Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) plays a cardinal role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPV 16 has intratypic variants which show different geographical distributions and different oncogenic potentials. To analyze the presence of sequence variations of HPV 16 variants in northeast China, 71 cervical carcinomas were identified by HPV typing. HPV 16-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR-directed sequencing in the E6, E7, and L1 genes and the LCR (long control region). The variation data were compared with those of neighboring districts. In this hospital-based study, HPV 16 was the most common type (73.24%). In HPV 16-positive specimens, 67.31% belonged to the European (E) lineage, while 32.69% were Asian (As) variants. The Asian-American (AA), African-1 (Af-1), African-2 (Af-2), and northern American (NA) lineages were not detected. The most frequently observed variation sites were T178G (32.69%) in E6; A647G (34.62%), G666A (38.46%), and T846C (32.69%) in E7; C6826T (36.17%) and G7060A (61.70%) in L1; and G7521A (98.08%) in the LCR. The most prevalent amino acid variations were D25E in E6 and N29S in E7. In addition, 28 novel variations of HPV 16 were reported. Some covariations between different genes were obtained. In this study, HPV 16 variants belonged to the European lineage and the Asian lineage. Compared with neighboring districts, the distribution of HPV 16 variants in northeast China had a typical pattern. As the first report on HPV 16 variants in northeast China, it should be helpful for designing a HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination program in China.
Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for invasive cervical cancer (ICC), and non-European variants of HPV-16 are associated with an increased risk of persistence and ICC. HLA class II polymorphisms are also associated with genetic susceptibility to ICC. Our aim is to verify if these associations are influenced by HPV-16 variability.
We characterized HPV-16 variants by PCR in 107 ICC cases, which were typed for HLA-DQA1, DRB1 and DQB1 genes and compared to 257 controls. We measured the magnitude of associations by logistic regression analysis.
European (E), Asian-American (AA) and African (Af) variants were identified. Here we show that inverse association between DQB1*05 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–1.12]) and HPV-16 positive ICC in our previous report was mostly attributable to AA variant carriers (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.10–0.75). We observed similar proportions of HLA DRB1*1302 carriers in E-P positive cases and controls, but interestingly, this allele was not found in AA cases (p = 0.03, Fisher exact test). A positive association with DRB1*15 was observed in both groups of women harboring either E (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.13–7.86) or AA variants (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.00–5.46). There was an inverse association between DRB1*04 and ICC among women with HPV-16 carrying the 350T [83L] single nucleotide polymorphism in the E6 gene (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08–0.96). An inverse association between DQB1*05 and cases carrying 350G (83V) variants was also found (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15–0.89).
Our results suggest that the association between HLA polymorphism and risk of ICC might be influenced by the distribution of HPV-16 variants.
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) play a crucial role in the etiology of cervical cancer and the most prevalent genotype is HPV16. HPV 16 intratypic variants have been reported to differ in their prevalence, biological and biochemical properties. The present study was designed to analyze and identify HPV type 16 E6 variants among patients with cervical cancer in Morocco.
A total of 103 HPV16 positive samples were isolated from 129 cervical cancer cases, and variant status was subsequently determined by DNA sequencing of the E6 gene.
Isolates from patients were grouped into the European (E), African (Af) and North-American (NA1) phylogenetic clusters with a high prevalence of E lineage (58.3%). The Af and NA1 variants were detected in 31.1% and 11.6% of the HPV16 positive specimens, respectively, whereas, only 3% of cases were prototype E350T. No European-Asian (EA), Asian (As) or Asian-American (AA) variants were observed in our HPV16-positive specimens. At the amino acid level, the most prevalent non-synonymous variants were L83V (T350G), H78Y (C335T), E113D (A442C), Q14D (C143G/G145T) and R10I (G132T), and were observed respectively in 65%, 41.8%, 38.8%, 30.1% and 23.3% of total samples.
Moreover, HPV16 European variants were mostly identified in younger women at early clinical diagnosis stages. Whereas, HPV16 Af variants were most likely associated with cervical cancer development in older women with pronounced aggressiveness.
