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1.  Giantin is the major Golgi autoantigen in human anti-Golgi complex sera 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2003;6(2):R95-R102.
Anti-Golgi complex antibodies (AGAs) are primarily associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Here we report on the immunoreactivity of AGAs against five Golgi autoantigens (giantin, golgin-245, golgin-160, golgin-95/GM130, and golgin-97) and provide data from epitope mapping on the most common Golgi autoantigen, namely giantin. A total of 80 human sera containing AGAs, as defined by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, were analyzed by ELISA using recombinant autoantigens and immunoprecipitation. The proportion of AGA sera that reacted with the five Golgi autoantigens was correlated with the molecular mass of the Golgi antigens. Autoantibodies to giantin, the largest Golgi autoantigen, were the predominant AGAs, being found in 50% of the AGA sera. Epitope mapping of giantin was performed using six recombinant fragments spanning the entire protein. Antigiantin-positive sera with low titer autoantibodies recognized epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal fragments that are proximal to the Golgi membrane, whereas higher titer sera exhibited strong reactivity to amino-terminal and central domains that are likely to extend from the Golgi membrane into the cytoplasm. Our working hypothesis is that aberrantly expressed Golgi complex autoantigens may be released into the immune system when cells undergo lysis. By virtue of a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain, giantin is likely to be more stably associated with the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi complex than are other golgins, which are peripheral proteins. The stable association of giantin with the putative released Golgi complex may contribute to its preferential autoantigenicity.
doi:10.1186/ar1035
PMCID: PMC400427  PMID: 15059272
anti-Golgi complex antibody; autoantibody; autoimmunity; cell death; epitope mapping
2.  Immune Responses to Ro60 and Its Peptides in Mice. I.  The Nature of the Immunogen and Endogenous Autoantigen Determine the Specificities of the Induced Autoantibodies  
Anti-Ro60 autoantibodies are found in a variety of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, and active hepatitis. They are the most prevalent autoantibodies in normal individuals and in asymptomatic mothers of infants afflicted with neonatal lupus. In the present study, immune responses to recombinant human Ro60 (rhRo60) and recombinant mouse Ro60 (rmRo60) and selected Ro60 peptides in non–SLE-prone mice were investigated. Multiple T and B cell epitopes were identified in Ro60. Immunizations with either xenogeneic or autologous Ro60 induced autoantibodies to a diverse group of autoantigens. In addition to La and Ro52, proteins in the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles such as SmA, SmB, SmD, and 70-kD U1-RNP were unexpectedly identified as targeted antigens. In the studies involving synthetic Ro60 peptides, both human and mouse Ro60316–335 peptides, which differ in three amino acids, were found to contain dominant cross-reactive T cell determinants. Immunizations with these peptides induced autoantibodies to Ro60, La, SmD, and 70-kD U1-RNP without autoantibodies to Ro52, SmA, or SmB. With human Ro60316–335 as the immunogen, additional autoantibodies reactive with the Golgi complex were found. In contrast to the immunodominance of both human and mouse Ro60316–335 peptides, the T cell determinant in human Ro60441–465 was dominant, whereas that in the mouse peptide was cryptic. Immunization with human Ro60441–465 induced primarily anti-peptide Abs. Mouse Ro60441–465 failed to induce an antibody response. These results show that both the nature of the immunogen and the immunogenicity of the related endogenous antigen are important in determining the specificities of the autoantibodies generated. They have significant implications for proposed mechanisms on the generation of complex patterns of autoantibodies to a diverse group of autoantigens in SLE patients.
PMCID: PMC2192918  PMID: 9927515
systemic lupus erythematosus; determinant spreading; tolerance; autoimmunity; T and B cell epitopes
3.  Beta-COP localizes mainly to the cis-Golgi side in exocrine pancreas 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1993;121(1):49-59.
We examined the distribution of the non-clathrin-coated vesicle- associated coat protein beta-COP in rat exocrine pancreatic cells by immunogold cytochemistry. Labeling for beta-COP was found in the Golgi region (48%) where it was associated with vesicles and buds of approximately 50 nm, showing a characteristic approximately 10-nm-thick coat. The other half of the label was present in the cytoplasm, not associated with visible coats or membranes, with a minor fraction present on small clusters of tubules and vesicles. Clathrin-coated vesicles were typically located at the trans-side of the Golgi complex, and showed a thicker coat of approximately 18 nm. Of the total beta-COP labeling over the Golgi region, 68% occurred on the cis-side, 6% on the cisternae, 17% on the rims of the cisternae, and only 9% on the trans- side. For clathrin these figures were 16, 2, 4, and 78%, respectively. At the cis-Golgi side beta-COP was present in transitional areas (TA), on so-called peripheral elements (PE), consisting of tubules and vesicles located between the cup-shaped transitional elements (TE) of the RER and the cis-most Golgi cisternae. Label for Sec23p was also present in TA but was located closer to the TE, while beta-COP labeled PE were located near the cis-Golgi cisternae. Upon energy depletion, Golgi associated beta-COP was almost exclusively (86%) in spherical aggregates of 200-500 nm in diameter, whereas the cis-side (6%), the cisternae (1%), the rims (4%) and trans-side (3%) of the Golgi complex, were barely labeled; 50% of the total label remained in the cytoplasm. The aggregates were predominantly located at the cis-side of the Golgi stack, next to, but distinct from the Sec23p positive TA, that were devoid of beta-COP and had only a few recognizable vesicles left. Incubation with aluminum fluoride resulted in fragmentation of the Golgi complex into large clusters of beta-COP positive vesicles, while 50% of the label remained in the cytoplasm, as in control cells. After 10 min of Brefeldin A treatment 91% of beta-COP was cytoplasmic and only 7% associated with membranes of the Golgi complex. The total label for beta-COP over exocrine cells remained unchanged during the incubation with either of the drugs, indicating that the drugs induce reallocation of beta-COP. Our data suggest that beta-COP plays a role in membrane transport at the cis-side of the Golgi complex.
PMCID: PMC2119769  PMID: 8458872
4.  Two Major Autoantibody Clusters in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e32001.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease of complex clinical presentation and etiology and is likely influenced by numerous genetic and environmental factors. While a large number of susceptibility genes have been identified, the production of antibodies against a distinct subset of nuclear proteins remains a primary distinguishing characteristic in disease diagnosis. However, the utility of autoantibody biomarkers for disease sub-classification and grouping remains elusive, in part, because of the difficulty in large scale profiling using a uniform, quantitative platform. In the present study serological profiles of several known SLE antigens, including Sm-D3, RNP-A, RNP-70k, Ro52, Ro60, and La, as well as other cytokine and neuronal antigens were obtained using the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) approach. The resulting autoantibody profiles revealed that 88% of a pilot cohort and 98% of a second independent cohort segregated into one of two distinct clusters defined by autoantibodies against Sm/anti-RNP or Ro/La autoantigens, proteins often involved in RNA binding activities. The Sm/RNP cluster was associated with a higher prevalence of serositis in comparison to the Ro/La cluster (P = 0.0022). However, from the available clinical information, no other clinical characteristics were associated with either cluster. In contrast, evaluation of autoantibodies on an individual basis revealed an association between anti-Sm (P = 0.006), RNP-A (P = 0.018) and RNP-70k (P = 0.010) autoantibodies and mucocutaneous symptoms and between anti-RNP-70k and musculoskeletal manifestations (P = 0.059). Serologically active, but clinically quiescent disease also had a higher prevalence of anti-IFN-α autoantibodies. Based on our findings that most SLE patients belong to either a Sm/RNP or Ro/La autoantigen cluster, these results suggest the possibility that alterations in RNA-RNA-binding protein interactions may play a critical role in triggering and/or the pathogenesis of SLE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032001
PMCID: PMC3283706  PMID: 22363785
5.  Type I interferon receptor controls B-cell expression of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors and autoantibody production in a murine model of lupus 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(4):R112.
