RsrI DNA methyltransferase (M-RsrI) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been purified to homogeneity, and its gene cloned and sequenced. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the same central adenine residue in the duplex recognition sequence d(GAATTC) as does M-EcoRI. The reduced and denatured molecular weight of the RsrI methyltransferase (MTase) is 33,600 Da. A fragment of R. sphaeroides chromosomal DNA exhibited M.RsrI activity in E. coli and was used to sequence the rsrIM gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of M.RsrI shows partial homology to those of the type II adenine MTases HinfI and DpnA and N4-cytosine MTases BamHI and PvuII, and to the type III adenine MTases EcoP1 and EcoP15. In contrast to their corresponding isoschizomeric endonucleases, the deduced amino acid sequences of the RsrI and EcoRI MTases show very little homology. Either the EcoRI and RsrI restriction-modification systems assembled independently from closely related endonuclease and more distantly related MTase genes, or the MTase genes diverged more than their partner endonuclease genes. The rsrIM gene sequence has also been determined by Stephenson and Greene (Nucl. Acids Res. (1989) 17, this issue).
RsrI [N6-adenine] DNA methyltransferase (M·RsrI), which recognizes GAATTC and is a member of a restriction–modification system in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, was purified to >95% homogeneity using a simplified procedure involving two ion exchange chromatographic steps. Electrophoretic gel retardation assays with purified M·RsrI were performed on unmethylated, hemimethylated, dimethylated or non-specific target DNA duplexes (25 bp) in the presence of sinefungin, a potent inhibitory analog of AdoMet. M·RsrI binding was affected by the methylation status of the DNA substrate and was enhanced by the presence of the cofactor analog. M·RsrI bound DNA substrates in the presence of sinefungin with decreasing affinities: hemimethylated > unmethylated > dimethylated >> non-specific DNA. Gel retardation studies with DNA substrates containing an abasic site substituted for the target adenine DNA provided evidence consistent with M·RsrI extruding the target base from the duplex. Consistent with such base flipping, an ∼1.7-fold fluorescence intensity increase was observed upon stoichiometric addition of M·RsrI to hemimethylated DNA containing the fluorescent analog 2-aminopurine in place of the target adenine. Pre-steady-state kinetic and isotope- partitioning experiments revealed that the enzyme displays burst kinetics, confirmed the catalytic competence of the M·RsrI–AdoMet complex and eliminated the possibility of an ordered mechanism where DNA is required to bind first. The equilibrium dissociation constants for AdoMet, AdoHcy and sinefungin were determined using an intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence-quenching assay.
Dimeric restriction endonucleases and monomeric modification methyltransferases were long accepted as the structural paradigm for Type II restriction systems. Recent studies, however, have revealed an increasing number of apparently dimeric DNA methyltransferases. Our initial characterization of RsrI methyltransferase (M.RsrI) was consistent with the enzyme functioning as a monomer, but, subsequently, the enzyme crystallized as a dimer with 1500 Å2 of buried surface area. This result led us to re-examine the biochemical properties of M.RsrI. Gel-shift studies of M.RsrI binding to DNA suggested that binding cooperativity targets hemimethylated DNA preferentially over unmethylated DNA. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that the M.RsrI–DNA complex had a size and stoichiometry consistent with a dimeric enzyme binding to the DNA. Kinetic measurements revealed a quadratic relationship between enzyme velocity and concentration. Site-directed mutagenesis at the dimer interface affected the kinetics and DNA-binding of the enzyme, providing support for a model proposing an active enzyme dimer. We also identified a conserved motif in the dimer interfaces of the β-class methyltransferases M.RsrI, M.MboIIA and M2.DpnII. Taken together, these data suggest that M.RsrI may be part of a sub-class of MTases that function as dimers.