This study suggests a predominance of E lineage strains among Moroccan HPV 16 isolates and raises the possibility that HPV16 variants have a preferential role in progression to malignancy and could be associated with the more aggressive nature of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer; Human papillomavirus 16; Variants; E6; Morocco
The majority of existing human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are based on multiplex PCR using consensus or degenerate primers. We developed a Templex HPV assay that simultaneously detects and identifies 25 common HPV genotypes in a single-tube reaction using type-specific primers for the HPV-specific E6 and E7 genes. The analytical sensitivities of the Templex assay for HPV type 16 (HPV-16), -18, and -56 were 20, 100, and 20 copies per reaction mixture, respectively. The Templex assay provides semiquantitative information on each type when multiple HPV types coexist in one reaction. We tested 109 clinical cervical specimens previously evaluated with the Digene HC2 high-risk HPV DNA test and found 95.4% concordance between the assay results. The Templex assay provided type-specific results and found multiple types in 29.2% (14 of 48) of high-risk HPV-positive samples. The entire Templex procedure, including DNA extraction, can be completed within 5 hours, providing a rapid and reliable diagnostic tool for HPV detection and typing that is amenable to automation.
Intratypic diversity of human papillomavirus (HPV) genome is generally characterized by point mutation, insertion, and/or deletion. Using PCR-based cloning and sequencing, we detected concurrent infection with 8 HPV16 variants in a woman enrolled in the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study. The European variant was the major variant; each of the seven minor variants had partial DNA sequences identical to the European variant and another part identical to the African-2 variant. At a follow-up visit, only an HPV16 African-2 variant was detected. Results from the present study suggest presence of intratypic recombination of HPV genome in natural infection.
human papillomavirus; recombination; variant
It has been suggested that DNA sequence variants of HPV16 contribute to differences in the behavior of individual cervical lesions. To address this question, we have analyzed the association of HPV16 variants with diagnostic severity in 354 HPV16-positive Oklahoman women. HPV16 variant status was determined by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the E6 open reading frame. European sequences were identified in 86% of samples and 14% were non-European. Of the 51 non-European cases, 61% were Asian-American, 23% African and 16% were Native American variants. European prototype and related variants were present in comparable numbers (43% each) but the relative proportion of each differed with diagnostic category. In general, the proportion of European variants and non-European variants increased with diagnostic severity while the European prototype decreased. When adjusted for age and race (white, black or Hispanic), the increased risk for carcinoma/severe dysplasia for non-European variants was statistically significant with an odds ratio of 3.8 (1.3–10.7). However, the analogous comparison for the European variants, although also showing increased association with carcinoma/severe dysplasia, did not reach statistical significance (OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.7–3.6). Overall, HPV16 European sequences (both prototype and related variants), were predominant in Oklahoman women including those with cancers. This suggests that while there appear to be differences among the HPV16-variant categories in risk for progression to invasive cancer, all variant categories are associated with the development of invasive cancer.
human papillomavirus; cervical carcinogenesis; cervical intraepithelial lesions; HPV variants; cervical neoplasia
Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages.
Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA occurs early in cancer development and is an important event in malignant transformation of cervical cancer. Integration of HPVs preferentially disrupts or deletes the E2 open reading frame, which results in the loss of its expression. The preferential disruption of the E2 gene causes the absence of the E2 gene sequences in the PCR product following integration. Twenty-two carcinomas positive for HPV type 16 (HPV-16) DNA were first tested for the disruption of the E2 gene by PCR. A specific fragment of the E2 gene was not amplified in 10 cases, suggesting integration of HPV DNA into the host genome. Next, multiplex PCR for the HPV E2 and E6 genes was carried out in the remaining 12 cases. Copy numbers of both genes should be equivalent in episomal forms, while the E2 gene copy number will be smaller than that for E6 following the preferential disruption of the E2 gene in concominant forms. Although relative ratios of HPV E2 to E6 PCR products (E2/E6 ratios) ranged from 1.40 to 2.34 in 10 of 12 cases, multiplex PCR products from 2 cases displayed extremely low ratios of 0.69 and 0.61. Southern blot hybridization with an HPV-16 probe revealed that only in these two cases was both episomal and integrated HPV DNA being carried simultaneously. Thus, multiplex PCR for the E2 and E6 genes of HPV-16 DNA following PCR for the E2 gene can distinguish the pure episomal form from a mixed form of episomal and integrated HPV DNA. Clinical application of this technique will help researchers to understand the implication of the integration of HPV DNA for cervical carcinogenesis and cervical cancer progression.