Introduction
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of high-titer IgG autoantibodies directed against nuclear autoantigens. Type I interferon (IFN-I) has been shown to play a pathogenic role in this disease. In the current study, we characterized the role of the IFNAR2 chain of the type I IFN (IFN-I) receptor in the targeting of nucleic acid-associated autoantigens and in B-cell expression of the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR7 and TLR9, in the pristane model of lupus.
Methods
Wild-type (WT) and IFNAR2-/- mice were treated with pristane and monitored for proteinuria on a monthly basis. Autoantibody production was determined by autoantigen microarrays and confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoprecipitation. Serum immunoglobulin isotype levels, as well as B-cell cytokine production in vitro, were quantified by ELISA. B-cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation assay.
Results
Autoantigen microarray profiling revealed that pristane-treated IFNAR2-/- mice lacked autoantibodies directed against components of the RNA-associated autoantigen complexes Smith antigen/ribonucleoprotein (Sm/RNP) and ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (RiboP). The level of IgG anti-single-stranded DNA and anti-histone autoantibodies in pristane-treated IFNAR2-/- mice was decreased compared to pristane-treated WT mice. TLR7 expression and activation by a TLR7 agonist were dramatically reduced in B cells from IFNAR2-/- mice. IFNAR2-/- B cells failed to upregulate TLR7 as well as TLR9 expression in response to IFN-I, and effector responses to TLR7 and TLR9 agonists were significantly decreased as compared to B cells from WT mice following treatment with IFN-α.
Conclusions
Our studies provide a critical link between the IFN-I pathway and the regulation of TLR-specific B-cell responses in a murine model of SLE.
doi:10.1186/ar2771
PMCID: PMC2745794  PMID: 19624844
6.  The Golgi puppet master – COG complex at center stage of membrane trafficking interactions 
Histochemistry and cell biology  2013;140(3):271-283.
The central organelle within the secretory pathway is the Golgi apparatus, a collection of flattened membranes organized into stacks. The cisternal maturation model of intra-Golgi transport depicts Golgi cisternae that mature from cis to medial to trans by receiving resident proteins, such as glycosylation enzymes via retrograde vesicle-mediated recycling. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a multi-subunit tethering complex of the CATCHR (complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods) family, organizes vesicle targeting during intra-Golgi retrograde transport. The COG complex both physically, and functionally, interacts with all classes of molecules maintaining intra-Golgi trafficking, namely SNAREs, SNARE-interacting proteins, Rabs, coiled-coil tethers, vesicular coats and molecular motors. In this report we will review the current state of the COG interactome and analyze possible scenarios for the molecular mechanism of the COG orchestrated vesicle targeting, which plays a central role in maintaining glycosylation homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells.
doi:10.1007/s00418-013-1117-6
PMCID: PMC3748202  PMID: 23839779
COG; Golgi; SNARE; Rab; Tether; membrane trafficking
7.  OBSERVATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE GOLGI APPARATUS TO WALL FORMATION IN THE MARINE CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGA, PLEUROCHRYSIS SCHERFFELII PRINGSHEIM 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1969;41(1):109-123.
The role of the Golgi apparatus in wall formation of vegetative cells of a marine chrysophyte, Pleurochrysis scherffelii, is described. Wall fragments are synthesized within the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. A single Golgi apparatus is always located at the cell periphery, and the distended cisternae are oriented toward the cell surface. A highly-ordered body found near the inflated cisternae is associated with spherical, membrane-bounded bodies which may be involved in the progressive degeneration of cisternal membranes which release wall fragments. Protoplast movement has been detected by time-lapse cinephotomicrography and is correlated at the ultrastructural level with change in positions of the Golgi cisternae. Wall-synthesizing capacity is greatest during transverse wall formation. Senescent cells lack a Golgi apparatus with inflated cisternae. In addition, wall fragments are not present in the Golgi cisternae at this stage. Zoosporogenesis results in a temporary loss of the wall-forming capacity of the Golgi apparatus; this activity then resumes with the formation of a different morphological entity, the scale. Preliminary quantitative measurements of the turnover capacity of the Golgi apparatus have been made. From these data it has been determined that between 41 and 82 Golgi generations are required to synthesize the cell wall of an actively growing cell; this estimate indicates that approximately one cisterna is produced every 2 min, provided the cell generation time is 3 days. The time-lapse cinephotomicrographic data confirm that the rate of production of Golgi cisternae is at least one cisterna every 2 min.
PMCID: PMC2107730  PMID: 5775782
8.  Dephosphorylation of autoantigenic ribosomal P proteins during Fas-L induced apoptosis: a possible trigger for the development of the autoimmune response in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 
OBJECTIVES—Autoimmune diseases are characterised by the production of autoantibodies against various autoantigens. In the past few years data have been published on a possible role of apoptosis in the development of autoimmunity. These include the finding that several autoantigens become modified (for example, by cleavage) during apoptosis, and the observation that these modified antigens are translocated to the cell surface. When the normal clearance of apoptotic cells somehow is disturbed, such modified antigens might become exposed to the immune system. Because acidic ribosomal P (phospho-) proteins targeted by autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are also concentrated at the surface of apoptotic cells, this study aimed at investigating what modifications occur on these antigens during apoptosis.
METHODS—Apoptosis in Jurkat cells was induced by Fas ligand (Fas-L), and the fate of autoantigenic P proteins was analysed in both normal and apoptotic total cell extracts.
RESULTS—The autoantigenic P proteins were not cleaved but dephosphorylated during Fas-L induced apoptosis. This dephosphorylation was prevented when caspase activity was inhibited.
CONCLUSIONS—As has been shown for other autoantigens targeted by autoantibodies in SLE, P proteins also are modified during apoptosis. P1 and P2 are completely dephosphorylated while P0 is partly dephosphorylated. Because the epitope targeted by autoantibodies normally is phosphorylated, it is possible that the apoptotic dephosphorylation of the antigen might be the trigger for the development of the autoimmune response against P proteins.


