Transcription of the bacteriophage Mu mom operon is strongly repressed by the host OxyR protein in dam - but not dam + cells. In this work we show that the extent of mom modification is sensitive to the relative levels of the Dam and OxyR proteins and OxyR appears to modulate the level of mom expression even in dam + cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that OxyR is capable of binding hemimethylated P mom , although its affinity is reduced slightly compared with unmethylated DNA. Thus, OxyR modulation of mom expression in dam + cells can be attributed to its ability to bind hemimethylated P mom DNA, the product of DNA replication.
A computational search was carried out to identify additional targets for the Escherichia coli OxyR transcription factor. This approach predicted OxyR binding sites upstream of dsbG, encoding a periplasmic disulfide bond chaperone-isomerase; upstream of fhuF, encoding a protein required for iron uptake; and within yfdI. DNase I footprinting assays confirmed that oxidized OxyR bound to the predicted site centered 54 bp upstream of the dsbG gene and 238 bp upstream of a known OxyR binding site in the promoter region of the divergently transcribed ahpC gene. Although the new binding site was near dsbG, Northern blotting and primer extension assays showed that OxyR binding to the dsbG-proximal site led to the induction of a second ahpCF transcript, while OxyR binding to the ahpCF-proximal site leads to the induction of both dsbG and ahpC transcripts. Oxidized OxyR binding to the predicted site centered 40 bp upstream of the fhuF gene was confirmed by DNase I footprinting, but these assays further revealed a second higher-affinity site in the fhuF promoter. Interestingly, the two OxyR sites in the fhuF promoter overlapped with two regions bound by the Fur repressor. Expression analysis revealed that fhuF was repressed by hydrogen peroxide in an OxyR-dependent manner. Finally, DNase I footprinting experiments showed OxyR binding to the site predicted to be within the coding sequence of yfdI. These results demonstrate the versatile modes of regulation by OxyR and illustrate the need to learn more about the ensembles of binding sites and transcripts in the E. coli genome.
Phase variation of the outer membrane protein Ag43 in E. coli requires deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) and OxyR. Previously, it was shown that OxyR is required for repression of the Ag43-encoding gene, agn43, and that Dam-dependent methylation of three GATC target sequences in the regulatory region abrogates OxyR binding. Here we report further characterization of agn43 transcription and its regulation. Transcription was initiated from a σ70-dependent promoter at the G residue of the upstream GATC sequence. Template DNA and RNA polymerase were sufficient to obtain transcription in vitro, but DNA methylation enhanced the level of transcription. Analyses of transcription in vivo of agn′-lacZ with mutated Dam target sequences support this conclusion. Since methylation also abrogates OxyR binding, this indicates that methylation plays a dual role in facilitating agn43 transcription. In vitro transcription from an unmethylated template was repressed by OxyR(C199S), which resembles the reduced form of OxyR. Consistent with this and the role of Dam in OxyR binding, OxyR(C199S) protected from DNase I digestion the agn43 regulatory region from −16 to +42, which includes the three GATC sequences. Deletion analyses of the regulatory region showed that a 101-nucleotide region of the agn43 regulatory region containing the promoter and this OxyR binding region was sufficient for Dam- and OxyR-dependent phase variation
The expression of the DNA modification gene (mom) of bacteriophage Mu requires the cellular deoxyadenosine methylase (dam) and a transactivation factor from the phage. By hypothesis, the transcription of mom is activated by methylation of three GATC sequences upstream from the mom gene. We have introduced small deletions at a fourth GATC site located about 140 base pairs downstream from the primary methylation region. Some of the deletions severely affect the mom gene expression. We propose from this analysis that (1) some important elements, possibly the promoter, concerned with the expression of mom are located between nucleotides 840 and 880 from the right end of Mu and (2) the mom protein starts with the codon GTG located at position 810. We favor the hypothesis that methylation turns off transcription upstream, thereby allowing the main mom promoter to function.