A genetic selection method, the P22 challenge-phage assay, was used to characterize DNA binding in vivo by the prokaryotic β class [N6-adenine] DNA methyltransferase M·RsrI. M·RsrI mutants with altered binding affinities in vivo were isolated. Unlike the wild-type enzyme, a catalytically compromised mutant, M·RsrI (L72P), demonstrated site-specific DNA binding in vivo. The L72P mutation is located near the highly conserved catalytic motif IV, DPPY (residues 65–68). A double mutant, M·RsrI (L72P/D173A), showed less binding in vivo than did M·RsrI (L72P). Thus, introduction of the D173A mutation deleteriously affected DNA binding. D173 is located in the putative target recognition domain (TRD) of the enzyme. Sequence alignment analyses of several β class MTases revealed a TRD sequence element that contains the D173 residue. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that divergence in the amino acid sequences of these methyltransferases correlated with differences in their DNA target recognition sequences. Furthermore, MTases of other classes (α and γ) having the same DNA recognition sequence as the β class MTases share related regions of amino acid sequences in their TRDs.
We have purified RsrI endonuclease (R.RsrI), an isoschizomer of EcoRI, from Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain 630. The enzyme is homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. RsrI endonuclease is a dimer over the concentration range of 0.05 to 1.4 mg/ml. The reduced and denatured molecular weight of the enzyme is 30,000 Da. R.RsrI, like R.EcoRI, catalyzes the cleavage of duplex DNA and oligodeoxyribonucleotides between the first two residues of the sequence GAATTC. R.RsrI exhibits a KM of 14 nM and a kcat of 6.5 min-1 when reacting with pBR322 DNA at 25 degrees C. R.RsrI differs from R.EcoRI in its N-terminal amino acid sequence, susceptibility to inhibition by antibodies, sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide, isoelectric point, state of aggregation at high concentrations, temperature lability, and conditions for optimal reaction. R.RsrI displays a reduction of specificity ("star activity") under conditions that also relax the specificity of R.EcoRI.
A modified oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex containing an unnatural internucleotide trisubstituted 3' to 5' pyrophosphate bond in one strand [5'(oligo1)3'-P(OCH3)P-5'(oligo2) 3'] reacts with nucleophiles in aqueous media by acting as a phosphorylating affinity reagent. When interacted with a protein, a portion of the oligonucleotide [--P-5'(oligo2)3'] becomes attached to an amino acid nucleophilic group through a phosphate of the O-methyl-modified pyrophosphate linkage. We demonstrate the affinity labeling of nucleophilic groups at the active sites of the EcoRI and RsrI restriction and modification enzymes with an oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex containing a modified scissile bond in the EcoRI recognition site. With the EcoRI and RsrI endonucleases in molar excess approximately 1% of the oligonucleotide becomes attached to the protein, and with the companion methyltransferases the yield approaches 40% for the EcoRI enzyme and 30% for the RsrI methyltransferase. Crosslinking proceeds only upon formation of a sequence-specific enzyme-DNA complex, and generates a covalent bond between the 3'-phosphate of the modified pyrophosphate in the substrate and a nucleophilic group at the active site of the enzyme. The reaction results in the elimination of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide remnant that contains the 3'-O-methylphosphate [5'(oligo1)3'-P(OCH3)] derived from the modified phosphate of the pyrophosphate linkage. Hydrolysis properties of the covalent protein-DNA adducts indicate that phosphoamide (P-N) bonds are formed with the EcoRI endonuclease and methyltransferase.
DNA methyltransferases (MTases) are sequence-specific enzymes which transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to the amino group of either cytosine or adenine within a recognized DNA sequence. Methylation of a base in a specific DNA sequence protects DNA from nucleolytic cleavage by restriction enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. We have determined at 1.74 Å resolution the crystal structure of a β-class DNA MTase MboIIA (M·MboIIA) from the bacterium Moraxella bovis, the smallest DNA MTase determined to date. M·MboIIA methylates the 3′ adenine of the pentanucleotide sequence 5′-GAAGA-3′. The protein crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which we propose to resemble the dimer when M·MboIIA is not bound to DNA. The overall structure of the enzyme closely resembles that of M·RsrI. However, the cofactor-binding pocket in M·MboIIA forms a closed structure which is in contrast to the open-form structures of other known MTases.
