Regardless of the availability of newer and more sophisticated modalities of investigation, urinary tract cytology still remains the most commonly used non-invasive test for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
As hematuria is the commonest presenting symptom in patients with malignancy of urinary tract, we undertook this study to know the usefulness of urine cytology in evaluation of the hematuric patients for malignancy.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 21,557 fresh voided urine samples received at our tertiary care referral centre over a period of three years were included in the study. Of these, 1428 cases had hematuria, criteria of either gross or microscopic.
Among these hematuric cases included in the study, 32.5% (464 cases) were found to have positive finding of atypical cells. In these cases with atypia, 9.5% (136 cases) were proved to have malignancy both with the histopathological biopsy and cystoscopic findings. Other cases of atypia were found to be of reactive origin, either due to instrumentation or foreign body. A large number of hematuric cases, that is, 964 cases (67.5%) were negative for atypical cells.
The limited ability of urine cytology to detect low grade bladder tumors, its subjectivity and lack of uniformity in reporting, all render urine cytology a less than perfect tool. With added collaboration between clinician and cytopathologist, urine cytology can be used an adjunct tool in evaluation of patients with hematuria.
Atypical cells; hematuria; urine cytology
Microscopic hematuria is a common finding in patients presenting to both primary care doctors as well as urologists. Sources of microscopic hematuria include infection, stones, inflammatory disorders as well as cancer of the genitourinary tract, particularly urothelial cancer. A primary focus in the urologic workup of hematuria is to rule out cancer. This is done using radiographic studies as well as procedures such as cystoscopy and bladder biopsy. As the authors state in their article titled "The utility of serial urinary cytology in the initial evaluation of the patient with microscopic hematuria", cytologic analysis of voided urine, though attractive due to its noninvasive nature, has been found to have the neither the sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, nor the ease of administration necessary to replace more invasive diagnostics in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria.
Aims: To define the natural history of patients with suspicious urinary cytology and negative initial evaluation for malignancy in the investigation of haematuria.
Patients and methods: Data from the hospital information support system on urinary cytology examinations carried out at one centre were audited over a period of 24 months. There were 102 patients who had suspicious urinary cytology for malignant cells with negative initial evaluation. Follow up investigations, treatment, and final outcome were noted.
Results: There were 102 patients with suspicious urinary cytology and negative initial evaluation for malignancy in 24 months, with a mean follow up of 15.7 months. Seventy patients had no obvious pathology on initial investigations. Forty one patients were found to have urological malignancies (29 bladder, eight ureteric, and four prostate) on follow up. All patients diagnosed as having urothelial malignancies on follow up had either persistent suspicious cytology (29) or recurrent haematuria (eight). The mean duration for appearance of lesions was 5.6 months (range, 3–12 months). Three patients had suspicious digital rectal examination and biopsies confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One patient had urinary retention and transurethral resection of prostate showed prostatic adenocarcinoma. The presence of suspicious cells on repeat urine analysis was the only significant factor in predicting the presence of urothelial tumours (p = 0.002).
Conclusion: Patients with persistent suspicious/positive cytology or recurrent haematuria need further evaluation and follow up. Asymptomatic patients or patients with obvious benign pathology do not require repeat evaluation. Careful urological evaluation, including prostate, should be carried out in these patients.
urinary cytology; urological follow up; suspicious cells in urine
Benign recurrent hematuria usually indicates a good prognosis. This condition is associated with abnormally thin glomerular basement membranes. Of 680 renal biopsy cases in which lower urinary tract disease had been excluded by careful study, 25 cases from seven children and eighteen adults met the criteria for thin glomerular basement membrane disease, placing the incidence of the disease at 3.7%. The mean patient age was 32.4 years and the male to female ratio was 1 to 5.3. The primary finding was microscopic hematuria in eighteen patients and gross hematuria in five patients. Among eighteen patients who had microscopic hematuria, one patient also exhibited proteinuria and one patient suffered from acute renal failure due to acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis. Proteinuria was only found in one patient. All of the patients had normal renal function, with the exception of one who suffered from acute renal failure. The duration of hematuria from the time of detection to the date of biopsy ranged from 3 months to 30 years with a mean interval of 56.6 months. No apparent evidence of familial hematuria in any patient was noted. Under light microscopy most glomeruli were normal. However, five cases showed focal global sclerosis. Under immunofluorescence microscopy seventeen cases were negative for all immunoglobulins, for complement, and for fibrinogen. Eight cases showed nonspecific mesangial deposition of fibrinogen and/or IgM. Ultrastructurally, extensive diffuse thinning of the GBM was a constant finding. The mean thickness of the GBM was 203.2 +/- 28.3 nm (n = 25); the thickness in adult (201.4 +/- 27.5 nm; n = 18) did not differ from that in children (208.1 +/- 32.0 nm; n = 7).