OxyR is a DNA binding protein that differentially regulates a cell's response to hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. We previously reported that the reduced form of OxyR is sufficient for repression of transcription of agn43 from unmethylated template DNA, which is essential for deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam)- and OxyR-dependent phase variation of agn43. Here we provide evidence that the oxidized form of OxyR [OxyR(ox)] also represses agn43 transcription. In vivo, we found that exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide, sufficient to oxidize OxyR, did not affect the expression of agn43. OxyR(ox) repressed in vitro transcription but only from an unmethylated agn43 template. The −10 sequence of the promoter and three Dam target sequences were protected in an in vitro DNase I footprint assay by OxyR(ox). Furthermore, OxyR(ox) bound to the agn43 regulatory region DNA with an affinity similar to that for the regulatory regions of katG and oxyS, which are activated by OxyR(ox), indicating that binding at agn43 can occur at biologically relevant concentrations. OxyR-dependent regulation of Ag43 expression is therefore unusual in firstly that OxyR binding at agn43 is dependent on the methylation state of Dam target sequences in its binding site and secondly that OxyR-dependent repression appears to be independent of hydrogen-peroxide mediated oxidative stress and the oxidation state of OxyR.
The phage Mu gene C encodes a 16.5-kDa site-specific DNA-binding protein that functions as a trans-activator of the four phage "late" operons, including mom. We have overexpressed and purified C and used it for DNase I footprinting and transcription analyses in vitro. The footprinting results are summarized as follows. (i) As shown previously (V. Balke, V. Nagaraja, T. Gindlesperger, and S. Hattman, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:2777-2784, 1992) in vivo, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) bound the wild-type (wt) mom promoter at a site slightly upstream from the functionally active site bound on the C-independent tin7 mutant promoter. (ii) In the presence of C, however, RNAP bound the wt promoter at the same site as tin7. (iii) C and RNAP were both bound by the mom promoter at overlapping sites, indicating that they were probably on different faces of the DNA helix. The minicircle system of Choy and Adhya (H. E. Choy and S. Adhya, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:472-476, 1993) was used to compare transcription in vitro from the wt and tin7 promoters. This analysis showed the following. (i) Few full-length transcripts were observed from the wt promoter in the absence of C, but addition of increasing amounts of C greatly stimulated transcription. (ii) RNA was transcribed from the tin7 promoter in the absence of C, but addition of C had a small stimulatory effect. (iii) Transcription from linearized minicircles or restriction fragment templates was greatly reduced (although still stimulated by C) with both the wt and tin7 promoters. These results show that C alone is capable of activating rightward transcription in vitro by promoting RNAP binding at a functionally active site. Additionally, DNA topology plays an important role in transcriptional activation in vitro.
The phage Mu C gene product is a specific activator of Mu late gene transcription, including activation of the mom operon. Fusion of the C gene to the efficient translation initiation region of the Escherichia coli atpE gene allowed significant overproduction of C protein, which was subsequently purified and assayed for DNA binding by gel retardation and nuclease footprinting techniques. C protein binds to a site immediately upstream of the -35 region both of the mom promoter and the related phage D108 mod promoter. The location of the mom promoter has been determined by primer extension. Upstream deletions extending more than 3 base pairs into the C-binding site abolished activation of the mom promoter in vivo. In vitro binding of C was not significantly affected by DNA methylation. A second, C-dependent promoter was identified just downstream of the C coding region; comparison with the mom promoter revealed common structural elements.
The adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the major catalase, KatA, and OxyR. However, neither the molecular basis nor the relationship between the aforementioned proteins has been established. Here, we demonstrate that the transcriptional activation of the katA promoter (katAp) in response to H2O2 was abrogated in the P. aeruginosa PA14 oxyR null mutant. Promoter deletion analyses revealed that H2O2-mediated induction was dependent on a region of DNA −76 to −36 upstream of the H2O2-responsive transcriptional start site. This region harbored the potential operator sites (OxyR-responsive element [ORE]) of the Escherichia coli OxyR binding consensus. Deletion of the entire ORE not only abolished H2O2-mediated induction but also elevated the basal transcription, suggesting the involvement of OxyR and the ORE in both transcriptional activation and repression. OxyR bound to the ORE both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating that OxyR directly regulates the katAp. Three distinct mobility species of oxidized OxyR were observed in response to 1 mM H2O2, as assessed by free thiol trapping using 4-acetamido-4′-maleimidylstilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid. These oxidized species were not observed for the double mutants with mutations in the conserved cysteine (Cys) residues (C199 and C208). The uninduced transcription of katAp was elevated in an oxyR mutant with a mutation of Cys to serine at 199 (C199S) and even higher in the oxyR mutant with a mutation of Cys to alanine at 199 (C199A) but not in oxyR mutants with mutations in C208 (C208S and C208A). In both the C199S and the C208S mutant, however, katAp transcription was still induced by H2O2 treatment, unlike in the oxyR null mutant and the C199A mutant. The double mutants with mutations in both Cys residues (C199S C208S and C199A C208S) did not differ from the C199A mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that P. aeruginosa OxyR is a bona fide transcriptional regulator of the katA gene, sensing H2O2 based on the conserved Cys residues, involving more than one oxidation as well as activation state in vivo.
The cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species are largely mediated by iron. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with iron to form the extremely reactive and damaging hydroxyl radical via the Fenton reaction. Superoxide anion accelerates this reaction because the dismutation of superoxide leads to increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and because superoxide elevates the intracellular concentration of iron by attacking iron-sulfur proteins. We found that regulators of the Escherichia coli responses to oxidative stress, OxyR and SoxRS, activate the expression of Fur, the global repressor of ferric ion uptake. A transcript encoding Fur was induced by hydrogen peroxide in a wild-type strain but not in a ΔoxyR strain, and DNase I footprinting assays showed that OxyR binds to the fur promoter. In cells treated with the superoxide-generating compound paraquat, we observed the induction of a longer transcript encompassing both fur and its immediate upstream gene fldA, which encodes a flavodoxin. This polycistronic mRNA is induced by paraquat in a wild-type strain but not in a ΔsoxRS strain, and SoxS was shown to bind to the fldA promoter. These results demonstrate that iron metabolism is coordinately regulated with the oxidative stress defenses.
Transcription of the phage Mu com/mom operon is trans-activated by another phage gene product, C, a site-specific DNA binding protein. To gain insight into the mechanism by which C activates transcription, we carried out footprinting analyses of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (= RNAP) binding to various com-lacZ fusion plasmids. KMnO4-sensitive sites (diagnostic of the melted regions in open-complexes) and DNase I-sensitive sites were located by primer-extension analysis. The results are summarized as follows: (i) in vivo, in the absence of C, RNAP bound in the wild-type (wt) promoter region at a site designated P2; in vitro DNase I-footprinting showed that P2 extends from -74 to -24 with respect to transcription initiation. This overlaps a known strong C-binding site (at -35 to -54). RNAP bound at P2 appeared to be in an open-complex, as evidenced by the presence of KMnO4-hypersensitive sites. (ii) In contrast, when C was present in vivo, RNAP bound in the wt promoter region at a different site, designated P1, located downstream and partially overlapping P2. RNAP bound at P1 also appeared to be in an open-complex, as evidenced by the presence of KMnO4-hypersensitive sites. (iii) Two C-independent mutants, which initiate transcription at the same position as the wt, were also analyzed. In vivo, in the absence of C, RNAP bound mutant tin7 (contains a T to G substitution at -14) predominantly at P1; in vitro DNase I-footprinting showed that P1 extends from -56 to +21. With mutant tin6 (a 63 base-pair deletion removing P2, as well as part of P1 and the C-binding site from -35 to -54), RNAP bound to P1 independent of C. We conclude that P1 is the 'functional' RNAP binding site for mom-transcription initiation, and that C activates transcription by promoting binding at P1, while blocking binding at P2.