The two genes encoding the class IIS restriction-modification system MboII from Moraxella bovis were cloned separately in two compatible plasmids and expressed in E. coli RR1 delta M15. The nucleotide sequences of the MboII endonuclease (R.MboII) and methylase (M.MboII) genes were determined and the putative start codon of R.MboII was confirmed by amino acid sequence analysis. The mboIIR gene specifies a protein of 416 amino acids (MW: 48,617) while the mboIIM gene codes for a putative 260-residue polypeptide (MW: 30,077). Both genes are aligned in the same orientation. The coding region of the methylase gene ends 11 bp upstream of the start codon of the restrictase gene. Comparing the amino acid sequence of M.MboII with sequences of other N6-adenine methyltransferases reveals a significant homology to M.RsrI, M.HinfI and M.DpnA. Furthermore, M.MboII shows homology to the N4-cytosine methyltransferase BamHI.
We have determined the structure of Pvu II methyltransferase (M. Pvu II) complexed with S -adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, using a crystal of the selenomethionine-substituted protein. M. Pvu II catalyzes transfer of the methyl group from AdoMet to the exocyclic amino (N4) nitrogen of the central cytosine in its recognition sequence 5'-CAGCTG-3'. The protein is dominated by an open alpha/beta-sheet structure with a prominent V-shaped cleft: AdoMet and catalytic amino acids are located at the bottom of this cleft. The size and the basic nature of the cleft are consistent with duplex DNA binding. The target (methylatable) cytosine, if flipped out of the double helical DNA as seen for DNA methyltransferases that generate 5-methylcytosine, would fit into the concave active site next to the AdoMet. This M. Pvu IIalpha/beta-sheet structure is very similar to those of M. Hha I (a cytosine C5 methyltransferase) and M. Taq I (an adenine N6 methyltransferase), consistent with a model predicting that DNA methyltransferases share a common structural fold while having the major functional regions permuted into three distinct linear orders. The main feature of the common fold is a seven-stranded beta-sheet (6 7 5 4 1 2 3) formed by five parallel beta-strands and an antiparallel beta-hairpin. The beta-sheet is flanked by six parallel alpha-helices, three on each side. The AdoMet binding site is located at the C-terminal ends of strands beta1 and beta2 and the active site is at the C-terminal ends of strands beta4 and beta5 and the N-terminal end of strand beta7. The AdoMet-protein interactions are almost identical among M. Pvu II, M. Hha I and M. Taq I, as well as in an RNA methyltransferase and at least one small molecule methyltransferase. The structural similarity among the active sites of M. Pvu II, M. Taq I and M. Hha I reveals that catalytic amino acids essential for cytosine N4 and adenine N6 methylation coincide spatially with those for cytosine C5 methylation, suggesting a mechanism for amino methylation.
The EcoRI adenine DNA methyltransferase forms part of a bacterial restriction/modification system; the methyltransferase modifies the second adenine within the canonical site GAATTC, thereby preventing the EcoRI endonuclease from cleaving this site. We show that five noncanonical EcoRI sites (TAATTC, CAATTC, GTATTC, GGATTC and GAGTTC) are not methylated in vivo under conditions when the canonical site is methylated. Only when the methyltransferase is overexpressed is partial in vivo methylation of the five sites detected. Our results suggest that the methyltransferase does not protect host DNA against potential endonuclease-mediated cleavage at noncanonical sites. Our related in vitro analysis of the methyltransferase reveals a low level of sequence-discrimination. We propose that the high in vivo specificity may be due to the active removal of methylated sequences by DNA repair enzymes (J. Bacteriology (1987), 169 3243-3250).
DNA sequence analysis revealed that the putative yhdJ DNA methyltransferase gene of Escherichia coli is 55% identical to the Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 gene encoding DNA methyltransferase AvaIII, which methylates adenine in the recognition sequence, ATGCAT. The yhdJ gene was cloned, and the enzyme was overexpressed and purified. Methylation and restriction analysis showed that the DNA methyltransferase methylates the first adenine in the sequence ATGCAT. This DNA methylation was found to be regulated during the cell cycle, and the DNA adenine methyltransferase was designated M.EcoKCcrM (for “cell cycle-regulated methyltransferase”). The CcrM DNA adenine methyltransferase is required for viability in E. coli, as a strain lacking a functional genomic copy of ccrM can be isolated only in the presence of an additional copy of ccrM supplied in trans. The cells of such a knockout strain stopped growing when expression of the inducible plasmid ccrM gene was shut off. Overexpression of M.EcoKCcrM slowed bacterial growth, and the ATGCAT sites became fully methylated throughout the cell cycle; a high proportion of cells with an anomalous size distribution and DNA content was found in this population. Thus, the temporal control of this methyltransferase may contribute to accurate cell cycle control of cell division and cellular morphology. Homologs of M.EcoKCcrM are present in other bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria, suggesting that methylation at ATGCAT sites may have similar functions in other members of this group.