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), particularly HPV types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18, respectively), play a cardinal role in the etiology of cervical cancer. The most prevalent type, HPV-16, shows intratypic sequence variants that are known to differ in oncogenic potential and geographic distribution. This study was designed to analyze sequence variations in E6, E7, and L1 genes and the LCR (for long control region) of HPV-16 in cervical cancer patients to identify the most prevalent and novel HPV-16 variants and to correlate them with the severity of the disease. Cervical biopsies from 60 HPV-16-positive cancer cases were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. The most frequently observed variations were T350G (100%) in E6, T789C (87.5%) in E7, A6695C (54.5%) in L1, and G7521A (91.1%) in the LCR. In addition, only one novel variant (T527A) in E6 and four new variants each in L1 (A6667C, A6691G, C6906T, and A6924C) and in the LCR (C13T, A7636C, C7678T, and G7799A) were identified. While E7 was found to be highly conserved, the variant 350G of E6 was the most prevalent in all of the histopathological grades. The majority of LCR variants were found at the YY1 transcription factor binding sites. Interestingly, a complete absence of the Asian lineage and a high prevalence of European lineages in E6, E7, L1, and the LCR (85, 86.7, 67.7, and 63.3%, respectively) indicate a possible epidemiological linkage between Europe and India with regard to the dissemination of HPV-16 infections in India.
Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host cell genome is a frequent event in cervical carcinogenesis, even though this phenomenon does not seem to be mandatory for cervical cancer development. Our objective was to describe the load and physical state of HPV type 16 (HPV16) DNA in a series of cervical samples representative of the natural history of cervical cancer. We used a combination of three real-time PCR assays targeting E6, E2, and albumin genes to calculate HPV16 load (E6 and albumin) and the E2/E6 ratio as a surrogate of integration. This method was applied to 173 HPV16-positive cervical samples. Results show that viral load increases with the lesion grade (from 102 HPV16 DNA copies per 103 cells in normal samples up to 56,354 copies per 103 cells in cancers), while E2/E6 ratio decreases (from 1 in normal samples down to 0.36 in cancers). We propose that, according to this technique, an HPV16 viral load of higher than 22,000 copies/103 cells or an E2/E6 ratio of lower than 0.50 allows the identification of women with prevalent high-grade lesions or worse with a high specificity. In conclusion, both viral load and E2/E6 ratio, used in combination with an appropriate cutoff value, are suitable to screen women with prevalent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 or cancer. Therefore, these assays would be useful in addition to routine HPV testing to more accurately identify women with (pre)cancerous lesions.
Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration.
Cervical cancer; Epstein-Barr virus; E2 gene; E2 mRNA; High risk human papillomaviruses
In contrast to cervical cancer, integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome has been considered a rare event in cancer precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]). With our new real-time PCR method, we demonstrated that integrated HPV type 16 (HPV16) is already present in CIN lesions. The physical state of HPV16 and the viral load were simultaneously detected. A unique region of the E2 open reading frame (ORF) that is most often deleted during HPV16 integration is targeted by one set of PCR primers and a probe, and another set targets the E6 ORF. In episomal form, both targets should be equivalent, while in integrated form, the copy numbers of E2 would be less than those of E6. The method was tested with DNAs from 31 cervical lesions (non-CIN to CINIII) from 24 women prospectively followed up for 10 years. This report presents viral load and integration results from the largest series of CIN lesions described to date. Only one sample contained exclusively episomal HPV16 DNA, and this lesion regressed spontaneously. Samples from another patient, with only integrated HPV16, rapidly progressed from CINI to CINIII in 2 years. In all other patients, episomal and integrated forms of HPV16 DNA were found to coexist. Rapid progression of the CIN lesions was closely associated with a heavy load of integrated HPV16. Thus, the method described here is a very sensitive tool with which to assess the physical state of HPV, which is useful in predicting disease progression.
We examined intratype human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) sequence variation in tumor samples that were collected and analyzed in an international study of invasive cervical cancer. The collection included tumors from 22 countries in five continents. Using our recently developed E6 and L1 PCR-based hybridization systems to distinguish HPV-16 variant lineages, we analyzed material from tumors previously found to contain HPV-16 DNA. Of 408 specimens analyzed in the E6 hybridization assay, 376 (92.2%) belonged to previously reported HPV-16 variant lineages. The remaining 32 specimens (7.8%) harbored HPV-16 variants with novel hybridization patterns, novel nucleotide changes, or both. Nucleotide sequences (1,203 bp) were determined for the E6, the MY09/11 region of L1, and the long control region of each novel variant and representative specimens from each hybridization pattern observed. Based on E6 hybridization patterns, most of the variants from European and North American samples were phylogenetically classified as European prototype (E) while samples from Africa contained primarily African 1 (Af1) or African 2 (Af2) variants. The majority of Asian (As) variants were observed in Southeast Asia, and almost all Asian American (AA) variants were from Central and South America or Spain. A single North American 1 (NA1) variant was detected in a tumor from Argentina. Nucleotide changes previously shown to covary between the MY09/11 region of L1 and the E6 coding region were examined in a subset of 249 specimens. We observed 22 combined E6-L1 hybridization patterns, of which 11 (in 21 samples) were novel. No unanticipated nucleotide covariation was observed between the E class and the AA-Af1-Af2-NA1 classes, suggesting the absence or rarity of genomic recombination between HPV-16 lineages. This extensive description of HPV-16 variants forms a basis for further examining the relationship between intratype variation and basic functional differences in biological activities. HPV-16 variants may prove important for the determination of the risk of cervical neoplasia and for the design of HPV-16 vaccine strategies.