The Escherichia coli OxyR protein requires the C-terminal contact site I region of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit for cooperative interaction with and transcription activation at OxyR-dependent promoters, suggesting direct protein-protein contact between OxyR and the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit. To determine the precise location of the OxyR protein contact site(s) in this region, we carried out mutational analysis of the 3' half of E. coli rpoA, the gene encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. We isolated a number of rpoA mutants defective in oxyR-dependent transcription activation at the E. coli katG promoter. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the rpoA gene from these mutants revealed that the mutations showing clear phenotypes are all clustered at two narrow regions (amino acid residues 265 to 269 and 293 to 300) within the C terminus of the alpha subunit. Reconstituted RNA polymerases containing the mutant alpha subunits were unable to respond to transcription activation in vitro at the katG, ahpC, and oxyX promoters by OxyR. These results suggest that these two regions comprise the contact surfaces on the alpha subunit for OxyR.
OxyR is a redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator of the LysR family which activates the expression of genes important for the defense against hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli and Samonella typhimurium. OxyR is sensitive to oxidation and reduction, and only oxidized OxyR is able to activate transcription of its target genes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that one cysteine residue (C-199) is critical for the redox sensitivity of OxyR, and a C-199-->S mutation appears to lock the OxyR protein in the reduced form. We also used a random mutagenesis approach to isolate eight constitutively active mutants. All of the mutations are located in the C-terminal half of the protein, and four of the mutations map near the critical C-199 residue. In vivo as well as in vitro transcription experiments showed that the constitutive mutant proteins were able to activate transcription under both oxidizing and reducing conditions, and DNase I footprints showed that this activation is due to the ability of the mutant proteins to induce cooperative binding of RNA polymerase. Unexpectedly, RNA polymerase was also found to reciprocally affect OxyR binding.
The Escherichia coli OxyR protein is a transcriptional activator for a number of genes induced in response to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. To identify additional OxyR-regulated genes, I cloned a DNA fragment that shows promoter activity regulated by OxyR by direct selection of OxyR-binding DNA fragments. Analyses of the cloned fragment indicate that the grx gene, encoding glutaredoxin 1, is inducible by hydrogen peroxide in an oxyR-dependent fashion.
Genes encoding a homolog of Escherichia coli OxyR (oxyR) and an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase system (ahpC and ahpD) have been isolated from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The ahpC and ahpD genes constitute an operon transcribed divergently from the oxyR gene. Expression of both ahpCD and oxyR genes was maximal at early exponential phase and decreased rapidly as cells entered mid-exponential phase. Overproduction of OxyR in Streptomyces lividans conferred resistance against cumene hydroperoxide and H2O2. The oxyR mutant produced fewer ahpCD and oxyR transcripts than the wild type, suggesting that OxyR acts as a positive regulator for their expression. Both oxyR and ahpCD transcripts increased more than fivefold within 10 min of H2O2 treatment and decreased to the normal level in 50 min, with kinetics similar to those of the CatR-mediated induction of the catalase A gene (catA) by H2O2. The oxyR mutant failed to induce oxyR and ahpCD genes in response to H2O2, indicating that OxyR is the modulator for the H2O2-dependent induction of these genes. Purified OxyR protein bound specifically to the intergenic region between ahpC and oxyR, suggesting its direct role in regulating these genes. These results demonstrate that in S. coelicolor OxyR mediates H2O2 induction of its own gene and genes for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase system, but not the catalase gene (catA), unlike in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
The OxyR transcription factor is a key regulator of the Escherichia coli response to oxidative stress. Previous studies showed that OxyR binding to a target promoter enhances RNA polymerase binding and vice versa, suggesting a direct interaction between OxyR and RNA polymerase. To identify the region of OxyR that might contact RNA polymerase, we carried out alanine scanning and random mutagenesis of oxyR. The combination of these approaches led to the identification of several mutants defective in the activation of an OxyR target gene. A subset of the mutations map to the DNA-binding domain, other mutations appear to affect dimerization of the regulatory domain, while another group is suggested to affect disulfide bond formation. The two mutations, D142A and R273H, giving the most dramatic phenotype are located in a patch on the surface of the oxidized OxyR protein and possibly define an activating region on OxyR.