doi:10.1136/ard.60.1.72
PMCID: PMC1753357  PMID: 11114288
9.  RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) of La/SSB: The Bridge for Interparticle Spreading of Autoimmune Response to U1-RNP 
Molecular Medicine  2009;16(1-2):19-26.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the production of grouped sets of autoantibodies targeting mainly the U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and/or Ro/La RNP particles. Intraparticle diversification of the autoimmune response is believed to occur via epitope spreading. So far, it is not known how the autoimmune response “jumps” from one particle to another. To the extent that the majority of nuclear autoantigens in SLE are RNA binding proteins and major epitopes were previously mapped within their RRM (RNA recognition motifs), conserved sequences within RRM could be involved in the intermolecular and inter-particle diversification process of the autoimmune response. We investigated the potential of RRM of the La/SSB autoantigen to induce antibodies that cross-recognize components of the U1-RNP particle and therefore its capacity to produce interparticle epitope spreading. We immunized New Zealand white rabbits with a peptide corresponding to the epitope 145–164 of La/SSB (belonging to the RRM of La/SSB), attached in four copies on a scaffold carrier. Sera were drawn from 20 sera of patients with SLE and anti–U1-RNP antibodies and 26 sera of primary Sjögren syndrome patients with anti-La/SSB antibodies. All sera were evaluated for reactivity against the major epitope of La/SSB (pep349–364), the RNP antigen and the RRM-related epitope of La/SSB (pep145–164). Specific antibodies against pep145–164 were purified with immunoaffinity columns from selected sera. After the immunization of the animals with pep145-164, a specific IgG antibody response was detected, directed against the La/SSB autoantigen (wks 3–7), the immunizing peptide (wks 3–27), and the RNP autoantigen (wks 7–20). This response gradually decreased to low levels between postimmunization wks 27–42. Purified antibodies against pep145–164 recognized La/SSB and a 70-kD autoantigen in Western blot and exhibited significant reactivity in anti–U1-RNP ELISA. Depletion of anti-pep145–164 antibodies eliminated anti–U1-RNP reactivity from immunized rabbit sera but not from human sera. In addition, pep145–164 was recognized to a greater extent by autoimmune sera with anti-RNP reactivity compared with anti-La/SSB–positive sera, in contrast to pep349–364 of La/SSB, which was recognized almost exclusively by sera with anti-La/SSB reactivity. These data suggest that the RRM region of La/SSB can trigger interparticle B-cell diversification to U1-RNP-70 autoantigen via molecular mimicry. Identification of key sequences that trigger and perpetuate the autoimmune process is particularly important for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms in autoimmunity.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2009.00106
PMCID: PMC2762815  PMID: 19838329
10.  The role of X-chromosome inactivation in female predisposition to autoimmunity 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(5):399-406.
We propose that the phenomenon of X-chromosome inactivation in females may constitute a risk factor for loss of T-cell tolerance; specifically that skewed X-chromosome inactivation in the thymus may lead to inadequate thymic deletion. Using a DNA methylation assay, we have examined the X-chromosome inactivation patterns in peripheral blood from normal females (n = 30), female patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases (n = 167). No differences between patients and controls were observed. However, locally skewed X-chromsome inactivation may exist in the thymus, and therefore the underlying hypothesis remains to be disproved.
Introduction:
A reduction in the sex ratio (male : female) is characteristic of most autoimmune disorders. The increased prevalence in females ranges from a modest 2:1 for multiple sclerosis [1], to approximately 10:1 for systemic lupus erythematosus [2]. This tendency toward autoimmunity in females is often ascribed to hormonal differences, because in a number of experimental disease models estrogens exacerbated disease, and androgens can inhibit disease activity [3,4]. However, human studies have failed to demonstrate a clear-cut influence of hormonal environment on disease susceptibility to lupus or other autoimmune disorders. In addition, many childhood forms of autoimmunity, such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, exhibit female predominance [5]. Interestingly, juvenile (type 1) diabetes is an exception to this general trend, with a sex ratio close to 1 in most studies [6]. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider alternative explanations for the increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases in human females.
A unifying feature of autoimmune disorders appears to be the loss of immunologic tolerance to self-antigens, and in many of these diseases there is evidence that T-cell tolerance has been broken. The most profound form of T-cell tolerance involves deletion of potentially self-reactive T cells during thymic selection. Thus, lack of exposure to a self-antigen in the thymus may lead to the presence of autoreactive T cells and may increase the risk of autoimmunity. An elegant example of this has recently been reported [7].
The existence of X-chromosome inactivation in females offers a potential mechanism whereby X-linked self-antigens may escape presentation in the thymus or in other peripheral sites that are involved in tolerance induction. Early in female development, one of the two X chromosomes in each cell undergoes an ordered process of inactivation, with subsequent silencing of most genes on the inactive X chromosome [8]. This phenomenon occurs at a very early embryonic stage [9], and thus all females are mosaic and may occasionally exhibit extreme skewing towards one or the other parental X chromosome. In theory, this may result in a situation in which polymorphic self-antigens on one X chromosome may fail to be expressed at sufficiently high levels in a tolerizing compartment, such as the thymus, and yet may be expressed at a considerable frequency in the peripheral soma. Thus, females may be predisposed to a situation in which they can occasionally express X-linked autoantigens in the periphery to which they have been inefficiently tolerized. Stewart [10] has recently speculated that such a mechanism may play a role in the predisposition to systemic lupus.
This hypothesis predicts that females with autoimmunity may be particularly prone to this mechanism of `inadequate tolerization' by virtue of extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation. We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of X-chromosome inactivation patterns in populations of females with multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, and in female control individuals. The results do not provide support for a major role for skewed X-chromosome inactivation in female predisposition to autoimmunity; however, neither is the underlying hypothesis disproved by the present data.
Materials and method:
DNA was obtained from female patients from the following sources: 45 persons with juvenile diabetes seen at the Virginia Mason Research Center in Seattle, Washington; 58 multiple sclerosis patients seen at the New York Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center; 46 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus seen at the Hospital for Special Surgery (New York); 18 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis seen at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cleveland. In addition, 30 healthy age-matched females were studied as normal controls.
Employing a modification of previously described methods [11], we utilized a fluorescent Hpa II/PCR assay of the androgen receptor (AR) locus to assess X-chromosome inactivation patterns. The AR gene contains a polymorphic CAG repeat, which is flanked by Hpa II sites. These Hpa II sites are methylated on the inactive X chromosome, and are unmethylated on the active X chromosome. By performing PCR amplification across this region after cutting with the methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpa II, the relative amounts of the methylated AR alleles can be quantitatively determined with a high degree of accuracy; variance on repeated assays is approximately 4% [12].
Skewing of X-chromosome inactivation is expressed as percentage deviation from equal (50:50) inactivation of the upper and lower AR alleles. Therefore, the maximal possible deviation is 50%, in which case all of the X chromosomes bearing one of the AR alleles are inactivated.