Exfoliative urinary cytology was performed on 260 new cases of histologically proven urothelial cancer. The site, size, shape and histological grade of the tumours were documented, and they were classified by the TNM system. Overall, urine cytology was positive in 135 (52%), suspicious in 28 (11%) and negative in 97 (38%) cases. Malignant cells were found most often when the urothelial tumours were large, papillary and solid, moderately or poorly differentiated and invasive (T2-4). Most upper tract tumours and those situated in bladder diverticula had positive urinary cytology. This study confirms that exfoliative urinary cytology is useful in detecting the more malignant bladder tumours including in-situ carcinoma, and other tumours in less accessible parts of the urinary tract.
A histological and cytopathological study of 54 patients with transitional carcinoma of the upper urinary tract was undertaken. There were 17 patients with grade 1 tumours, 35 with grades 2 or 3, and two with carcinoma in situ. Only 16 had non-invasive tumours. A preoperative cytological diagnosis of tumour was made in 67% of the group as a whole and in 75% of patients with grade 2 or 3 tumours. Seventy per cent of voided urines and 80% of ileal conduit urines were positive for tumour. Cytological grading correlated with histology in 12 of 14 grade 1 tumours and 26 of 35 grade 2 or 3 tumours, with seven assigned grade 1. Two cases of pelvicalycine carcinoma in situ were graded 3 by cytology. Cytological investigation by those experienced in urinary cytology has an important diagnostic contribution to make in transitional carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
For the patients who visit outpatient clinics due to asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, cystoscopy has been looked upon as rather invasive compared to other diagnostic methods. We tried to elucidate the actual diagnostic value of cystoscopy in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. We reviewed the results of cystoscopic examinations in 213 patients who visited our hospital due to asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. No definite lesion that could explain the microscopic hematuria was detected by means of IVP, urine cytology, and other nephrologic evaluations for all the patients. Among the abnormal cystoscopic findings in 55 patients, the lesions suspected to be directly related to microscopic hematuria were classified as 'significant lesions' (31 patients, 17.6%) which include entities such as bladder cancer (1.31%). 27 of 31 patients with significant lesions (85.2%) were over 50 yr old, and furthermore, 3 patients who were diagnosed as bladder tumor by cystoscopy were over 60 yr. Cystoscopy should be utilized as initial diagnostic modality in older patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria to rule out any possibility of bladder cancer occurrence. Further studies are needed to justify implementation of cystoscopy as an initial diagnostic modality in younger patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.
Fine needle aspiration biopsy represents the critical initial diagnostic test used for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Our objectives were to determine the cytological distribution, the utility of clinicopathologic characteristics for predicting malignancy and the true proportion of cancer among individuals who presented with indeterminate cytology and had undergone thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer.
We retrospectively reviewed 1040 consecutive primary thyroid operations carried out over an 8-year period at a tertiary care endocrine referral centre. Follicular neoplasm (FN), Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN), neoplasms suspicious for but not diagnostic of papillary carcinoma (IP) and neoplasms with cellular atypia (IA) were reviewed.
In all, 380 individuals presented with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Of these, 252 (66%) patients had FN, 47 (12%) HN, 44 (12%) IP, 26 (7%) IA and 11 (4%) had mixed diagnoses. Biopsied lesions were found to be malignant on pathological evaluation in 102 (27%) patients: 49 (19%) with FN, 11 (23%) HN, 28 (64%) IP and 9 (35%) with IA. Hemithyroidectomy was adequate definitive treatment in 196 of 225 (87%) patients with FN and 39 of 42 (93%) with HN. Significant associations with a cancer diagnosis were identified for smaller tumour size in patients with FN (p = 0.004) and right thyroid lobe location in patients with IP (p = 0.012), although these factors were nonsignificant in the corrected analyses for multiple comparisons.
In a review of the experience at a Canadian centre, 4 operations were carried out to identify each cancer, and hemithyroidectomy was the optimal initial and definitive surgical approach for most patients.
Aim. In this study we report our experience with microhematuria and its relation with bladder tumors in Iranian women.