Transcription regulation in bacterial restriction–modification (R–M) systems is
an important process, which provides coordinated expression levels of tandem
enzymes, DNA methyltransferase (MTase) and restriction endonuclease (RE)
protecting cells against penetration of alien DNA. The present study focuses on
(cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferase Ecl18kI (M.Ecl18kI), which is almost
identical to DNA methyltransferase SsoII (M.SsoII) in terms of its structure
and properties. Each of these enzymes inhibits expression of the intrinsic gene
and activates expression of the corresponding RE gene via binding to the
regulatory site in the promoter region of these genes. In the present work,
complex formation of M.Ecl18kI and RNA polymerase from Escherichia сoli
with the promoter regions of the MTase and RE genes is studied. The
mechanism of regulation of gene expression in the Ecl18kI R–M system is
thoroughly investigated. M.Ecl18kI and RNA polymerase are shown to compete for
binding to the promoter region. However, no direct contacts between M.Ecl18kI
and RNA polymerase are detected. The properties of M.Ecl18kI and M.SsoII
mutants are studied. Amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of
M.Ecl18kI, which performs the regulatory function, are shown to influence not
only M.Ecl18kI capability to interact with the regulatory site and to act as a
transcription factor, but also its ability to bind and methylate the substrate
DNA. The loss of methylation activity does not prevent MTase from performing
its regulatory function and even increases its affinity to the regulatory site.
However, the presence of the domain responsible for methylation in the
M.Ecl18kI molecule is necessary for M.Ecl18kI to perform its regulatory
restriction–modification systems; (cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferase; DNA–protein interactions; transcriptional regulation
The EcoRV DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase (M.EcoRV) specifically modifies the first adenine residue
within GATATC sequences. During catalysis, the enzyme flips its
target base out of the DNA helix and binds it into a target base
binding pocket which is formed in part by Lys16 and Tyr196. A cytosine residue
is accepted by wild-type M.EcoRV as a substrate
at a 31-fold reduced efficiency with respect to the kcat/KM values if it is located in a CT mismatch substrate
(GCTATC/GATATC). Cytosine residues positioned in a CG base
pair (GCTATC/GATAGC) are modified at much more reduced
rates, because flipping out the target base is much more difficult
in this case. We intended to change the target base specificity
of M.EcoRV from adenine-N6 to cytosine-N4. To
this end we generated, purified and characterized 15 variants of
the enzyme, containing single, double and triple amino acid exchanges
following different design approaches. One concept was to reduce
the size of the target base binding pocket by site-directed mutagenesis.
The K16R variant showed an altered specificity, with a 22-fold preference
for cytosine as the target base in a mismatch substrate. This corresponds
to a 680-fold change in specificity, which was accompanied by only
a small loss in catalytic activity with the cytosine substrate.
The K16R/Y196W variant no longer methylated adenine residues
at all and its activity towards cytosine was reduced only 17-fold. Therefore,
we have changed the target base specificity of M.EcoRV
from adenine to cytosine by rational protein design. Because there
are no natural paragons for the variants described here, a change
of the target base specificity of a DNA interacting enzyme was possible
by rational de novo design of its active site.
The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function.
Presence and possible functions of DNA methylation in plastid genomes of higher plants have been highly controversial. While a number of studies presented evidence for the occurrence of both cytosine and adenine methylation in plastid genomes and proposed a role of cytosine methylation in the transcriptional regulation of plastid genes, several recent studies suggested that at least cytosine methylation may be absent from higher plant plastid genomes. To test if either adenine or cytosine methylation can play a regulatory role in plastid gene expression, we have introduced cyanobacterial genes for adenine and cytosine DNA methyltransferases (methylases) into the tobacco plastid genome by chloroplast transformation. Using DNA cleavage with methylation-sensitive and methylation-dependent restriction endonucleases, we show that the plastid genomes in the transplastomic plants are efficiently methylated. All transplastomic lines are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants and, moreover, show no alterations in plastid gene expression. Our data indicate that the expression of plastid genes is not sensitive to DNA methylation and, hence, suggest that DNA methylation is unlikely to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plastid gene expression.