Results:
We examined X-chromosome inactivation patterns in several different populations. The results are summarized in Fig. 1. A wide range of X-inactivation skewing was observed in all five groups. Approximately 5% (nine out of 197) of individuals exhibited extreme skewing (greater than 40% deviation from a 50:50 distribution). However, there was no difference between the groups, either in the overall mean skewing, or in the fraction of individuals with extreme skewing (>40%).
Although the present study was not initiated in order to examine allelic variation in the AR gene per se, the data provide an opportunity to address this question. Excessively long CAG repeats in the AR are a rare cause of spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy [13], and AR repeat length appears to have an influence on the biology of certain tumors [14,15]. In this context, it has been shown that transcription of AR correlates inversely with repeat length [16]. We therefore compared AR repeat length in control individuals and patients with autoimmunity. No differences were observed for mean repeat length, or for maximum and minimum repeat length, among the five groups.
Discussion:
The reason for the female predominance in most autoimmune diseases remains obscure. The present study was initiated in order to address the hypothesis that a nonhormonal mechanism related to X inactivation might be involved. The hypothesis rests on the idea that skewing of X inactivation might lead to a deficiency of tolerance induction in the thymus, particularly with respect to polymorphic X-linked autoantigens. The hypothesis predicts that skewed X inactivation would be more prevalent in females with autoimmune diseases than in female control individuals. This was not observed.
Nevertheless, these negative data do not rule out a role for X inactivation in female predisposition to loss of tolerance. A general model for how this mechanism might operate is shown in Fig. 2. Thymocytes undergo selection in the thymic parenchyma and, in the case of negative selection, the selecting elements appear to be derived from the bone marrow and consist mainly of thymic dendritic cells. If the thymic dendritic cell population exhibits random X inactivation, it is highly likely that differentiating thymocytes will contact dendritic cells that express self-antigens on both X chromosomes. This situation is outlined schematically on the left side of Fig. 2. However, if there is extremely skewed X inactivation in the thymic dendritic cell population, a particular thymocyte might not come into contact with dendritic cells that express one of the two X chormosomes. This would lead to a situation where T cells may undergo thymic maturation without having been negatively selected for antigens that are expressed on the predominantly inactive X chromosome. This situation is shown on the right side of Fig. 2.
In order for this mechanism to be physiologically relevant, some assumptions must be made. First, defective tolerance from skewed X inactivation should only be directed at X-linked antigens that are polymorphic, and for which the individual is heterozygous. Thus, this mechanism would not be expected to lead to lack of tolerance commonly, unless there are at least several highly polymorphic X-linked autoantigens in the population that are involved in thymic deletion events. Second, if this actually leads to autoimmunity, it also predicts that the initial break in tolerance that leads to disease should involve an X-linked autoantigen that is expressed in a peripheral nontolerizing site or circumstance.
A recent report [7] has elegantly demonstrated the importance of thymic deletion events in predisposition to autoimmune disease. The proteolipid protein (PLP) autoantigen is expressed in alternatively spliced forms, which exhibit tissue specific expression. A nonspliced variant is expressed in peripheral neural tissue. However, in the thymus a splice variant results in the lack of thymic expression of an immunodominant peptide. This results in loss of tolerace of T cells to this peptide, presumably on the basis of lack of thymic deletion of thymocytes that are reactive with this antigen. Interestingly, PLP is encoded on the X chromsome. However, there is no evidence that genetic polymorphisms control the level splicing of PLP within the thymus. Nevertheless, these data illustrate the potential importance of deficiencies in thymic deletion for autoimmune T-cell reactivity.
The present results suggest that if skewed X inactivation is relevant to thymic tolerance induction, then the effect does not depend on global skewing of X-chromosome inactivation, at least in the hematopoietic compartment. In this study we examined X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the results should reflect the state of X inactivation in all mesenchymal tissues, including dendritic cells. X inactivation occurs at a very early time point in development, and thus the results in one tissue should reflect the general situation in the rest of the body. However, there may be exceptions to this. We have occasionally observed differences in X-inactivation patterns between buccal mucosa (an ectodermally derived tissue) and peripheral blood in the same individiual (unpublished observations). This could be a chance event, or it may result from selection for certain X-linked alleles during embryonic development, as has been described in carriers of X-linked immunodeficiencies [17].
Another consideration is that certain tissue microenvironments may be derived from very small numbers of founder cells, and thus may exhibit skewed utilization of one or the other X chromosome, even if the tissue as a whole is not skewed. This situation could vary over time. Thus, there may be time points at which certain thymic microenvironments are populated by dendritic cells that, for stochastic reasons, all utilize the same X chromosome. This would create a `window of opportunity' in which a given thymocyte, in a given selecting location, could escape negative selection by antigens on the inactive X chromosome. The likelihood of this happening would obviously depend on the number of dendritic cells that are usually contacted by a thymocyte during thymic selection. There is limited information on this point, although Stewart [10] has theorized that this number may be as low as 15. If this is the case, then escape from thymic deletion may still occur in females who are heterozygous for a relevant X-linked antigen, even if the hematopoietic cells in general do not exhibit extreme skewing.
In conclusion, we suggest that X-chromosome inactivation needs to be considered as a potential factor in the predominance of females in most autoimmune diseases. Our inability to show an increase in X-chromosome skewing in females with autoimmunity does not eliminate this as an etiologic contributor to loss of immunologic tolerance. Future experiments must be directed at a detailed analysis of tissue patterns of X inactivation, as well as at a search for potential X-linked autoantigens.