Materials and Methods. Overall 249 women were evaluated. Microscopic hematuria was defined as three or more red blood cells per high-power field on at least two different occasions. Patients with a history of gross hematuria or coagulation disorders, having organic diseases, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, nephrological diseases, and local lesions such as urethral caruncle were excluded from the study population. Final diagnosis of malignant tumors was done with cystoscopy and biopsy specimen pathological assessment in all cases. Results. Age for the study population was 49.7 ± 11.8 years. 95 (38%) of patients were identified during routine check up and presenting symptoms in other patients were frequency, dysuria, stress urge incontinence, urge incontinence, feeling of incomplete urine emptying, and flunk pain, respectively. Finally, 7 (2.8%) of study subjects were confirmed as having bladder tumors. One of tumor cases was diagnosed 24 months after initial assessments. Patients with bladder tumor were significantly older; more frequently had diverticulum in their bladder wall (P < .05). Conclusion. Female microscopic hematuria is relevant and deserves evaluations, especially in elderly patients. Patients whose reason for microhematuria would not be diagnosed at the initial evaluations should be followed.
We explore the clinical character of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction.
We compared 70 cases of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction with 60 cases of cystitis glandularis without upper urinary tract obstruction. The difference of clinical manifestation and surgical efficacy was observed between the 2 groups.
The incidence of cystitis glandularis in women was higher than in men and the age of patients with cystitis glandularis and upper urinary tract obstruction was younger than the age of patients without upper urinary tract obstruction. The main symptom of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction were renal colic and abdominal pain; a few patients with a shorter course of the disease also had nausea, vomiting, frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria and fever. The distribution and morphological characteristics of lesions on the bladder and in the urine culture were not different between the 2 groups. There was no second operation on patients with upper urinary tract obstruction, but at least a second operation was performed on 9.3% patients without upper urinary tract obstruction.
In patients with upper urinary tract obstruction, we found that it was the main clinical symptom of their cystitis glandularis. Identifying and removing the causes of upper urinary tract obstruction is the most important management method. For the cystitis glandularis, active treatment or close follow-up should be made.
The presence of glandular epithelium in urinary tract biopsies poses a diagnostic challenge. Intestinal metaplasia of the urethra may be seen in many congenital, iatrogenic, and reactive conditions, as well as in association with malignant conditions such as urethral adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 61 year-old woman presenting with microscopic hematuria. Successive biopsies showed glandular epithelium with focal atypia in close association with inflammation, but no overt malignancy. Only on surgical resection was the associated high grade adenocarcinoma revealed. When intestinal-type mucosa is present within a urinary tract biopsy, associated malignancy may be present only focally. Thorough sampling and consideration of the differential diagnosis is imperative.
Urethral adenocarcinoma; intestinal metaplasia
A 62-year old male patient presented complaining of intermittent macroscopic hematuria. The ultrasonographic investigation revealed a hydronephrosis of remarkable degree with indiscrete renal parenchyma. The abdominal computed tomography scan identified a ureteral lesion with proximal dilatation, hydronephrosis and a functionless ipsilateral renal unit. The retrograde urography showed a 4-cm lesion with multiple filling defects and a smooth contour. The endoscopic examination showed an exophytic lesion, highly suspicious for malignancy. Urine cytology revealed atypia. Right nephroureterectomy was performed and the pathology revealed a ureteral inverted papilloma (UIP). Polymerase chain reaction examination for the presence of human papilloma virus, using GP5+/6+ consensus primers, was negative. The presence UIP should be considered in patients with urotheleal lesions in the ureter when the diagnostic workup for malignancy is inconclusive. The clinical course of the disease seems to be favorable.
A study of 1458 patients who had undergone breast aspiration cytology was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the technique. The effect of tumour histology and size on the unsatisfactory aspirate and false negative rate was examined. Seven hundred and thirty one patients (50%) had histological diagnoses. The sensitivity of aspiration cytology for malignancy was 64% for the first aspiration, but was 91% in patients who had had 3 aspirates. The specificity was 56%, this low figure was almost entirely due to inadequate or unsatisfactory cytological preparations. The positive and negative predictive values of aspiration cytology were 99.4% and 85% respectively demonstrating high diagnostic accuracy given a satisfactory aspirate. Invasive lobular carcinoma yielded a significantly higher unsatisfactory rate than invasive ductal carcinoma (P less than 0.001) and fibroadenoma yielded a significantly lower unsatisfactory rate than fibroadenosis (P less than 0.001). Mass size influenced the unsatisfactory rate for invasive ductal carcinoma (P less than 0.05) and fibroadenoma, but not for invasive lobular carcinoma or fibroadenosis. Only 2 of the 32 false negatives were due to misinterpretation, the remainder resulted from the aspiration needle missing the mass. We conclude that aspiration cytology is an accurate preoperative diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of breast masses. Unsatisfactory or negative aspirates should be regarded as 'non-results' if there is clinical or radiological suspicion of malignancy.