OxyR is a LysR-type transcriptional regulator which negatively regulates its own expression and positively regulates the expression of proteins important for the defense against hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Using random mutagenesis, we isolated six nonrepressing OxyR mutants that were impaired in DNA binding. Five of the mutations causing the DNA binding defect mapped near the N-terminal helix-turn-helix motif conserved among the LysR family members, confirming that this region is a DNA binding domain in OxyR. The sixth nonrepressing mutant (with E-225 changed to K [E225K]) was found to be predominantly dimeric, in contrast to the tetrameric wild-type protein, suggesting that a C-terminal region defined by the E225K mutation is involved in multimerization.
The LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) comprise the largest family of prokaryotic transcription factors. These proteins are composed of an N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal cofactor binding domain. To date, no structure of the DBD has been solved. According to the SUPERFAMILY and MODBASE databases, a reliable homology model of LTTR DBDs may be built using the structure of the Escherichia coli ModE transcription factor, containing a winged helix– turn–helix (HTH) motif, as a template. The remote, but statistically significant, sequence similarity between ModE and LTTR DBDs and an alignment generated using SUPERFAMILY and MODBASE methods was independently confirmed by alignment of sequence profiles representing ModE and LTTR family DBDs. Using the crystal structure of the E.coli OxyR C-terminal domain and the DBD alignments we constructed a structural model of the full-length dimer of this LTTR family member and used it to investigate the mode of protein–DNA interaction. We also applied the model to interpret, in a structural context, the results of numerous biochemical studies of mutated LTTRs. A comparison of the LTTR DBD model with the structures of other HTH proteins also provides insights into the interaction of LTTRs with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase α subunit.
Legionella pneumophila expresses two peroxide-scavenging alkyl hydroperoxide reductase systems (AhpC1 and AhpC2D) that are expressed differentially during the bacterial growth cycle. Functional loss of the postexponentially expressed AhpC1 system is compensated for by increased expression of the exponentially expressed AhpC2D system. In this study, we used an acrylamide capture of DNA-bound complexes (ACDC) technique and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that bind to the promoter region of the ahpC2D operon. The major protein captured was an ortholog of OxyR (OxyRLp). Genetic studies indicated that oxyRLp was an essential gene expressed postexponentially and only partially complemented an Escherichia coli oxyR mutant (GS077). Gel shift assays confirmed specific binding of OxyRLp to ahpC2D promoter sequences, but not to promoters of ahpC1 or oxyRLp; however, OxyRLp weakly bound to E. coli OxyR-regulated promoters (katG, oxyR, and ahpCF). DNase I protection studies showed that the OxyRLp binding motif spanned the promoter and transcriptional start sequences of ahpC2 and that the protected region was unchanged by treatments with reducing agents or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the OxyRLp (pBADLpoxyR)-mediated repression of an ahpC2-gfp reporter construct in E. coli GS077 (the oxyR mutant) was not reversed by H2O2 challenge. Alignments with other OxyR proteins revealed several amino acid substitutions predicted to ablate thiol oxidation or conformational changes required for activation. We suggest these mutations have locked OxyRLp in an active DNA-binding conformation, which has permitted a divergence of function from a regulator of oxidative stress to a cell cycle regulator, perhaps controlling gene expression during postexponential differentiation.