PMCID: PMC17816  PMID: 11056674
autoimmunity; gender; immune tolerance; X chromosome
11.  Autoantibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis: important tools in clinical practice and to study pathogenesis of the disease 
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necroinflammatory disease of the liver characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, characteristic autoantibodies, association with HLA DR3 or DR4 and a favorable response to immunosuppressive treatment. The etiology is unknown. The detection of non-organ and liver-related autoantibodies remains the hallmark for the diagnosis of the disease in the absence of viral, metabolic, genetic, and toxic etiology of chronic hepatitis or hepatic injury. The current classification of AIH and the several autoantibodies/target-autoantigens found in this disease are reported. Current aspects on the significance of these markers in the differential diagnosis and the study of pathogenesis of AIH are also stated. AIH is subdivided into two major types; AIH type 1 (AIH-1) and type 2 (AIH-2). AIH-1 is characterized by the detection of smooth muscle autoantibodies (SMA) and/or antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Determination of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), antibodies against the asialoglycoprotein receptor (anti-ASGP-R) and antibodies against to soluble liver antigens or liver-pancreas (anti-SLA/LP) may be useful for the identification of patients who are seronegative for ANA/SMA. AIH-2 is characterized by the presence of specific autoantibodies against liver and kidney microsomal antigens (anti-LKM type 1 or infrequently anti-LKM type 3) and/or autoantibodies against liver cytosol 1 antigen (anti-LC1). Anti-LKM-1 and anti-LKM-3 autoantibodies are also detected in some patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and chronic hepatitis D (HDV). Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) has been documented as the major target-autoantigen of anti-LKM-1 autoantibodies in both AIH-2 and HCV infection. Recent convincing data demonstrated the expression of CYP2D6 on the surface of hepatocytes suggesting a pathogenetic role of anti-LKM-1 autoantibodies for the liver damage. Family 1 of UDP-glycuronosyltransferases has been identified as the target-autoantigen of anti-LKM-3. For these reasons the distinction between AIH and chronic viral hepatitis (especially of HCV) is of particular importance. Recently, the molecular target of anti-SLA/LP and anti-LC1 autoantibodies were identified as a 50 kDa UGA-suppressor tRNA-associated protein and a liver specific enzyme, the formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, respectively. Anti-ASGP-R and anti-LC1 autoantibodies appear to correlate closely with disease severity and response to treatment suggesting a pathogenetic role of these autoantibodies for the hepatocellular injury. In general however, autoantibodies should not be used to monitor treatment, predict AIH activity or outcome. Finally, the current aspects on a specific form of AIH that may develop in some patients with a rare genetic syndrome, the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) are also given. Autoantibodies against liver microsomes (anti-LM) are the specific autoantibodies detected in AIH as a disease component of APECED but also in cases of dihydralazine-induced hepatitis. Cytochrome P450 1A2 has been identified as the target-autoantigen of anti-LM autoantibodies in both APECED-related AIH and dihydralazine-induced hepatitis. The latter may indicate that similar autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms can lead to liver injury in susceptible individuals irrespective of the primary defect. Characterization of the autoantigen-autoantibody repertoire continues to be an attractive and important tool to get access to the correct diagnosis and to gain insight into the as yet unresolved mystery of how hepatic tolerance is given up and AIH ensues.
doi:10.1186/1740-2557-1-2
PMCID: PMC544946  PMID: 15679907
Antibodies against Liver Cytosol 1 Antigen (anti-LC1); Antibodies against Soluble Liver Antigens or Liver Pancreas (anti-SLA/LP); Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA); Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies (ANCA); Autoimmune Hepatitis; Cytochrome P450 2D6; Cytochrome P450 2A6; Cytochrome P450 1A2; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis D; Liver-Kidney Microsomal Autoantibodies (anti-LKM); Liver Microsomal Autoantibodies (anti-LM); Smooth Muscle Autoantibodies (SMA)
12.  Splenic Phagocytes Promote Responses to Nucleosomes in (NZB × NZW) F1 Mice1 
Autoantigen presentation to T cells is crucial for the development of autoimmune disease. However, the mechanisms of autoantigen presentation are poorly understood. In this study, we show that splenic phagocytes play an important role in autoantigen presentation in murine lupus. Nucleosomes are major autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. We found that nucleosome-specific T cells were stimulated dominantly in the spleen, compared with lymph nodes, lung, and thymus. Among splenic APCs, F4/80+macrophages and CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cells were strong stimulators for nucleosome-specific T cells. When splenic phagocytes were depleted in (NZB × NZW) F1 (NZB/W F1) mice, nucleosome presentation in the spleen was dramatically suppressed. Moreover, depletion of splenic phagocytes significantly suppressed anti-nucleosome Ab and anti-dsDNA Ab production. Proteinuria progression was delayed and survival was prolonged in phagocyte-depleted mice. The numbers of autoantibody-secreting cells were decreased in the spleen from phagocyte-depleted mice. Multiple injections of splenic F4/80+ macrophages, not those of splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells, induced autoantibody production and proteinuria progression in NZB/W F1 mice. These results indicate that autoantigen presentation by splenic phagocytes including macrophages significantly contributes to autoantibody production and disease progression in lupus-prone mice.
PMCID: PMC2704580  PMID: 18832681
13.  Twins discordant for myositis and systemic lupus erythematosus show markedly enriched autoantibodies in the affected twin supporting environmental influences in pathogenesis 
Background
Studies of twin pairs discordant for autoimmune conditions provide a unique opportunity to explore contributing factors triggered by complex gene-environment interactions.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, thirty-one monozygotic or dizygotic twin pairs discordant for myositis or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), along with matched healthy controls were evaluated for antibodies against a panel of 21 autoantigens.
Results
Autoantibody profiling revealed that 42% of the affected twins showed significant seropositivity against autoantigens in the panel. In many of these affected twins, but none of healthy controls, there were high levels of autoantibodies detected against two or more autoantigens commonly seen in systemic autoimmune diseases including Ro52, Ro60, RNP-70 K and/or RNP-A. In contrast, only 10% (3/31) of the unaffected twins showed seropositivity and these immunoreactivities were against single autoantigens not seen in systemic autoimmune diseases. While no significant differences in autoantibodies were detected between the affected or unaffected twins against thyroid peroxidase, transglutaminase and several cytokines, 23% of the affected twins with myositis showed autoantibodies against the gastric ATPase. Analysis of the monozygotic twins separately also revealed a higher frequencies of autoantibodies in the affected twins compared to the unaffected twins (P = 0.046). Lastly, clinical analysis of both the affected monozygotic and dizygotic twins revealed that the autoantibody seropositive affected twins had a greater global disease activity score compared to seronegative affected twins (P = 0.019).
Conclusion
The findings of significantly more autoantibodies in the affected twins with myositis and SLE compared to the unaffected twins are consistent with potential non-genetic factors playing a role in autoantibody production and pathogenesis of these autoimmune disorders.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-67
PMCID: PMC3973849  PMID: 24602337
14.  Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport leads to the accumulation of large aggregates containing beta-COP in pancreatic acinar cells. 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1993;4(4):413-424.
When transport between the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex is blocked by Brefeldin A (BFA) treatment or ATP depletion, the Golgi apparatus and associated transport vesicles undergo a dramatic reorganization. Because recent studies suggest that coat proteins such as beta-COP play an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi complex, we have used immunocytochemistry to determine the distribution of beta-COP in pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) in which ER to Golgi transport was blocked by BFA treatment or ATP depletion. In controls, beta-COP was associated with Golgi cisternae and transport vesicles as expected. Upon BFA treatment, PAC Golgi cisternae are dismantled and replaced by clusters of remnant vesicles surrounded by typical ER transitional elements that are generally assumed to represent the exit site of vesicular carriers for ER to Golgi transport. In BFA-treated PAC, beta-COP was concentrated in large (0.5-1.0 micron) aggregates closely associated with remnant Golgi membranes. In addition to typical ER transitional elements, we detected a new type of transitional element that consists of specialized regions of rough ER (RER) with ribosome-free ends that touched or extended into the beta-COP containing aggregates. In ATP-depleted PAC, beta-COP was not detected on Golgi membranes but was concentrated in similar large aggregates found on the cis side of the Golgi stacks. The data indicate that upon arrest of ER to Golgi transport by either BFA treatment or energy depletion, beta-COP dissociates from PAC Golgi membranes and accumulates as large aggregates closely associated with specialized ER elements. The latter may correspond to either the site of entry or exit for vesicles recycling between the Golgi and the RER.