The cause of a biliary tract stricture may be difficult to determine radiologically. Exfoliative biliary cytology was evaluated in 62 patients (median age 65 years, range 30-94) with biliary tract strictures presenting to the Hepatobiliary Unit between January 1984 and December 1989. Bile samples were taken during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 42 patients, percutaneous cholangiography in 14, and both in six. The site of stricturing was upper third of the bile duct in 43% (n = 27), middle third in 10% (n = six), and lower third in 47% (n = 29). Of the 47 patients with radiological appearances of a malignant stricture, 22 (47%) had histological confirmation by biopsy either under computed tomography guidance, at endoscopy, at operation, or at necropsy. Fourteen of the 47 patients had positive cytology (30%). In seven patients cytology alone established the presence of malignancy (15%) and in the other seven positive cytology was confirmed by histology. The addition of cytology to tissue biopsy therefore allowed malignancy to be confirmed in 29 of the 47 patients (62%). None of the 15 patients subsequently shown to have benign disease had positive cytology. Sensitivity of the technique was 30% and specificity 100%. Samples for exfoliative cytology are simple to obtain, the results are highly specific and should be a routine part of the investigation of biliary strictures.
This retrospective study evaluates the morbidity and outcome of cystectomy and urinary diversion in octogenarians with invasive bladder cancer. Records of all patients older than 80 years who underwent cystectomy during the last 10 years were analyzed retrospectively. Among 565 cystectomies, 11(< 2%) patients were identified and evaluated for intraoperative and postoperative complications and mortality post surgery. The median age was 82 years. One female and ten male patients were selected. Eight patients were hypertensive, three were diabetic, one had coronary artery disease, two had chronic lung disease and one had depression. Seven patients presented with hematuria, two had lower urinary tract symptoms and two presented with renal failure who were optimized for renal function. All patients had ileal conduit as the form of urinary diversion. Simultaneous urethrectomy was done in two patients. Median surgical time was 5 h. Median hospital stay after surgery was 10 days. Four patients had pneumonitis and one patient developed hemiplegia, but all patients were eventually discharged. One patient expired due to stent septicemia within one month after discharge. Follow-up ranged from four months to five years. Three patients expired three years after surgery—one due to disease recurrence and the other two due to unrelated cause. One patient was lost to follow-up and six patients are doing well. Our results support the use of cystectomy in octogenarians with invasive bladder cancer, which has acceptable morbidity and mortality, and offers the best chance for sustained disease-free quality survival.
Complications; elderly; invasive bladder cancer; ileal conduit; mortality; radical cystectomy
Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. It is a transmural inflammation of the bladder, predominantly with eosinophils. High index of suspicion is needed for timely intervention. EC should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms due to small capacity bladder with a negative workup for urinary tuberculosis and in patients having hematuria and negative cytology, or incidentally found bladder lesions with known risk factors. Initial treatment is conservative with removal of risk factor, anti-histaminics and steroids. Augmentation cystoplasty should be considered in patients with a small capacity bladder. These patients need a strict and long term follow-up.
Anti-histaminic; augmentation cystoplasty; eosinophilic cystitis; genitourinary tuberculosis; lower urinary tract symptoms; steroids
Over a 5-year period, 1007 patients with haematuria were investigated, using a protocol based on ultrasonography as the upper tract imaging modality of choice. Intravenous urography (IVU) was only used in selected individuals, including those patients with bladder cancer suspected on cystoscopy, suspicious or malignant cytology, previous investigation for haematuria, on-going haematuria at the time of their clinic visit, a history of flank pain or hydronephrosis on ultrasonography. Of this series, 840 (83%) had visible haematuria, 158 (15%) had microscopic or chemical haematuria and 9 (0.9%) had unspecified haematuria. A total of 133 bladder transitional cell tumours, 21 renal cell cancers and 2 upper tract transitional cell cancers (TCC) were diagnosed. The sensitivity of ultrasound with respect to bladder cancer was 63% and the specificity 99%. The odds ratio of diagnosing cancer in patients with visible haematuria compared to microscopic or unspecified haematuria was 3.3. No upper tract tumours were missed using this investigational protocol. An ultrasonography-based protocol could miss fewer upper tract TCCs than a standard IVU-based service would miss renal cell cancer. Provided there is no history of flank pain, no malignant cytology, no hydronephrosis and no previously investigated haematuria, IVU could be safely omitted.