Chloroplast; Adenine methylation; Cytosine methylation; Dam methylation; Plastid transformation; Nicotiana tabacum
MmeI is an unusual Type II restriction enzyme that is useful for generating long sequence tags. We have cloned the MmeI restriction-modification (R-M) system and found it to consist of a single protein having both endonuclease and DNA methyltransferase activities. The protein comprises an amino-terminal endonuclease domain, a central DNA methyltransferase domain and C-terminal DNA recognition domain. The endonuclease cuts the two DNA strands at one site simultaneously, with enzyme bound at two sites interacting to accomplish scission. Cleavage occurs more rapidly than methyl transfer on unmodified DNA. MmeI modifies only the adenine in the top strand, 5′-TCCRAC-3′. MmeI endonuclease activity is blocked by this top strand adenine methylation and is unaffected by methylation of the adenine in the complementary strand, 5′-GTYGGA-3′. There is no additional DNA modification associated with the MmeI R-M system, as is required for previously characterized Type IIG R-M systems. The MmeI R-M system thus uses modification on only one of the two DNA strands for host protection. The MmeI architecture represents a minimal approach to assembling a restriction-modification system wherein a single DNA recognition domain targets both the endonuclease and DNA methyltransferase activities.
We report the properties of the new BseMII restriction and
modification enzymes from Bacillus stearothermophilus Isl
15-111, which recognize the 5′-CTCAG sequence,
and the nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding them. The restriction
endonuclease R.BseMII makes a staggered cut at
the tenth base pair downstream of the recognition sequence on the upper
strand, producing a two base 3′-protruding end.
Magnesium ions and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)
are required for cleavage. S-adenosylhomocysteine
and sinefungin can replace AdoMet in the cleavage reaction. The BseMII methyltransferase modifies unique adenine
residues in both strands of the target sequence 5′-CTCAG-3′/5′-CTGAG-3′. Monomeric R.BseMII
in addition to endonucleolytic activity also possesses methyltransferase
activity that modifies the A base only within the 5′-CTCAG
strand of the target duplex. The deduced amino acid sequence of the
restriction endonuclease contains conserved motifs of DNA N6-adenine
methylases involved in S-adenosyl-l-methionine
binding and catalysis. According to its structure and enzymatic
properties, R.BseMII may be regarded as a representative
of the type IV restriction endonucleases.
The Dnmt2 enzymes show strong amino acid sequence similarity with eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases. Yet, Dnmt2 enzymes from several species were shown to methylate tRNA-Asp and had been proposed that eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases evolved from a Dnmt2-like tRNA methyltransferase ancestor [Goll et al., 2006, Science, 311, 395-8]. It was the aim of this study to investigate if this hypothesis could be supported by evidence from sequence alignments. We present phylogenetic analyses based on sequence alignments of the methyltransferase catalytic domains of more than 2300 eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases and analyzed the distribution of DNA methyltransferases in eukaryotic species. The Dnmt2 homologues were reliably identified by an additional conserved CFT motif next to motif IX. All DNA methyltransferases and Dnmt2 enzymes were clearly separated from other RNA-(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferases. Our sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the last universal eukaryotic ancestor contained at least one member of the Dnmt1, Dnmt2 and Dnmt3 families of enzymes and additional RNA methyltransferases. The similarity of Dnmt2 enzymes with DNA methyltransferases and absence of similarity with RNA methyltransferases combined with their strong RNA methylation activity suggest that the ancestor of Dnmt2 was a DNA methyltransferase and an early Dnmt2 enzyme changed its substrate preference to tRNA. There is no phylogenetic evidence that Dnmt2 was the precursor of eukaryotic Dnmts. Most likely, the eukaryotic Dnmt1 and Dnmt3 families of DNA methyltransferases had an independent origin in the prokaryotic DNA methyltransferase sequence space.
