of choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and disaturated PC, and these effects were associated with a three-fold increase in the activity of the rate-regulatory enzyme for PC synthesis, cytidylyltransferase. Compared with native LPL, a fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase with the catalytically inactive carboxy-terminal domain of LPL did not activate CT despite inducing VLDL uptake. A variant of the fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase with the catalytically inactive carboxy-terminal domain of LPL that partially blocked LPL-induced catabolism of VLDL via LDL receptors also partially blocked the induction of surfactant synthesis by VLDL. Taken together, these observations suggest that both the lipolytic actions of LPL and LPL-induced VLDL catabolism via lipoprotein receptors might play an integral role in providing the fatty acid substrates used in surfactant phospholipid synthesis.
Transport of free fatty acids from the blood into the splanchnic region and their conversion to triglycerides of very low density lipoproteins, together with estimates of splanchnic oxidation of free fatty acids to ketones and to carbon dioxide and water, have been made in the postabsorptive state in seven normolipemic subjects, six with primary endogenous hyperlipemia and one each with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia and mixed hyperlipemia. Net systemic transport of free fatty acids into the blood was the same in normolipemic and hyperlipemic groups, but a greater fraction was taken up in the splanchnic region in the latter. Transport into the blood in very low density lipoproteins of triglyceride fatty acids derived from free fatty acids was proportional and bore the same relationship to splanchnic uptake of free fatty acids in the two groups. In normolipemic subjects, near equilibration of specific activities after 4 hr infusion of palmitate-1-14C showed that almost all triglyceride fatty acids of very low density lipoproteins and acetoacetate were derived from free fatty acids taken up in the splanchnic region. In the hyperlipemic subjects, equilibration of free fatty acidcarbon with acetoacetate was almost complete, but not with triglyceride fatty acids, owing at least in part to increased pool size. Comparison of the rate of equilibration of triglyceride fatty acids-14C with rate of inflow transport from the splanchnic region, together with other data, indicated that most of the circulating triglyceride fatty acids of very low density lipoproteins in hyperlipemic subjects were also derived from free fatty acids. Although mean inflow transport of triglyceride fatty acids was greater in the hyperlipemic subjects, it correlated poorly with their concentration and it appeared that efficiency of mechanisms for extrahepatic removal must be a major determinant of the concentration of triglycerides in blood plasma of the normolipemic as well as the hyperlipemic subjects. Estimates of splanchnic respiratory quotient supported the concept that oxidation of free fatty acids accounts for almost all of splanchnic oxygen consumption in the postabsorptive state. Splanchnic oxygen consumption was greater in the hyperlipemics, but fractional oxidation of free fatty acids to ketones was higher in normolipemic subjects. Calculations of splanchnic balance indicate that a larger fraction of free fatty acids was stored in lipids of splanchnic tissues in the hyperlipemics. No differences were found between the two groups in net splanchnic transport of glucose, lactate, or glycerol.