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1.  Closed subtalar dislocation with non-displaced fractures of talus and navicular: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8793.
Closed subtalar dislocations associated with talus and navicular fractures are rare injuries. We report on a case of a 43-year-old builder man with medial subtalar dislocation that was further complicated by minimally displaced talar and navicular fractures. Successful closed reduction under general anesthesia was followed by non-weight bearing and ankle immobilization with a below-knee cast for 6 ;weeks. At 3 years post-injury, the subtalar joint was stable, the foot and ankle mobility was in normal limits and the patient could still work as a builder. However, he complained for occasionally mild pain due to the development of post-traumatic arthritis in subtalar and ankle joints. Our search in literature revealed that conservative treatment of all the successfully reduced and minimally displaced subtalar fracture-dislocations has given superior results compared to surgical management. However, even in cases with no or slight fracture displacement, avascular necrosis of the talus or arthritis of the surrounding joints can compromise the final functional outcome.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8793
PMCID: PMC2769472  PMID: 19918402
2.  Neuropathic midfoot deformity: associations with ankle and subtalar joint motion 
Background
Neuropathic deformities impair foot and ankle joint mobility, often leading to abnormal stresses and impact forces. The purpose of our study was to determine differences in radiographic measures of hind foot alignment and ankle joint and subtalar joint motion in participants with and without neuropathic midfoot deformities and to determine the relationships between radiographic measures of hind foot alignment to ankle and subtalar joint motion in participants with and without neuropathic midfoot deformities.
Methods
Sixty participants were studied in three groups. Forty participants had diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) with 20 participants having neuropathic midfoot deformity due to Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN), while 20 participants did not have deformity. Participants with diabetes and neuropathy with and without deformity were compared to 20 young control participants without DM, PN or deformity. Talar declination and calcaneal inclination angles were assessed on lateral view weight bearing radiograph. Ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and subtalar inversion and eversion were assessed by goniometry.
Results
Talar declination angle averaged 34±9, 26±4 and 23±3 degrees in participants with deformity, without deformity and young control participants, respectively (p< 0.010). Calcaneal inclination angle averaged 11±10, 18±9 and 21±4 degrees, respectively (p< 0.010). Ankle plantar flexion motion averaged 23±11, 38±10 and 47±7 degrees (p<0.010). The association between talar declination and calcaneal inclination angles with ankle plantar flexion range of motion is strongest in participants with neuropathic midfoot deformity. Participants with talonavicular and calcaneocuboid dislocations result in the most severe restrictions in ankle joint plantar flexion and subtalar joint inversion motions.
Conclusions
An increasing talar declination angle and decreasing calcaneal inclination angle is associated with decreases in ankle joint plantar flexion motion in individuals with neuropathic midfoot deformity due to CN that may contribute to excessive stresses and ultimately plantar ulceration of the midfoot.
doi:10.1186/1757-1146-6-11
PMCID: PMC3616933  PMID: 23531372
Foot alignment; Deformity; Ankle and foot joint goniometry; Limited joint mobility
3.  Isolated talonavicular arthrodesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the foot and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction 
Background
The foot is often affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Subtalar joints are involved more frequently than ankle joints. Deformities of subtalar joints often lead to painful flatfoot and valgus deformity of the heel. Major contributors to the early development of foot deformities include talonavicular joint destruction and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction, mainly due to its rupture.
Methods
Between 2002 and 2005 we performed isolated talonavicular arthrodesis in 26 patients; twenty women and six men. Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction was diagnosed preoperatively by physical examination and by MRI. Talonavicular fusion was achieved via screws in eight patients, memory staples in twelve patients and a combination of screws and memory staples in six cases. The average duration of immobilization after the surgery was four weeks, followed by rehabilitation. Full weight bearing was allowed two to three months after surgery.
Results
The mean age of the group at the time of the surgery was 43.6 years. MRI examination revealed a torn tendon in nine cases with no significant destruction of the talonavicular joint seen on X-rays. Mean of postoperative followup was 4.5 years (3 to 7 years). The mean of AOFAS Hindfoot score improved from 48.2 preoperatively to 88.6 points at the last postoperative followup. Eighteen patients had excellent results (none, mild occasional pain), six patients had moderate pain of the foot and two patients had severe pain in evaluation with the score. Complications included superficial wound infections in two patients and a nonunion developed in one case.
Conclusions
Early isolated talonavicular arthrodesis provides excellent pain relief and prevents further progression of the foot deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-38
PMCID: PMC2837861  PMID: 20187969
4.  Extraarticular Subtalar Arthrodesis for Pes Planovalgus: An Interim Result of 50 Feet in Patients with Spastic Diplegia 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(1):13-21.
Background
There are no reports of the pressure changes across the foot after extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis for a planovalgus foot deformity in cerebral palsy. This paper reviews our results of extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis using a cannulated screw and cancellous bone graft.