Images
PMCID: PMC300942  PMID: 8507897
15.  Molecular Mechanism of Mitotic Golgi Disassembly and Reassembly Revealed by a Defined Reconstitution Assay 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2007;283(10):6085-6094.
In mammalian cells, flat Golgi cisternae closely arrange together to form stacks. During mitosis, the stacked structure undergoes a continuous fragmentation process. The generated mitotic Golgi fragments are distributed into the daughter cells, where they are reassembled into new Golgi stacks. In this study, an in vitro assay has been developed using purified proteins and Golgi membranes to reconstitute the Golgi disassembly and reassembly processes. This technique provides a useful tool to delineate the mechanisms underlying the morphological change. There are two processes during Golgi disassembly: unstacking and vesiculation. Unstacking is mediated by two mitotic kinases, cdc2 and plk, which phosphorylate the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 and thus disrupt the oligomer of this protein. Vesiculation is mediated by the COPI budding machinery ARF1 and the coatomer complex. When treated with a combination of purified kinases, ARF1 and coatomer, the Golgi membranes were completely fragmented into vesicles. After mitosis, there are also two processes in Golgi reassembly: formation of single cisternae by membrane fusion, and restacking. Cisternal membrane fusion requires two AAA ATPases, p97 and NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein), each of which functions together with specific adaptor proteins. Restacking of the newly formed Golgi cisternae requires dephosphorylation of Golgi stacking proteins by the protein phosphatase PP2A. This systematic study revealed the minimal machinery that controls the mitotic Golgi disassembly and reassembly processes.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M707715200
PMCID: PMC3291109  PMID: 18156178
16.  Association of a dynamin-like protein with the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1996;133(4):761-775.
Dynamins are a family of 100-kD GTPases comprised of at least three distinct gene products and multiple alternatively spliced variants. Homologies with the shibire gene product in Drosophila melanogaster and with Vps1p and Dnm1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that dynamins play an important role in vesicular transport. Morphological studies have localized brain dynamin to coated pits and tubular invaginations at the plasma membrane, where it is believed to facilitate the formation of endocytic vesicles. Because similar membrane-budding events occur at the Golgi apparatus and multiple dynamin isoforms exist, we have studied the distribution of dynamins in mammalian cells. To this end, we generated and characterized peptide-specific antibodies directed against conserved regions of the dynamin family. By immunoblot analysis, these antibodies reacted specifically with a 100-kD protein in fibroblasts that sedimented with membranes and microtubules in vitro in a manner similar to brain dynamin. By immunofluorescence microscopy, these antibodies strongly labeled the Golgi complex in cultured fibroblasts and melanocytes, as confirmed by double labeling with a Golgi-specific antibody. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed significant enrichment of a 100-kD dynamin band in Golgi fractions isolated from the liver. To substantiate these findings, we use a specific antidynamin antibody to immunoisolate Golgi membranes from subcellular Golgi fractions, as determined by EM and immunoblot analysis. This study provides the first morphological and biochemical evidence that a dynamin-like protein associates with the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells, and suggests that dynamin-related proteins may have multiple cytoplasmic distributions. The potential contributions of dynamin to the secretory and endocytic pathways are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2120831  PMID: 8666662
17.  Epstein-Barr virus-induced autoimmune responses. I. Immunoglobulin M autoantibodies to proteins mimicking and not mimicking Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(3):1306-1315.
In previous studies of infectious mononucleosis, we found IgM autoantibodies which react with hematopoietic cell antigens. Many of these were inhibited by synthetic glycine/alanine peptides representing the glycine/alanine repeat of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1. We have cloned and expressed fragments of genes encoding two of these autoantigens. One gene (p542) encodes a protein containing a glycine-rich 28-mer, which is its chief autoantigenic epitope and which represents a newly identified class of evolutionarily conserved autoepitopes. The other gene (p554) encodes a protein that is not demonstrably cross-reactive with Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 or with any other EBV protein, but forms complexes with other proteins. Immunoaffinity-purified anti-p542 and anti-p554 have relatively high binding affinities, as evidenced by inhibition at 10(6)-10(8) M-1, and neither autoantibody showed polyreactivity with other common antigens. The data thus suggest that neither autoantibody is simply an expression of polyclonal B cell activation. We conclude that the two autoantigens stimulate autoantibody synthesis by different mechanisms. One autoantigen shares homology to a viral protein which generates cross-reacting antibodies to the autoantigenic epitope. The other has no recognizable cross-reaction with the infecting pathogen and may become immunogenic through complexing with other proteins.
Images
PMCID: PMC441470  PMID: 7533788
18.  Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(5):407-414.
The antigenic specificity of an unusual antinuclear antibody pattern in three patient sera was identified after separating HeLa-cell nuclear extracts by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and localizing the antigens by immunoblotting with patient serum. Protein spots were excised from the 2D gel and their contents were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) or nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after in-gel digestion with trypsin. A database search identified the proteins as the C1 and C2 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The clinical spectrum of patients with these autoantibodies includes arthritis, psoriasis, myositis, and scleroderma. None of 59 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 19 with polymyositis, 33 with scleroderma, and 10 with psoriatic arthritis had similar antibodies. High-resolution protein-separation methods and mass-spectrometric peptide mapping in combination with database searches are powerful tools in the identification of novel autoantigen specificities.
Introduction:
The classification of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is important for diagnosis and prognosis and for understanding the molecular pathology of autoimmune disease. Many of the proteins that associate with RNA in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of the spliceosome have been found to react with some types of ANA [1], including proteins of the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) complex that associate with newly transcribed pre-mRNA. Autoantibodies to the A2, B1, and B2 proteins of hnRNP found in some patients may be markers of several overlap syndromes [2]. However, ANAs with specificity for these proteins as well as for the D protein also appear to occur in many distinct connective-tissue diseases, although epitope specificities may differ [3]. ANAs with specificity for the C component of hnRNP (consisting of the C1 and C2 proteins) have to our knowledge so far been described in only one case [4]. We here describe the approach taken to unambiguously identify the C1/C2 proteins as ANA targets in the sera of some patients.
Aims:
To determine the fine specificity of sera containing an unusual speckled ANA-staining pattern using a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis and MS.
Methods:
Patient sera were screened for ANAs by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on HEp-2 cells (cultured carcinoma cells). Sera with an unusual, very regular, speckled ANA pattern were tested for reactivity with components of nuclear extracts of HeLa cells that were separated by one-dimensional (1D) or 2D gel electrophoresis or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). IgG reactivity was assessed by immunoblotting. Reactive protein spots from 2D separations were excised from the gels and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin for subsequent peptide mapping, partial peptide sequencing, and protein identification by MS and tandem MS on a hybrid electrospray ionization/quadrupole/time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer [5,6,7].