Phase variation of the outer membrane protein Ag43 encoded by agn43 in Escherichia coli is controlled by an epigenetic mechanism. Sequestration of the regulatory region from Dam-dependent methylation has to be established and maintained throughout a generation to obtain and maintain the OFF phase. This work shows that hemimethylated DNA, which is formed by the passage of the DNA replication fork in an ON-phase cell, can be sequestered from methylation by OxyR binding, which is thus a key event for the switch from ON to OFF. No evidence was found that the protein SeqA, which also binds to the region, is involved in sequestration. To facilitate the dissection of this process further, a novel approach was introduced that does not alter the sequence of the regulatory region or the cellular concentration of Dam or OxyR, which consists of inserting auxiliary OxyR binding sites upstream of the regulatory region. Using this strategy, it was shown that the ON-to-OFF switch frequency can be modulated without changing the OFF-to-ON frequency. The data support a model in which in an ON-phase cell, the subcellular OxyR availability at the replication fork as it passes through the agn43 regulatory region is key for initiating an ON-to-OFF switch. In contrast, this availability is not a determining factor for the switch from OFF to ON. This finding shows that different variables affect these two stochastic events. This provides new insight into the events determining the stochastic nature of epigenetic phase variation.
Escherichia coli produces an inducible set of proteins that protect the cell from exogenous peroxide stress. A subset of these genes is induced by hydrogen peroxide and is controlled at the transcriptional level by the OxyR protein. To identify additional genes involved in protection from hydrogen peroxide, a library of random transcriptional fusions of lambda(plac)Mu53 was screened for hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and 27 such mutants were identified. These fusions were transduced into nonlysogenic strains to ensure that the phenotypes observed were the result of a single mutation. The mutants were grouped into three classes based on the expression of the lacZ fusion during growth in oxyR+ and deltaoxyR backgrounds. The expression of the lacZ fusion in 8 mutants was independent of OxyR, 10 mutants required OxyR for expression, and 6 mutants showed reduced levels of expression in the presence of OxyR. OxyR dependence varied from 2- to 50-fold in these mutants. The OxyR-dependent phenotype was complemented by a plasmid-borne copy of oxyR gene in all mutants. Three mutants exhibited dual regulation by OxyR and RpoS. We sequenced the fusion junctions of several of these mutants and identified the genetic loci responsible for the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive (hps) phenotype. In this study, we report the identification of several genes that require OxyR for expression, including hemF (encoding coproporphyrinogen III oxidase), rcsC (encoding a sensor-regulator protein of capsular polysaccharide synthesis genes), and an open reading frame, f497, that is similar to arylsulfatase-encoding genes.
OxyR is a conserved bacterial transcription factor with a regulatory role in oxidative stress response. From a genetic screen for genes that modulate biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens, mutations in an oxyR homolog and predicted fimbria structural genes were identified. S. marcescens oxyR mutants were severely impaired in biofilm formation, in contrast to the hyperbiofilm phenotype exhibited by oxyR mutants of Escherichia coli and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Further analysis revealed that OxyR plays a role in the primary attachment of cells to a surface. Similar to what is observed in other bacterial species, S. marcescens OxyR is required for oxidative stress resistance. Mutations in oxyR and type I fimbrial genes resulted in severe defects in fimbria-associated phenotypes, revealing roles in cell-cell and cell-biotic surface interactions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the absence of fimbria-like surface structures on an OxyR-deficient strain and an enhanced fimbrial phenotype in strains bearing oxyR on a multicopy plasmid. The hyperfimbriated phenotype conferred by the multicopy oxyR plasmid was absent in a type I fimbrial mutant background. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR indicated an absence of transcripts from a fimbrial operon in an oxyR mutant that were present in the wild type and a complemented oxyR mutant strain. Lastly, chromosomal Plac-mediated expression of fimABCD was sufficient to restore wild-type levels of yeast agglutination and biofilm formation to an oxyR mutant. Together, these data support a model in which OxyR contributes to early stages of S. marcescens biofilm formation by influencing fimbrial gene expression.