Although the performance of immunocytology has been established in the surveillance of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), its value in the initial detection of UCB in patients with painless hematuria remains unclear.
To determine whether immunocytology improves our ability to predict the likelihood of UCB in patients with painless hematuria. Further, to test the clinical benefit of immunocytology in this setting using decision curve analysis.
Design, setting, and participants
The subjects were 1182 consecutive patients without a history of UCB presenting with painless hematuria and were enrolled at three centres.
All patients underwent upper-tract imaging, cystourethroscopy, voided urine cytology, and immunocytology analysis. Bladder tumors were biopsied and histologically confirmed as UCB.
Multivariable regression models were developed. Area under the curve was measured and compared using the DeLong test. A nomogram was constructed from the full multivariable model. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical benefit associated with use of the multivariable models including immunocytology.
Results and limitations
Immunocytology had the largest contribution to a multivariable model for the prediction of UCB (odds ratio: 18.3; p < 0.0001), which achieved a 90.8% predictive accuracy. Decision curve analysis revealed that models incorporating immunocytology achieved the highest net benefit at all threshold probabilities.
Immunocytology is a strong predictor of the presence of UCB in patients who present with painless hematuria. Incorporation of immunocytology into predictive models improves diagnostic accuracy by a statistically and clinically significant margin. The use of immunocytology in the diagnostic workup of patients with hematuria appears promising and should be further evaluated.
Cystoscopy; Decision curve analysis; Early detection of cancer; Hematuria; Immunocytology; Nomograms; Urinary bladder neoplasms
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among women with normal and abnormal cytology.
A total of five hundred seven (n = 507) women were retrospectively evaluated between 2004-2008. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of HPV types in cervicovaginal samples obtained from patients during gynecologic examination.
One hundred four (n = 104) of the women were excluded from the study because of the incomplete data and a total of 403 women were used for the final analysis. There were, 93 (23%) women with cytologic abnormality and 310 (77%) women with normal cytology. Overall, 23% of the women was HPV positive. The overall prevalence of HPV in women with abnormal Pap smears was 36% (93/403), of which in ASCUS 22%, LSIL 51% and HSIL 60%. Also, HPV DNA was positive in 20% of the women with normal cervical cytology. The most common HPV types in cytologically normal women were as follows; HPV 16 (36%), HPV 6 (22%) and HPV 18 (13%). The rate of other HPV types were as follows; HPV11 4.4%, HPV45 4.4%, HPV90 4.4%, HPV35 2.2%, HPV67 2.2%, HPV81 2.2%, and multiple type HPVs 8.9%. The most common HPV types in cytologically abnormal women were HPV 16 (35%), HPV6 (19%) and HPV18 (8%). The rate of multiple HPV infections in women with normal Pap test was 2.2%.
HPV prevalence and type distribution in this study were similar to that reported worldwide at least in our study population. Hovewer, HPV prevalence was more common compared with previous studies reported from Turkey. This might be related with methodology and hospital based patient accrual and high rate of women with abnormal cytology. Further population based prospective studies are needed to eliminate the drawbacks of our study and to determine nonhospital based HPV prevalence in Turkish women.
Hematuria has been described following bladder drainage in 2% to 16% of high-pressure chronic urinary retention treatments by decompression and is generally self-limiting. We describe a case of significant bilateral upper urinary tract hematuria following drainage of high-pressure chronic retention. To the best of our knowledge, the only similar case reported in the literature was in 1944.
An 82-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our department with nocturnal enuresis and a palpable bladder. He was catheterized, produced a residual volume of 2900mL, and ended up becoming oliguric. Following investigations, he had bilateral nephrostomies. He was discharged 18 days after presentation.
Clinicians should keep in mind the presentation discussed in this case report to be able to swiftly manage this extremely rare complication of decompression in patients with high-pressure chronic retention.
Hematuria; Retention; High-pressure; Decompression
One hundred six infants and children with otitis media were screened for the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) by urine culture. Seventeen patients (16%) who had UTI were compared with the 80 patients with sterile urine for differences in host factors and laboratory features. The mean age, WBC counts, and ESR values were similar. Patients with UTI-associated otitis media had a higher incidence of hematuria. Prevalence of high (greater than or equal to 103 degrees F) fever was higher among the boys with UTI. However, because of the lack of definite clinical and laboratory clues to determine the presence or absence of UTI, urine culture is the only test to uncover otitis media patients with concomitant UTI.