Methods
Fifty planovalgus feet in 30 patients with spastic diplegia were included. The mean age at the time of surgery was 9 years, and the mean follow-up period was 3 years. The radiographic, gait, and dynamic foot pressure changes after surgery were investigated.
Results
All patients showed union and no recurrence of the deformity. Correction of the abduction of the forefoot, subluxation of the talonavicular joint, and the hindfoot valgus was confirmed radiographically. However, the calcaneal pitch was not improved significantly after surgery. Peak dorsiflexion of the ankle during the stance phase was increased after surgery, and the peak plantarflexion at push off was decreased. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment and power were also decreased. Postoperative elevation of the medial longitudinal arch was expressed as a decreased relative vertical impulse of the medial midfoot and an increased relative vertical impulse (RVI) of the lateral midfoot. However, the lower than normal RVI of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal head after surgery suggested uncorrected forefoot supination. The anteroposterior and lateral paths of the center of pressure were improved postoperatively.
Conclusions
Our experience suggests that the index operation reliably corrects the hindfoot valgus in patients with spastic diplegia. Although the operation corrects the plantar flexion of the talus, it does not necessarily correct the plantarflexed calcaneus and forefoot supination. However, these findings are short-term and longer term observations will be needed.
doi:10.4055/cios.2010.2.1.13
PMCID: PMC2824090  PMID: 20190996
Pes planovalgus; Cerebral palsy; Subtalar joint; Arthrodesis; Extraarticular
5.  Early mobilization after uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation provides successful functional results 
Background
Subtalar dislocation is a rare injury, with the medial type occurring in the majority of cases. The period of postreduction immobilization is a matter of controversy. Most studies set the period of immobilization between 4 and 8 weeks. The hypothesis in this study is that a period of 2–3 weeks of immobilization in a cast, followed by early mobilization, could provide better functional results than longer periods of immobilization.
Materials and methods
During a period of 4 years, eight patients (six men, two women) with mean age of 37.2 years and uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation were treated in our institution. Immediate reduction under sedation and cast immobilization was provided in all cases. Our rehabilitation protocol consisted of two completed weeks of immobilization and thereafter ankle range-of-motion exercises and partial weight-bearing mobilization. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 3 years. Clinical results were evaluated using the AOFAS Ankle–Hindfoot scale.
Results
All patients achieved almost normal ankle range of motion and good clinical outcome (mean AOFAS score 92.25). No radiographic evidence of arthritis or avascular necrosis of the talus was detected. Two patients complained of mild pain of the hindfoot. All patients returned to daily routine activities in about 2 months from injury.
Conclusions
Immediate reduction and early mobilization could be key factors for uneventful recovery of uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation. Multicenter clinical trials are needed for further validation of our initial results.
Level of evidence
III, prospective clinical series study.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0126-2
PMCID: PMC3052431  PMID: 21308390
Subtalar joint; Dislocations; Ankle; Foot; Rehabilitation
6.  Early mobilization after uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation provides successful functional results 
Background
Subtalar dislocation is a rare injury, with the medial type occurring in the majority of cases. The period of postreduction immobilization is a matter of controversy. Most studies set the period of immobilization between 4 and 8 weeks. The hypothesis in this study is that a period of 2–3 weeks of immobilization in a cast, followed by early mobilization, could provide better functional results than longer periods of immobilization.
Materials and methods
During a period of 4 years, eight patients (six men, two women) with mean age of 37.2 years and uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation were treated in our institution. Immediate reduction under sedation and cast immobilization was provided in all cases. Our rehabilitation protocol consisted of two completed weeks of immobilization and thereafter ankle range-of-motion exercises and partial weight-bearing mobilization. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 3 years. Clinical results were evaluated using the AOFAS Ankle–Hindfoot scale.
Results
All patients achieved almost normal ankle range of motion and good clinical outcome (mean AOFAS score 92.25). No radiographic evidence of arthritis or avascular necrosis of the talus was detected. Two patients complained of mild pain of the hindfoot. All patients returned to daily routine activities in about 2 months from injury.
Conclusions
Immediate reduction and early mobilization could be key factors for uneventful recovery of uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation. Multicenter clinical trials are needed for further validation of our initial results.
Level of evidence
III, prospective clinical series study.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0126-2
PMCID: PMC3052431  PMID: 21308390
Subtalar joint; Dislocations; Ankle; Foot; Rehabilitation
7.  Weaver syndrome associated with bilateral congenital hip and unilateral subtalar dislocation 
Hippokratia  2010;14(3):212-214.
Background: Weaver syndrome is a congenital paediatric syndrome characterized by mental, respiratory and musculoskeletal manifestations. The coexisting deformities of the skull, the face, fingers and toes are typical. We report a case of a girl with Weaver syndrome associated with rare bilateral congenital dislocation of the hips associated with congenital hypoplastic talus and subtalar dislocation of her ankle joint.