Transcription of the pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) operon of Escherichia coli is subject to regulation by a phase variation control mechanism in which the pap pilin gene alternates between transcriptionally active (phase-on) and inactive (phase-off) states. Pap phase variation appears to involve differential inhibition of deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) methylation of two pap GATC sites, GATC1028 and GATC1130, located in the regulatory region upstream of the papBA promoter. DNA from phase-on cells contains an unmethylated adenosine in the GATC1028 site, whereas DNA from phase-off cells contains an unmethylated adenosine in the GATC1130 site. papI and papB are two regulatory genes in the pap operon. Analysis of pap deletion mutants suggests that papI is required for methylation inhibition at the GATC1028 site; however, neither papI nor papB is required for inhibition of methylation at the GATC1130 site. We have identified a chromosomal locus, mbf (methylation-blocking factor), that is required for methylation protection of both the pap GATC1028 and GATC1130 sites. The mbf locus was identified after transposon mTn10 mutagenesis and mapped to 19.6 min on the E. coli chromosome. The effect of transposon mutations within mbf on pap pilin transcription was determined by using a papBAp-lac operon fusion which places lacZ under control of the papBA promoter. E. coli containing mbf::mTn10 and phase-off mbf+ E. coli cells both expressed beta-galactosidase levels about 30-fold lower than the beta-galactosidase level measured for phase-on mbf+ E. coli cells. These results indicated that mbf was necessary for pap pilin transcription and were supported by Northern (RNA) blotting and primer extension analyses. Moreover, transposon insertion within mbf greatly reduced Pap pilus expression. The mbf locus was isolated on a low-copy-number cosmid, pMBF1. Complementation analysis indicated that each of seven mbf::mTn10 mutants isolated contained a transposon insertion within the same gene or operon. The identification of the mbf locus, required for pap transcription, supports the hypothesis that pap phase variation is controlled by a mechanism involving alternation between different methylation states.
Late in its growth cycle, transcription of the phage Mu mom promoter (Pmom) is activated by the phage gene product, C, a site-specific DNA binding protein. In vitro transcription analyses showed that this activation does not require specific contacts between C and the carboxyl-terminal region of the α or ς70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Unexpectedly, these results are in contrast to those known for another Mu-encoded transcriptional activator, Mor, which has a high degree of sequence identity with C and appears to interact with the carboxyl termini of both α and ς70.
In bacteria, OxyR is a peroxide sensor and transcription regulator, which can sense the presence of reactive oxygen species and induce antioxidant system. When the cells are exposed to H2O2, OxyR protein is activated via the formation of a disulfide bond between the two conserved cysteine residues (C199 and C208). In Deinococcus radiodurans, a previously unreported special characteristic of DrOxyR (DR0615) is found with only one conserved cysteine. dr0615 gene mutant is hypersensitive to H2O2, but only a little to ionizing radiation. Site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent in vivo functional analyses revealed that the conserved cysteine (C210) is necessary for sensing H2O2, but its mutation did not alter the binding characteristics of OxyR on DNA. Under oxidant stress, DrOxyR is oxidized to sulfenic acid form, which can be reduced by reducing reagents. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and global transcription profile results showed that OxyR is not only a transcriptional activator (e.g., katE, drb0125), but also a transcriptional repressor (e.g., dps, mntH). Because OxyR regulates Mn and Fe ion transporter genes, Mn/Fe ion ratio is changed in dr0615 mutant, suggesting that the genes involved in Mn/Fe ion homeostasis, and the genes involved in antioxidant mechanism are highly cooperative under extremely oxidant stress. In conclusion, these findings expand the OxyR family, which could be divided into two classes: typical 2-Cys OxyR and 1-Cys OxyR.
The DNA of bacteriophage Mu, extracted from induced lysates, is partially resistant to digestion by the endonuclease BalI. This modification of DNA is controlled by the Mu modification function (mom), which acts in conjunction with the dam (DNA-adenine methylation) function of Escherichia coli. Since the BalI recognition site is apparently different from the dam recognition site, these results imply that either the specificity of the dam function is changed by the mom function or the mom function requires the dam function for its activity.