Renal hematuria is caused by glomerular disease. Under pathological conditions, the distribution of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in kidney tissue is abnormal and urinary IL-6 levels are increased. Abnormal IL-6 secretion promotes the hyperplasia of mesangial cells and matrix and, thus, affects the permeability of the glomerular filtration membrane. Therefore, the detection of urinary IL-6 levels in patients with renal hematuria is beneficial for disease evaluation. A total of 82 patients with primary renal hematuria were divided into group 1 (UPr/24 h < 150 mg; pure hematuria group), group 2 (150 mg ≤ UPr/24 h ≤ 1,000 mg) and group 3 (UPr/24 h > 1,000 mg). A total of 30 normal individuals were selected as the controls. The urinary IL-6 levels were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and a renal biopsy was conducted. The urinary IL-6 levels and renal pathological damage scores in groups 1 and 2 were significantly reduced compared with those in group 3, (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively), with no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P>0.05). The correlation coefficient (r) of urinary IL-6 with 24 h urinary protein (UPr/24 h) in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0.017, 0.045 and 0.747, respectively, and that of urinary IL-6 with renal pathological damage score was 0.627, 0.199 and 0.119, respectively. The UPr/24 h was significantly correlated with IL-6 level (r=0.7320, P<0.000). In group 1, the urinary IL-6 levels were correlated with the degree of renal pathological damage. A positive correlation was observed between urinary IL-6 levels and UPr/24 h.
interleukin-6; renal hematuria; 24 h urinary protein
A retrospective chart review was performed in a family-practice office, which looked at the prevalence and significance of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH). Various methods were used to identify the relevant charts and to define the practice demographics, some of which hitherto had not been described. At least 2% of the men and 5% of the women over 44 years old in the practice were found to have AMH; in none of these patients, however, were any significant urological abnormalities detected. The literature states that AMH is a significant indicator of underlying pathology and deserves a full urological evaluation. The results of this pilot study suggests that in a family-practice setting, the prevalence of serious but asymptomatic urinary tract disease, and hence the positive predictive value of AMH, may be very low.
asymptomatic microscopic hematuria; research in a family-practice office; chart review in family practice
Background: Renal stones, urinary tract infections (UTI) and gross hematuria (GH) are the most important renal manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). They are not only common, but are also frequent cause of morbidity, influencing renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these manifestations in our patients with ADPKD and their impact on renal function.
Methods: One hundred eighty ADPKD patients were included in the study. Subjects were studied for the presence of UTI, gross hematuria frequency and responsible factors of nephrolithiasis. Survival times were calculated as the time to renal replacement therapy or time of serum creatinine value up to 10 mg/dl. Kaplan-Meier product-limit survival curves were constructed, and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves.
Results: Kidney stones were present in 76/180 (42% of pts). The stones were composed of urate (47%) calcium oxalate (39%), and other compounds 14%. UTI was observed in 60% (108 patients). Patients treated with urinary disinfectants had a significant lower frequency of urinary infection (p<0.001) and hematuria (p<0.001) after one year than untreated patients. Gross hematuria was present in 113 patients (63%). In 43 patients hematuria was diagnosed before age 30 (38%), while in 70 patients it was diagnosed after age 30 (62%).
Conclusions: UTI is frequent in our ADPKD patients. The correct treatment of UTI decreases its frequency and has beneficial role in the rate of progression to renal failure in ADPKD patients. Patients with recurrent episodes of gross hematuria may be at risk for more severe renal disease.
autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; renal stone; urinary tract infection; gross hematuria
One hundred and seventy patients with multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on the relationship between their neurological features and urinary symptoms. The severity of the urinary symptoms was related to the degree of pyramidal impairment in the lower limbs so that both problems are thought to reflect the extent of spinal involvement. No other neurological features correlated with bladder dysfunction. Detrusor hyperreflexia was the commonest finding on cystometry and no patient had areflexia. More than half of the patients had a significantly raised post-micturition residual volume but symptoms were largely unreliable in predicting poor bladder emptying. In this series only two patients had evidence of upper tract disease: both men with severe, longstanding neurological disease who had indwelling catheters. Detrusor hyperreflexia can be anticipated in patients with MS who have irritative urinary symptoms and pyramidal signs in their lower limbs. After measurement of the residual volume appropriate treatment can be instituted.