Case Report: A 3-year old girl was admitted in our department with typical manifestations of Weaver syndrome, associated with congenital dislocation of bilateral hips, hypoplastic talus and subtalar dislocation of her right ankle. She was in pain while standing upright and incapable of independent walking. Both hips were treated operatively with open reduction and bilateral iliac osteotomy. Two years afterwards she had an open reduction of her talus and extraarticular arthrodesis of her subtalar joint in her right ankle. Six years postoperatively after the hip operations and four years after the ankle operation the girl is ambulant with a painless independent and unaided walking with a mild limp and full range of movements in all the operated joints.
Conclusions: We suggest that children with Weaver syndrome and disabling musculosceletal deformities, particularly affecting their ability to stand up and walk should be treated early, before bone maturity, in order to achieve the best potential musculoskeletal as well as developmental outcome.
PMCID: PMC2943362  PMID: 20981173
Weaver Syndrome; congenital dislocation; hip; ankle
8.  Flatfoot in Müller-Weiss syndrome: a case series 
Introduction
Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in adults is a rare entity, known as Müller-Weiss syndrome. We report here on our experience with six patients with Müller-Weiss syndrome accompanied by flatfoot deformity, but on a literature search found no reports on this phenomenon. Because the natural history and treatment are controversial, an understanding of how to manage this deformity may be helpful for surgeons when choosing the most appropriate operative procedure.
Case presentation
Six patients (five women, one man; average age, 54 years) with flatfoot caused by osteonecrosis of the navicular bone were followed up between January 2005 and December 2008 (mean follow-up period, 23.2 months). Conservative treatment, such as physical therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used, but failed. Physical examinations revealed flattening of the medial arch of the involved foot and mild tenderness at the mid-tarsal joint. Weight-bearing X-rays (anterior-posterior and lateral views), computed tomography, and MRI scans were performed for each case. Talonavicular joint arthrodesis was performed in cases of single talonavicular joint arthritis. Triple arthrodesis was performed in cases of triple joint arthritis to reconstruct the medial arch. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale; the scores were 63.0 pre-operatively and 89.8 post-operatively. All patients developed bony fusion.
Conclusions
The reason for the development of flatfoot in patients with Müller-Weiss syndrome is unknown. Surgical treatment may achieve favorable outcomes in terms of deformity correction, pain relief, and functional restoration. The choice of operative procedure may differ in patients with both flatfoot and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-228
PMCID: PMC3459784  PMID: 22853553
Flatfoot; Müller-Weiss syndrome; Navicular
9.  Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Effects of Ankle Taping and Bracing 
Journal of Athletic Training  2002;37(4):436-445.
Objective: An extensive review of clinically relevant research is provided to assist clinicians in understanding the underlying mechanisms by which various ankle-support systems may provide beneficial effects. Strategies for management of different types of ankle ligament conditions are also discussed.
Background: Much of the literature pertaining to ankle instability and external support has focused on assessment of inward displacement of the hindfoot within the frontal plane. Some researchers have emphasized the importance of (1) pathologic rotary displacement of the talus within the transverse plane, (2) the frequent presence of subtalar joint ligament lesions, and (3) the interrelated effects of ankle support on deceleration of inversion velocity and facilitation of neuromuscular response.
Description: The traditional method for application of adhesive tape to the ankle primarily restricts inward displacement of the hindfoot within the frontal plane. The biomechanical rationale for a method of ankle taping that restricts lower leg rotation and triplanar displacement of the foot associated with subtalar motion is presented.
Clinical Advantages: The lateral subtalar-sling taping procedure may limit strain on the anterior talofibular ligament associated with subtalar inversion, restrain anterolateral rotary subluxation of the talus in the presence of ligament laxity, and protect the subtalar ligaments from excessive loading. The medial subtalar sling may reduce strain on the anterior-inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis and enhance hindfoot-to-forefoot force transfer during the push-off phase of the gait cycle.
PMCID: PMC164375  PMID: 12937565
ankle instability; subtalar joint injury; ankle dysfunction
10.  Arthrodesis of the talonavicular joint using angle-stable mini-plates: a prospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(12):2491-2494.
Purpose
The talonavicular joint is a central connection of the human foot. Symptomatic talonavicular arthritis can be adequately addressed by isolated talonavicular fusion. However, non-union remains a relevant clinical challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinicoradiological outcome of talonavicular fusion using angle-stable mini-plates.
Methods
We performed 30 talonavicular fusions in 30 patients (12 male, 18 female) with a mean age of 58.8 years (range, 22–74) between 2005 and 2007. Osseous joint fusion was achieved using mono- and multidirectional angle-stable mini-plates. The patients followed a standardised immobilisation and weight bearing protocol. The mean postoperative follow up was 15.8 months (6.1–23.8).