The PvuII restriction-modification system is a type II system, which means that its restriction endonuclease and modification methyltransferase are independently active proteins. The PvuII system is carried on a plasmid, and its movement into a new host cell is expected to be followed initially by expression of the methyltransferase gene alone so that the new host's DNA is protected before endonuclease activity appears. Previous studies have identified a regulatory gene (pvuIIC) between the divergently oriented genes for the restriction endonuclease (pvuIIR) and modification methyltransferase (pvuIIM), with pvuIIC in the same orientation as and partially overlapping pvuIIR. The product of pvuIIC, C · PvuII, was found to act in trans and to be required for expression of pvuIIR. In this study we demonstrate that premature expression of pvuIIC prevents establishment of the PvuII genes, consistent with the model that requiring C · PvuII for pvuIIR expression provides a timing delay essential for protection of the new host's DNA. We find that the opposing pvuIIC and pvuIIM transcripts overlap by over 60 nucleotides at their 5′ ends, raising the possibility that their hybridization might play a regulatory role. We furthermore characterize the action of C · PvuII, demonstrating that it is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to the pvuIIC promoter and stimulates transcription of both pvuIIC and pvuIIR into a polycistronic mRNA. The apparent location of C · PvuII binding, overlapping the −10 promoter hexamer and the pvuIICR transcriptional starting points, is highly unusual for transcriptional activators.
The genomic region encoding the type IIS restriction-modification (R-M) system HphI (enzymes recognizing the asymmetric sequence 5'-GGTGA-3'/5'-TCACC-3') from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the R-M HphI system revealed three adjacent genes aligned in the same orientation: a cytosine 5 methyltransferase (gene hphIMC), an adenine N6 methyltransferase (hphIMA) and the HphI restriction endonuclease (gene hphIR). Either methyltransferase is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against the action of the cognate restriction endonuclease. hphIMA methylation renders plasmid DNA resistant to R.Hindill at overlapping sites, suggesting that the adenine methyltransferase modifies the 3'-terminal A residue on the GGTGA strand. Strong homology was found between the N-terminal part of the m6A methyltransferasease and an unidentified reading frame interrupted by an incomplete gaIE gene of Neisseria meningitidis. The HphI R-M genes are flanked by a copy of a 56 bp direct nucleotide repeat on each side. Similar sequences have also been identified in the non-coding regions of H.influenzae Rd DNA. Possible involvement of the repeat sequences in the mobility of the HphI R-M system is discussed.
Most type II restriction-modification (RM) systems have two independent enzymes that act on the same DNA sequence: a modification methyltransferase that protects target sites, and a restriction endonuclease that cleaves unmethylated target sites. When RM genes enter a new cell, methylation must occur before restriction activity appears, or the host's chromosome is digested. Transcriptional mechanisms that delay endonuclease expression have been identified in some RM systems. A substantial subset of those systems is controlled by a family of small transcription activators called C proteins. In the PvuII system, C.PvuII activates transcription of its own gene, along with that of the downstream endonuclease gene. This regulation results in very low R.PvuII mRNA levels early after gene entry, followed by rapid increase due to positive feedback. However, given the lethal consequences of premature REase accumulation, transcriptional control alone might be insufficient. In C-controlled RM systems, there is a ± 20 nt overlap between the C termination codon and the R (endonuclease) initiation codon, suggesting possible translational coupling, and in many cases predicted RNA hairpins could occlude the ribosome binding site for the endonuclease gene.
Expression levels of lacZ translational fusions to pvuIIR or pvuIIC were determined, with the native pvuII promoter having been replaced by one not controlled by C.PvuII. In-frame pvuIIC insertions did not substantially decrease either pvuIIC-lacZ or pvuIIR-lacZ expression (with or without C.PvuII provided in trans). In contrast, a frameshift mutation in pvuIIC decreased expression markedly in both fusions, but mRNA measurements indicated that this decrease could be explained by transcriptional polarity. Expression of pvuIIR-lacZ was unaffected when the pvuIIC stop codon was moved 21 nt downstream from its WT location, or 25 or 40 bp upstream of the pvuIIR initiation codon. Disrupting the putative hairpins had no significant effects.