Results:
We observed a strong nuclear staining pattern (titer >1280) with the characteristic even-sized coarse speckles and no staining of nucleoli in sera from three patients. On immunoblots of nuclear extracts from HeLa cells, these sera stained two distinct bands, at Mr 42 000 and 41 000. There activity strongly resembled that of the patient originally described by Stanek et al [4]. The antigens were enriched by fractionating the extract using reversed-phase HPLC on a C4 column, and the two reactive spots on 2D separations were excised for identification. The two components appeared to be of approximately the same isoelectric points, although their molecular masses differed by approximately 2000. Peptide-mass mapping was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS on the tryptic peptide mixture generated by digestion of the two excised proteins. The database search suggested that the two proteins were C1/C2 hnRNPs (Swissprot accession number P07910). The identity of the proteins was further confirmed by tandem MS using an ESI-Q-TOF instrument. One peptide carrying two positive charges (m/z 580.32 Da), corresponding to a peptide mass of 1158.7 Da, was selected as a precursor ion and partially sequenced by collisional fragmentation. The fragmented peptide was found to represent the tryptic fragment VDSLLENLEK, ie amino acids 207-216 (C2 protein numbering). Four other peptides were partially sequenced and all of them matched the human C1/C2 hnRNP sequence. The theoretical masses of C1 and C2 are 32.0 and 33.3 kDa, respectively. The difference between the two sequences is a 13-amino-acid insert in C2 between positions 107 and 108 of C1. The presence of a specific tryptic fragment in the MALDI-TOF peptide-mass map from the higher-molecular-mass spot containing a 13-amino-acid insert that was not present in the lower-molecular-mass spot, further demonstrated that the two components represented the two isoforms of the C class of hnRNPs.
The patient whose case prompted us to investigate the specificities of these antibodies was a 72-year-old man who had arthralgias and oligoarthritis but did not fulfill the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and did not have dermatological complaints. The reactivity of various patient groups to the C1/C2 hnRNP autoantigens was subsequently tested by immunoblotting of HeLa-cell nuclear extracts. Of 59 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 19 with polymyositis, 33 with scleroderma, and 10 with psoriatic arthritis, none had IgG antibodies reacting with the two bands. Of sera from 139 consecutive patients who had moderately to strongly positive speckled ANA patterns shown by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, only two reacted with the C1/C2 hnRNP bands in immunoblotting. One of these was from a young woman (22 years old) whose complaints of muscle tenderness were not explained by objective findings or abnormal laboratory test results. The third patient that we identified through ANA screening followed by immunoblotting was a 54-year-old male who was being treated with methotrexate for long-standing polymyositis in addition to psoriasis and possible osteoporosis.
Discussion:
The results confirm the existence of anti-C1/C2 antibodies in some patients with speckled ANAs. The antigens were identified through the use of biochemical methods using high-resolution separation techniques combined with mass-spectrometry peptide mapping and database searches. As a general approach, this is a powerful way to identify new antigens using small amounts of material without the need for conventional protein sequencing. The approach does require, however, that the proteins can be found in databases, that they are not extensively post-translationally modified, that they can be digested enzymatically, and that they can be isolated in appropriately pure form by the separation technique used.
It is not known at present if the C1/C2 antibodies may have pathogenic relevance and/or relate to specific diagnoses or subsets within the group of connective-tissue diseases. It does appear that the reactivity is quite rare among ANA-positive patients, and therefore many patients will have to be examined to determine these issues. The fact that the antibodies to the C1/C2 hnRNPs are revealed by indirect immunofluorescence would indicate that the epitopes are accessible in intact, fixed HEp-2 cells and thus probably reside outside the nucleic-acid-binding domains that would be expected to be covered by RNA.
PMCID: PMC17817  PMID: 11056675
antinuclear antibodies; autoantibodies; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; mass spectrometry
19.  Autoantigens targeted in systemic lupus erythematosus are clustered in two populations of surface structures on apoptotic keratinocytes  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1994;179(4):1317-1330.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem autoimmune disease in which the autoantibody response targets a variety of autoantigens of diverse subcellular location. We show here that these autoantigens are clustered in two distinct populations of blebs at the surface of apoptotic cells. The population of smaller blebs contains fragmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes, as well as the ribonucleoprotein, Ro. The larger blebs (apoptotic bodies) contain nucleosomal DNA, Ro, La, and the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. These autoantigen clusters have in common their proximity to the ER and nuclear membranes, sites of increased generation of reactive oxygen species in apoptotic cells. Oxidative modification at these sites may be a mechanism that unites this diverse group of molecules together as autoantigens.
PMCID: PMC2191465  PMID: 7511686
20.  Immunogenetic mechanisms for the coexistence of organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases 
Background
Organ-specific autoimmune diseases affect particular targets in the body, whereas systemic diseases engage multiple organs. Both types of autoimmune diseases may coexist in the same patient, either sequentially or concurrently, sustained by the presence of autoantibodies directed against the corresponding autoantigens. Multiple factors, including those of immunological, genetic, endocrine and environmental origin, contribute to the above condition. Due to association of certain autoimmune disorders with HLA alleles, it has been intriguing to examine the immunogenetic basis for autoantigen presentation leading to the production of two or more autoantibodies, each distinctive of an organ-specific or systemic disease. This communication offers the explanation for shared autoimmunity as illustrated by organ-specific blistering diseases and the connective tissue disorders of systemic nature.
Presentation of the hypothesis
Several hypothetical mechanisms implicating HLA determinants, autoantigenic peptides, T cells, and B cells have been proposed to elucidate the process by which two autoimmune diseases are induced in the same individual. One of these scenarios, based on the assumption that the patient carries two disease-susceptible HLA genes, arises when a single T cell epitope of each autoantigen recognizes its HLA protein, leading to the generation of two types of autoreactive B cells, which produce autoantibodies. Another mechanism functioning whilst an epitope derived from either autoantigen binds each of the HLA determinants, resulting in the induction of both diseases by cross-presentation. Finally, two discrete epitopes originating from the same autoantigen may interact with each of the HLA specificities, eliciting the production of both types of autoantibodies.
Testing the hypothesis
Despite the lack of immediate or unequivocal experimental evidence supporting the present hypothesis, several approaches may secure a better understanding of shared autoimmunity. Among these are animal models expressing the transgenes of human disease-associated HLA determinants and T or B cell receptors, as well as in vitro binding studies employing purified HLA proteins, synthetic peptides, and cellular assays with antigen-presenting cells and patient's lymphocytes. Indisputably, a bioinformatics-based search for peptide motifs and the modeling of the conformation of bound autoantigenic peptides associated with their respective HLA alleles will reveal some of these important processes.
Implications of the hypothesis
The elucidation of HLA-restricted immune recognition mechanisms prompting the production of two or more disease-specific autoantibodies holds significant clinical ramifications and implications for the development of more effective treatment protocols.
doi:10.1186/1740-2557-5-1
PMCID: PMC2265707  PMID: 18275618
21.  HLA-DR3 restricted T cell epitope mimicry in induction of autoimmune response to lupus-associated antigen SmD 
Journal of Autoimmunity  2011;37(3):254-262.
Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multigenic autoimmune disorder, HLA-D is the most dominant genetic susceptibility locus. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that microbial peptides bind HLA-DR3 and activate T cells reactive with lupus autoantigens. Using HLA-DR3 transgenic mice and lupus-associated autoantigen SmD protein, SmD79–93 was identified to contain a dominant HLA-DR3 restricted T cell epitope. This T cell epitope was characterized by using a T-T hybridoma, C1P2, generated from SmD immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse. By pattern search analysis, 20 putative mimicry peptides (P2–P21) of SmD79–93, from microbial and human origin were identified. C1P2 cells responded to SmD, SmD79–93 and a peptide (P20) from Vibro cholerae. Immunization of HLA-DR3 mice with P20 induced T cell responses and IgG antibodies to SmD that were not cross-reactive with the immunogen. A T-T hybridoma, P20P1, generated from P20 immunized mice, not only responded to P20 and SmD79–93, but also to peptides from Streptococccus agalactiae (P17) and human-La related protein (P11). These three T cell mimics (P20, P11 and P17) induced diverse and different autoantibody response profiles. Our data demonstrates for the first time molecular mimicry at T cell epitope level between lupus-associated autoantigen SmD and microbial peptides. Considering distinct autoreactive T cell clones, activated by different microbial peptides, molecular mimicry at T cell epitope level can be an important pathway for the activation of autoreactive T cells resulting in the production of autoantibodies. In addition, the novel findings reported herein may have significant implications in the pathogenesis of SLE.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2011.07.002
PMCID: PMC3372418  PMID: 21868195
Epitope; HLA-DR3; Mice; Molecular Mimicry; Systemic Lupus; Erythematosus; SmD
22.  Selective cleavage of nuclear autoantigens during CD95 (Fas/APO-1)- mediated T cell apoptosis 
Intracellular proteases appear to be important mediators of apoptosis. Substrates cleaved by proteases during apoptosis include nuclear autoantigens targeted in systemic autoimmune diseases. Using human autoantibodies as probes, we demonstrate here that T cell apoptosis mediated by CD95 (Fas/APO-1) is associated with substantial cleavage of a subset of nuclear autoantigens (7 of 33 examined). This subset included poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, the 70-kD protein of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle, lamin B, the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, DNA topoisomerases I and II, and the RNA polymerase I upstream binding factor UBF. Several of the cleaved autoantigens are involved in ensuring the integrity and proper conformation of DNA in the nucleus through interactions with the nuclear matrix, suggesting the possibility that their cleavage may contribute to the collapse of nuclear structure during apoptosis. The relative cleavage kinetics indicated that the autoantigens were targeted at various times after induction of apoptosis, suggesting either differential accessibility or activation of distinct proteases during the cell death process. These data reinforce the hypothesis that apoptosis is accompanied by selective cleavage of key substrates and not by a generalized degradation of intracellular material.
PMCID: PMC2192733  PMID: 8760832
23.  The Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum Remain Independent during Mitosis in HeLa Cells 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1998;9(3):623-635.
Partitioning of the mammalian Golgi apparatus during cell division involves disassembly at M-phase. Despite the importance of the disassembly/reassembly pathway in Golgi biogenesis, it remains unclear whether mitotic Golgi breakdown in vivo proceeds by direct vesiculation or involves fusion with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To test whether mitotic Golgi is fused with the ER, we compared the distribution of ER and Golgi proteins in interphase and mitotic HeLa cells by immunofluorescence microscopy, velocity gradient fractionation, and density gradient fractionation. While mitotic ER appeared to be a fine reticulum excluded from the region containing the spindle-pole body, mitotic Golgi appeared to be dispersed small vesicles that penetrated the area containing spindle microtubules. After cell disruption, M-phase Golgi was recovered in two size classes. The major breakdown product, accounting for at least 75% of the Golgi, was a population of 60-nm vesicles that were completely separated from the ER using velocity gradient separation. The minor breakdown product was a larger, more heterogenously sized, membrane population. Double-label fluorescence analysis of these membranes indicated that this portion of mitotic Golgi also lacked detectable ER marker proteins. Therefore we conclude that the ER and Golgi remain distinct at M-phase in HeLa cells. To test whether the 60-nm vesicles might form from the ER at M-phase as the result of a two-step vesiculation pathway involving ER–Golgi fusion followed by Golgi vesicle budding, mitotic cells were generated with fused ER and Golgi by brefeldin A treatment. Upon brefeldin A removal, Golgi vesicles did not emerge from the ER. In contrast, the Golgi readily reformed from similarly treated interphase cells. We conclude that Golgi-derived vesicles remain distinct from the ER in mitotic HeLa cells, and that mitotic cells lack the capacity of interphase cells for Golgi reemergence from the ER. These experiments suggest that mitotic Golgi breakdown proceeds by direct vesiculation independent of the ER.
PMCID: PMC25291  PMID: 9487131
24.  Admixture Mapping in Lupus Identifies Multiple Functional Variants within IFIH1 Associated with Apoptosis, Inflammation, and Autoantibody Production 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(2):e1003222.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA). Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22–24 (LOD = 6.28), and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ∼1.5). Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [Pmeta = 5.20×10−14; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78–0.87)], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr) [Pmeta = 3.08×10−7; 0.88 (0.84–0.93)] and rs10930046 (Arg460His) [Pdom = 1.16×10−8; 0.70 (0.62–0.79)]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.
Author Summary
African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the genetic basis of this risk increase is largely unknown. We used admixture mapping to localize disease-causing genetic variants that differ in frequency across populations. This approach is advantageous for localizing susceptibility genes in recently admixed populations like AA. Our genome-wide admixture scan identified seven admixture signals, and we followed the best signal at 2q22–24 with fine-mapping, imputation-based association analysis and experimental validation. We identified two independent coding variants and a non-coding variant within the IFIH1 gene associated with SLE. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003222
PMCID: PMC3575474  PMID: 23441136
25.  Systemic Exposure to Irradiated Apoptotic Cells Induces Autoantibody Production  
During apoptotic cell death, cell surface ligands initiate phagocytosis of the dying cell. Clearance of these apoptotic cells is thought to occur without an immune response. Since a number of autoantigens are located at the cell surface or within apoptotic blebs, we examined whether exposure of mice to syngeneic apoptotic cells by the intravenous route could induce autoantibody production. Normal mice injected with syngeneic apoptotic thymocytes developed antinuclear autoantibodies and anticardiolipin and anti-ssDNA antibodies. The autoantibody levels were generally lower than those observed in MRL/Faslpr mice and were transient. Surprisingly, six out of six immunized mice demonstrated immunoglobulin G deposition in the glomeruli several months after immunization. These findings indicate that systemic exposure to apoptotic cells can induce an immune response in normal mice, and may help to explain antigen selection and initiation of the immune response in diseases characterized by increased rates of apoptosis such as AIDS and, possibly, systemic lupus erythematosus.
PMCID: PMC2212450  PMID: 9670050
apoptosis; autoimmunity; systemic lupus erythematosus; anti-DNA; anticardiolipin

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