Results
The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society AOFAS score increased significantly from 31.7 (19–42) to 82.3 points (55–97) (p < 0.001). Neither age at operation nor gender influenced the score results significantly, while the aetiology of talonavicular degeneration showed a significant effect. Mean visual analogue scale (VAS) pain intensity (0–10) reduced from 8.6 to 1.7 (p < 0.001). Good or excellent results were achieved in 26 patients, while two patients reported fair and another two poor results. Complete osseous fusion was observed at a mean of 10.9 weeks (8–13) postoperatively.
Conclusions
For the treatment of talonavicular arthritis, the application of mono- and multidirectional angle-stable mini-plates provided a strong fixation that led to high union rates and good to excellent overall outcome.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1670-y
PMCID: PMC3508057  PMID: 23052279
11.  Conservative treatment of subtalar dislocations 
International Orthopaedics  2001;26(1):56-60.
Abstract.
Forty-five patients who presented between 1983 and 1998 with acute closed dislocation of the subtalar joint were selected for this study. There were 37 medial and eight lateral dislocations. The mean follow-up was 7.5 years (range: 2–17 years). The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hindfoot Score (AOFAS) at follow-up was 84. Subtalar fusion was required in one patient with persistent severe hindfoot instability. There was no significant difference in the AOFAS score between medial and lateral subtalar dislocations. We conclude that pure subtalar dislocation produced by low energy trauma, promptly reduced and immobilised for 4 weeks has a favourable long-term outcome.
doi:10.1007/s002640100296
PMCID: PMC3620856  PMID: 11954852
12.  Salvage of Diffuse Ankle Osteomyelitis by Single-Stage Resection and Circumferential Frame Compression Arthrodesis 
Salvage of diffuse ankle osteomyelitis, especially in compromised hosts, is a challenging problem. The purpose of this report was to evaluate early complications and results using a standardized salvage protocol. Eight patients with diffuse ankle osteomyelitis were treated by resection of all infected tissue and hybrid-frame compression arthrodesis. At presentation, five had open wounds. According to the Cierny/Mader classification, all had diffuse anatomic involvement and six of eight were compromised hosts. Seven had central distal tibial column involvement and one had primarily talar involvement. Surgical technique involved a two-incision approach, removal of all infected material and application of a compression circumferential frame with five thin wires across the foot, two across the tibia and two half-pins in the tibia. Fusion of eight ankles and four subtalar joints was attempted. All patients received six weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Open wounds were treated with wound vacuum assisted closure (VACs) devices until closure was achieved. Frames were removed at three months and walking casts were applied for one to two more months. Ankle sepsis was eradicated in all patients. Seven of eight ankles fused at an average of 13.5 weeks (range, 10 to 16 weeks). One limb required below-knee amputation (BKA) at five weeks due to nonreconstructible vascular insufficiency. Three of four subtalar joints fused. Fixation problems included two pin-track infections cleared with oral cephalexin and one broken half-pin. Two diabetic Charcot patients required long-term ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) use due to subtalar instability. At average 3.4-year follow-up, none of the seven fused ankles has required further surgery. Use of this standardized salvage treatment protocol for these difficult problems in selected patients was effective with a relatively low associated complication rate.
PMCID: PMC1888789  PMID: 16089072
13.  Successful treatment of bilateral open calcaneal fractures with concomitant lower extremity injuries: A case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:194.
Open calcaneal fractures are high morbidity injuries and the risk of complications depends on the concomitant injuries, on the size and the position of the traumatic wound. A 53-year-old male patient with bilateral open calcaneal fractures and associated concomitant lower extremity injuries such as subtalar dislocation, talonavicular dislocation and open distal tibial metaphyseal fracture was immediately operated by percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation combined with external fixators. He was able to walk with full weight bearing without any assistance at the end of the first postoperative year. Early aggressive debridement and irrigation followed by fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires and external fixator can supply bony alignment in open comminuted calcaneal fractures associated with concomitant lower extremity injuries and should be considered for the healthy and active patients before primary arthrodesis.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-194
PMCID: PMC2572042  PMID: 18826629
14.  Radiography and sonography of clubfoot: A comparative study 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):229-235.