The initiation of translation of pvuIIR appears to be independent of that for pvuIIC. Direct tests failed to detect regulatory rules for either gene overlap or the putative hairpins. Thus, at least during balanced growth, transcriptional control appears to be sufficiently robust for proper regulation of this RM system.
DNA methylation is an epigenetic event involved in a variety array of processes that may be the foundation of genetic phenomena and diseases. DNA methyltransferase is a key enzyme for cytosine methylation in DNA, and can be divided into two functional families (Dnmt1 and Dnmt3) in mammals. All mammalian DNA methyltransferases are encoded by their own single gene, and consisted of catalytic and regulatory regions (except Dnmt2). Via interactions between functional domains in the regulatory or catalytic regions and other adaptors or cofactors, DNA methyltransferases can be localized at selective areas (specific DNA/nucleotide sequence) and linked to specific chromosome status (euchromatin/heterochromatin, various histone modification status). With assistance from UHRF1 and Dnmt3L or other factors in Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a/Dnmt3b, mammalian DNA methyltransferases can be recruited, and then specifically bind to hemimethylated and unmethylated double-stranded DNA sequence to maintain and de novo setup patterns for DNA methylation. Complicated enzymatic steps catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases include methyl group transferred from cofactor Ado-Met to C5 position of the flipped-out cytosine in targeted DNA duplex. In the light of the fact that different DNA methyltransferases are divergent in both structures and functions, and use unique reprogrammed or distorted routines in development of diseases, design of new drugs targeting specific mammalian DNA methyltransferases or their adaptors in the control of key steps in either maintenance or de novo DNA methylation processes will contribute to individually treating diseases related to DNA methyltransferases.
DNA methyltransferase; epigenetics; enzyme catalysis; protein-DNA interactions
A plant cytosine methyltransferase cDNA was isolated using degenerate oligonucleotides, based on homology between prokaryote and mouse methyltransferases, and PCR to amplify a short fragment of a methyltransferase gene. A fragment of the predicted size was amplified from genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overlapping cDNA clones, some with homology to the PCR amplified fragment, were identified and sequenced. The assembled nucleic acid sequence is 4720 bp and encodes a protein of 1534 amino acids which has significant homology to prokaryote and mammalian cytosine methyltransferases. Like mammalian methylases, this enzyme has a C terminal methyltransferase domain linked to a second larger domain. The Arabidopsis methylase has eight of the ten conserved sequence motifs found in prokaryote cytosine-5 methyltransferases and shows 50% homology to the murine enzyme in the methyltransferase domain. The amino terminal domain is only 24% homologous to the murine enzyme and lacks the zinc binding region that has been found in methyltransferases from both mouse and man. In contrast to mouse where a single methyltransferase gene has been identified, a small multigene family with homology to the region amplified in PCR has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana.
The sequences coding for DNA[cytosine-N4]methyltransferases MvaI (from Micrococcus varians RFL19) and Cfr9I (from Citrobacter freundii RFL9) have been determined. The predicted methylases are proteins of 454 and 300 amino acids, respectively. Primary structure comparison of M.Cfr9I and another m4C-forming methylase, M.Pvu II, revealed extended regions of homology. The sequence comparison of the three DNA[cytosine-N4]-methylases using originally developed software revealed two conserved patterns, DPF-GSGT and TSPPY, which were found similar also to those of adenine and DNA[cytosine-C5]-methylases. These data provided a basis for global alignment and classification of DNA-methylase sequences. Structural considerations led us to suggest that the first region could be the binding site of AdoMet, while the second is thought to be directly involved in the modification of the exocyclic amino group.
Haloacetaldehydes can be employed for probing unpaired DNA structures involving cytosine and adenine residues. Using an enzyme that was structurally proven to flip its target cytosine out of the DNA helix, the HhaI DNA methyltransferase (M.HhaI), we demonstrate the suitability of the chloroacetaldehyde modification for mapping extrahelical (flipped-out) cytosine bases in protein–DNA complexes. The generality of this method was verified with two other DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases, M.AluI and M.SssI, as well as with two restriction endonucleases, R.Ecl18kI and R.PspGI, which represent a novel class of base-flipping enzymes. Our results thus offer a simple and convenient laboratory tool for detection and mapping of flipped-out cytosines in protein–DNA complexes.