Background:
Congenital talipes equinovarus is a common foot deformity afflicting children with reported incidence varying from 0.9/1000 to 7/1000 in various populations. The success reported with Ponseti method when started at an early age requires an imaging modality to quantitate the deformity. Sonography being a radiation free, easily available non-invasive imaging has been investigated for this purpose. Various studies have described the sonographic anatomy of normal neonatal foot and clubfoot and correlated the degree of severity with trends in sonographic measurements. However, none of these studies have correlated clinical, radiographic and sonographic parameters of all the component deformities in clubfoot. The present study aims to compare the radiographic and sonographic parameters in various grades of clubfoot.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-one children with unilateral clubfoot were examined clinically and graded according to the Demeglio system of classification of clubfoot severity. Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of both normal and affected feet were obtained in maximum correction and AP talo-calcaneal (T-C), AP talo-first metatarsal (TMT) and lateral T-C angles were measured. Sonographic examination was done in medial, lateral, dorsal and posterior projections of both feet in static neutral position and after Ponseti manouever in the position of maximum correctability in dynamic sonography. Normal foot was taken as control in all cases. The sonographic parameters measured were as follows : Medial malleolar- navicular distance (MMN) and medial soft tissue thickness (STT) on medial projection, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) distance, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) angle and maximum length of calcaneus on lateral projection, length of talus on dorsal projection; and tibiocalcaneal (T-C) distance, posterior soft tissue thickness and length of tendoachilles on posterior projection. Also, medial displacement of navicular relative to talus, mobility of talonavicular joint (medial view); reducibility of C-C mal alignment (lateral view); talonavicular relation with respect to dorsal/ ventral displacement of navicular (dorsal view) and reduction of talus within the ankle mortise (posterior view) were subjectively assessed while performing dynamic sonography. Various radiographic and sonographic parameters were correlated with clinical grades.
Results:
MMN distance and STT measured on medial view, C-C distance and C-C angle measured on lateral view and tibiocalcaneal distance measured on posterior view showed statistically significant difference between cases and controls. A significant correlation was evident between sonographic parameters and clinical grades of relevant components of clubfoot. All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle were significantly different between cases and controls. However, they did not show correlation with clinical degree of severity.
Conclusion:
All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle and sonographic parameters varied significantly between cases and controls. However, radiographic parameters did not correlate well with clubfoot severity. In contrast, sonography not only assessed all components of clubfoot comprehensively but also the sonographic parameters correlated well with the severity of these components. Thus, we conclude that sonography is a superior, radiation free imaging modality for clubfoot.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.93675
PMCID: PMC3308667  PMID: 22448064
Clubfoot; congenital talipes equinovarus; pediatric; radiography; sonography
15.  High Union Rates and Function Scores at Midterm Followup With Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Four Screw Technique 
When evaluating the role of ankle arthrodesis in the treatment of severe ankle arthritis, postoperative infection, nonunion, and the development of arthritis at the adjacent joints are major issues when considering treatment alternatives. We evaluated the rate of complications, the functional outcome, and compensatory range of motion at the midtarsal joint at medium-term followup after ankle arthrodesis with four cancellous screws. We performed 94 ankle fusions in 92 patients; 12 patients were lost to followup and eight declined to participate, leaving 72 patients (76%) for evaluation. The minimum followup was 4.8 years (mean, 5.9; range, 4.8–7.8 years). No patient developed a deep infection; three patients developed postoperative hematoma which we operatively drained. Union occurred in 93 of the 94 patients (99%). The sagittal motion at the midtarsal joint averaged 24°. Secondary arthritis of the subtalar and talonavicular joints developed during the followup period in 17% and 11%, respectively. Progression of preexisting arthritis occurred in 13 of 43 patients (30%) at the subtalar joint and five of 26 patients (19%) at the talonavicular joint. None of these patients had fusion of an adjacent joint. The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score increased from 36 preoperatively to 85 at followup. Ankle arthrodesis with screws provides high rates of union, reliable pain relief, and favorable functional medium-term results.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1074-5
PMCID: PMC2835613  PMID: 19763726
16.  Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports 
This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms). Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms). The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative. Immobilization should not be used as it results in joint stiffness, muscle atrophy and loss of proprioception. Traditional Chinese medicine such as herbs, massage and acupuncture were well applied in China in managing sports injuries, and was reported to be effective in relieving pain, reducing swelling and edema, and restoring normal ankle function. Finally, the best practice of sports medicine would be to prevent the injury. Different previous approaches, including designing prophylactice devices, introducing functional interventions, as well as change of games rules were highlighted. This paper allows the readers to catch up with the previous researches on ankle sprain injury, and facilitate the future research idea on sport-related ankle sprain injury.
doi:10.1186/1758-2555-1-14
PMCID: PMC2724472  PMID: 19640309
17.  Congenital vertical talus: Treatment by reverse ponseti technique 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):347-350.
Background:
The surgery for idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT) can lead to stiffness, wound complications and under or over correction. There are sporadic literature on costing with mixed results. We describe our early experience of reverse ponseti technique.
Materials and methods:
Four cases (four feet) of idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT) which presented one month after birth were treated by serial manipulation and casting, tendoachilles tenotomy and percutaneous pinning of talonavicular joint. An average of 5.2 (range - four to six) plaster cast applications were required to correct the forefoot deformity. Once the talus and navicular were aligned based on the radiographic talus-first metatarsal axis, percutaneous fixation of the talo-navicular joint with a Kirschner wire, and percutaneous tendoachilles tenotomy under anesthesia was performed following which a cast was applied with the foot in slight dorsiflexion.
Results:
The mean follow-up period for the four cases was 8.5 months (6-12 months). At the end of the treatment all feet were supple and plantigrade but still using ankle foot orthosis (AFO). The mean talocalcaneal angle was 70 degrees before treatment and this reduced to 31 degrees after casting. The mean talar axis first metatasal base angle (TAMBA) angle was 60° before casting and this improved to 10.5°.
Conclusion:
Although our follow-up period is small, we would recommend early casting for idiopathic CVT along the same lines as the Ponseti technique for clubfoot except that the forces applied are in reverse direction. This early casting method can prevent extensive surgery in the future, however, a close vigil is required to detect any early relapse.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.41860
PMCID: PMC2739479  PMID: 19753164
Casting; congenital vertical talus; conservative treatment
18.  Talocrural Dislocation With Associated Weber Type C Fibular Fracture in a Collegiate Football Player: A Case Report 
Journal of Athletic Training  2008;43(3):319-325.
Objective:
To present the case of a talocrural dislocation with a Weber type C fibular fracture in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football athlete.
Background:
The athlete, while attempting to make a tackle during a game, collided with an opponent, who in turn stepped on the lateral aspect of the athlete's ankle, resulting in forced ankle eversion and external rotation. On-field evaluation showed a laterally displaced talocrural dislocation. Immediate reduction was performed in the athletic training room to maintain skin integrity. Post-reduction radiographs revealed a Weber type C fibular fracture and increased medial joint clear space. A below-knee, fiberglass splint was applied to stabilize the ankle joint complex.
Differential Diagnosis:
Subtalar dislocation, Maisonneuve fracture, malleolar fracture, deltoid ligament rupture, syndesmosis disruption.
Treatment:
The sports medicine staff immediately splinted and transported the athlete to the athletic training room to reduce the dislocation. The athlete then underwent an open reduction and internal fixation procedure to stabilize the injury: 2 syndesmosis screws and a fibular plate were placed to keep the ankle joint in an anatomically reduced position. With the guidance of the athletic training staff, the athlete underwent an accelerated physical rehabilitation protocol in an effort to return to sport as quickly and safely as possible.
Uniqueness:
Most talocrural dislocations and associated Weber type C fibular fractures are due to motor vehicle accidents or falls. We are the first to describe this injury in a Division I football player and to present a general rehabilitation protocol for a high-level athlete.
Conclusions:
Sports medicine practitioners must recognize that this injury can occur in the athletic environment. Prompt reduction, early surgical intervention, sufficient resources, and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol all contributed to a successful outcome in the patient.
PMCID: PMC2386426  PMID: 18523569
ankle dislocations; fibular fractures; syndesmosis injuries; athletic injuries
19.  Changes in Chopart joint load following tibiotalar arthrodesis: in vitro analysis of 8 cadaver specimen in a dynamic model 
Background
In the current discussion of surgical treatment of arthroses in the ankle joint, arthrodesis is in competition with artificial joint replacement. Up until now, no valid biomechanical findings have existed on the changes in intraarticular loads following arthrodesis. One argument against tibiotalar arthrodesis is the frequently associated, long-term degeneration of the talonavicular joint, which can be attributed to changes in biomechanical stresses.
Methods
We used a dynamic model to determine the changes in intraarticular forces and peak-pressure in the talonavicular joint and in the calcaneocuboid joint on 8 cadaver feet under stress in a simulated stance phase following tibiotalar arthrodesis.
Results
The change seen after arthrodesis was a tendency of relocation of average force and maximum pressure from the lateral onto the medial column of the foot. The average force increased from native 92 N to 100 N upon arthrodesis in the talonavicular joint and decreased in the calcaneocuboid joint from 54 N to 48 N. The peak pressure increased from native 3.9 MPa to 4.4 MPa in the talonavicular joint and in the calcaneocuboid joint from 3.3 MPa to 3.4 MPa. The increase of force and peak pressure on the talonavicular joint and decrease of force on the calcaneocuboid joint is statistically significant.
Conclusion
The increase in imparted force and peak pressure on the medial column of the foot following tibiotalar arthrodesis, as was demonstrated in a dynamic model, biomechanically explains the clinically observed phenomenon of cartilage degeneration on the medial dorsum of the foot in the long term. As a clinical conclusion from the measurements, it would be desirable to reduce the force imparted on the medial column with displacement onto the lateral forefoot, say by suitable shoe adjustment, in order to achieve a more favourable long-term clinical result.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-80
PMCID: PMC2014750  PMID: 17686174
20.  Tibiotalar arthrodesis for injuries of the talus 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):87-90.
Background:
Fracture-dislocation of the talus is one of the most severe injuries of the ankle. Opinion varies widely as to the proper treatment of this injury. Since Blair's original description of the tibiotalar fusion in 1943, there is little mention in the literature of his method. The present study reports the results of tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair's technique.
Materials and Methods:
Eleven cases of modified Blair's tibiotalar arthrodesis were retrospectively studied. The average age was 32.4 years (range, 26-51 years). Six patients had posttraumatic avascular necrosis; five had neglected fracture-dislocation of the talus.
Results:
The mean followup is 8 years (range 3-12 years). Tibiotalar fusion was achieved in all the ankles at an average of 20.5 weeks (range 16-28 weeks). Nine cases having 15°-20° tibiopedal motion had excellent results and two ankles having 10°-15° of tibiopedal motion had good result.
Conclusion:
We achieved good long term results with tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair technique. The principal modification in the present study is retention of the talar body while performing arthrodesis with anterior sliding graft. The retention of the talar body provides intraoperative stability and in the long term, the retained talar body shares the load transmitted to the anterior and middle subtalar joints thus resulting in improved hind foot function and gait.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.38588
PMCID: PMC2759590  PMID: 19823662
Anterior tibial sliding graft; arthrodesis; avascular necrosis of talus
21.  Minimally invasive ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde locking nail after failed fusion 
Abstract
A retrograde nail with posterior-to-anterior (PA) locking into os calcis, talus and tibia was used to correct deformity and achieve fusion after failed fusion. A variety of methods have been published to achieve union of the ankle and subtalar joint in a failed fusion situation. We have studied a retrograde locking nail technique through a 2.5-cm incision in the non-weightbearing part of the sole of the foot. Remaining cartilage in the ankle joint, where necessary, was percutaneously removed through an anterior approach and the locking nail was inserted after reaming of os calcis, talus and tibia. Locking screw insertion was in the sagittal plane (p.a. direction), in talus os calcis and tibial diaphysis using a nail mounted jig. Ten patients were entered in the study (age 27-60 years). The initial aetiology for attempted fusion was post-traumatic in nine cases and rheumatic in one case. There were 25 previous operations in the cohort not leading to fusion. An additional temporary external fixator was used in four cases to reach and maintain the optimum position for the procedure. The intervention time was 30-75 min. Dynamisation of the nail was performed after four months under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (3-5.5 years). Radiologically and clinically, fusion was achieved in 16 weeks (range, 12-20 weeks). There was no loosening of the implant or implant failure. A leg length discrepancy was avoided using this technique. There was one complication with varus malunion in a heavy smoker which united after corrective osteotomy, revision nailing and bone grafting. Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale (not visual analogue) of 0 (not satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied); overall satisfaction averaged 9.5 points (range, 6-10 points). The postoperative ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society averaged 73.5 points (range, 61-81 points). Retrograde locked nailing with locking in the sagittal plane is a reliable minimally invasive procedure to achieve fusion of the ankle and the subtalar joint after failed fusion.
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0018-4
PMCID: PMC2321722  PMID: 18427914
Ankle arthrodesis; Failed fusion; Retrograde nail; Calcaneotalotibial arthrodesis
22.  Minimally invasive ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde locking nail after failed fusion 
Abstract
A retrograde nail with posterior-to-anterior (PA) locking into os calcis, talus and tibia was used to correct deformity and achieve fusion after failed fusion. A variety of methods have been published to achieve union of the ankle and subtalar joint in a failed fusion situation. We have studied a retrograde locking nail technique through a 2.5-cm incision in the non-weightbearing part of the sole of the foot. Remaining cartilage in the ankle joint, where necessary, was percutaneously removed through an anterior approach and the locking nail was inserted after reaming of os calcis, talus and tibia. Locking screw insertion was in the sagittal plane (p.a. direction), in talus os calcis and tibial diaphysis using a nail mounted jig. Ten patients were entered in the study (age 27-60 years). The initial aetiology for attempted fusion was post-traumatic in nine cases and rheumatic in one case. There were 25 previous operations in the cohort not leading to fusion. An additional temporary external fixator was used in four cases to reach and maintain the optimum position for the procedure. The intervention time was 30-75 min. Dynamisation of the nail was performed after four months under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (3-5.5 years). Radiologically and clinically, fusion was achieved in 16 weeks (range, 12-20 weeks). There was no loosening of the implant or implant failure. A leg length discrepancy was avoided using this technique. There was one complication with varus malunion in a heavy smoker which united after corrective osteotomy, revision nailing and bone grafting. Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale (not visual analogue) of 0 (not satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied); overall satisfaction averaged 9.5 points (range, 6-10 points). The postoperative ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society averaged 73.5 points (range, 61-81 points). Retrograde locked nailing with locking in the sagittal plane is a reliable minimally invasive procedure to achieve fusion of the ankle and the subtalar joint after failed fusion.
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0018-4
PMCID: PMC2321722  PMID: 18427914
Ankle arthrodesis; Failed fusion; Retrograde nail; Calcaneotalotibial arthrodesis
23.  Early Weight Bearing of Calcaneal Fractures Treated by Intraoperative 3D-Fluoroscopy and Locked-Screw Plate Fixation 
Operative therapy of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus is an established surgical standard. The aim is an accurate reduction of the fracture with reconstruction of Boehler’s angle, length, axis and subtalar joint surface. Intraoperative 3D-fluoroscopy with the Siremobil Iso-C 3D® mobile C-arm system is a valuable assistant for accurate reconstruction of these anatomical structures. Remaining incongruities can be recognized and corrected intraoperatively. The achieved reduction can be fixed by the advantages of an internal fixator (locked-screw plate interface). In the period of October 2002 until April 2007 we operated 136 patients with intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus by means of anatomical reduction, and internal plate fixator under intraoperative control of 3D-fluoroscopy. All patients were supplied with an orthesis after the operation which allowed weight bearing of 10 kg for 12 weeks for the patients operated between October 2002 and October 2004 (Group A). Transient local osteoporosis was observed in all X-Rays at follow-up after an average of 8,6 months. Therefore we changed our postoperative treatment plan for the patients operated between November 2004 and April 2007 (Group B). Weight bearing started with 20 KG after 6 weeks, was increased to 40 KG after 8 weeks and full weight bearing was allowed after 10 weeks for these patients. In no case a secondary dislocation of the fracture was seen. No bone graft was used. At follow up the average American Foot and Ankle Society Score (AOFAS) were 81 for Group_A, compared to 84 for Group B, treated with earlier weight bearing. Autologous bone graft was not necessary even if weight bearing was started after a period of six weeks postoperatively. The combination of 3D-fluoroscopy with locked internal fixation showed promising results. If the rate of patients developing subtalar arthrosis will decrease by this management will have to be shown in long term follow up.
doi:10.2174/1874325000903010069
PMCID: PMC2738828  PMID: 19750017
Computer-assisted surgery; early weight bearing; calcaneal fracture; locked plate.
24.  Outcome of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(3):317-320.
Background:
Ankle arthrodesis is still a gold standard salvage procedure for the management of ankle arthritis. There are several functional and mechanical benefits of ankle arthrodesis, which make it a viable surgical procedure in the management of ankle arthritis. The functional outcomes following ankle arthrodesis are not very well known. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical and radiographic evaluation of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis performed using Charnley's compression device.
Materials and Methods:
Between January 2006 and December 2009 a functional assessment of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) who had undergone ankle arthrodesis for posttraumatic arthritis and/or avascular necrosis (AVN) talus (n=6), malunited bimalleolar fracture (n=4), distal tibial plafond fractures (n=3), medial malleoli nonunion (n=2). All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically after an average followup of 2 years 8 months (range 1–5.7 years).
Results:
All patients had sound ankylosis and no complications related to the surgery. Scoring the patients with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale, we found that 11 of the 15 had excellent results, two had good, and two showed fair results. They were all returned to their preinjury activities.
Conclusion:
We conclude that, the ankle arthrodesis can still be considered as a standard procedure in ankle arthritis. On the basis of these results, patients should be counseled that an ankle fusion will help to relieve pain and to improve overall function. Still, one should keep in mind that it is a salvage procedure that will cause persistent alterations in gait with a potential for deterioration due to the development of subtalar arthritis.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.96392
PMCID: PMC3377143  PMID: 22719119
Ankle arthritis; ankle arthrodesis; outcome of ankle arthrodesis
25.  Load response of the medial longitudinal arch in patients with flatfoot deformity: in vivo 3D study 
Background
The acquisition of flatfoot by an adult is thought to primarily be caused by posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, although some other causes, such as congenital flexible flatfoot or an accessory navicular, may also be responsible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone rotation of each joint in the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) and compare the response in healthy feet with that in flat feet by analyzing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) CT image data during weightbearing.
Methods
CT scans of 20 healthy feet and 24 feet with flatfoot deformity were taken in non-load condition followed by full-body weightbearing condition. Images of the tibia and MLA bones (first metatarsal bone, cuneiforms, navicular, talus, and calcaneus) were reconstructed into 3D models. The volume merge method in three planes was used to calculate the bone-to-bone relative rotations.
Findings
Under loading conditions, the flatfoot dorsiflexed more in the first tarsometatarsal joint, and everted more in the talonavicular and talocalcaneal joints compared with the healthy foot. The total relative rotation was larger in the flatfoot compared with the healthy foot only in the first tarsometatarsal joint.
Interpretation
Supporting the MLA in the sagittal direction and the subtalar joint in the coronal direction may be useful for treating flatfoot deformity. The first tarsometatarsal joint may play an important role in diagnosing or treating flatfoot deformity.
doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.04.004
PMCID: PMC4098854  PMID: 23643289
Three-dimensional Image; Flatfoot; Medial Longitudinal Arch; Weightbearing

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