The variation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genes or HPV variants demonstrates different risks of cervical cancer. Mutation in the long control region (LCR) at YY1-motifs is one of the mechanisms for enhancing viral oncogene expression during the course of cancer cell progression. In Thai women, cervical cancers are almost always associated with HPV16 variant sub-lineage Asian (HPV16As); however, the mechanism involved remains elusive. The aim of this study was to understand further the oncogenic potential of HPV16As.
A total of 82 HPV16-positive specimens from Thai women were selected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues, and the full length E6 gene of each specimen was amplified and sequenced. LCRs of the HPV16As-positive cases were amplified and sequenced to analyze their polymorphisms. Transcriptional activities of the HPV16As LCRs were then compared with sub-lineage European (EUR), sub-lineage Asian-American 1 (AA1) and HPV16 prototype by insertion of the LCRs into the pGL3-Basic vector.
The HPV16 DNA sequences were classified as HPV16 prototype (18.3%), Asian (As, 61%), Asian American-1 (AA1, 8.5%), European (EUR, 7.3%), Asian African-2 (AFR2, 3.7%) and Java-135C (J135C, 1.2%). The prevalence of HPV16As was 30% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), while that in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC) were 63.9% and 66.7%, respectively, which demonstrates a significant association of HPV16As with the disease severity. LCR polymorphisms from 43 HPV16As positive cases were analyzed by PCR-sequencing. Thirty-eight nucleotide variation positions spanned nucleotide positions 7157–82. Ten new mutations found in the HPV16As LCRs were located predominantly at the enhancer and proximal to the 3’-end of the early promoter. The LCRs of the common HPV16As, EUR and AA1 showed 5, 13 and 23-fold higher activity than the HPV16 prototype LCR, while those of the new nucleotide variations of As showed 19 (As-sv1) and 30 (As-sv14) -fold higher activity than the HPV16 prototype.
HPV16As DNA sequence variation, especially at the proximal to early promoter in the LCR, enhances transcriptional activity. This could be one of the possible mechanisms for HPV16As-associated cervical cancer development.
HPV16; Sub-lineage Asian; Cervical cancer; Long control region
While the central role of the viral upstream regulatory region (URR) in the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle has been well established, its effects on viral replication factor expression and plasmid replication of HPV type 16 (HPV16) remain unclear. Some nonprototypic variants of HPV16 contain altered URR sequences and are considered to increase the oncogenic risk of infections. To determine the relationship between viral replication and variant URRs, hybrid viral genomes were constructed with the replication-competent HPV16 prototype W12 and analyzed in assays which recapitulate the different phases of normal viral replication. The establishment efficiencies of hybrid HPV16 genomes differed about 20-fold among European prototypes and variants from Africa and America. Generally, European and African genomes exhibited the lowest replication efficiencies. The high replication levels observed with American variants were primarily attributable to their efficient expression of the replication factors E1 and E2. The maintenance levels of these viral genomes varied about fivefold, which correlated with their respective establishment phenotypes and published P97 activities. Vegetative DNA amplification could also be observed with replicating HPV16 genomes. These results indicate that efficient E1/E2 expression and elevated plasmid replication levels during the persistent stage of infection may comprise a risk factor in HPV16-mediated oncogenesis.
AIM: To detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in esophageal carcinoma (EC) 109 cells and investigate the relationship between HPV and EC.
METHODS: Genomic DNA and total RNA from EC109 cells were isolated. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the general primer sets of My09/11 and GP5 +/6 + for the HPV L1 gene and type-specific primer sets for HPV18 E6 and HPV18 E6-E7. Reverse transcription (RT) of mRNA isolated from EC109 cells was performed to produce a cDNA. And then a PCR-based protocol for the amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts was used to analyze HPV18 DNA and integrated transcripts of HPV18 in the chromosomes of EC109 cells. The final nested PCR products were cloned into a pMD-18T vector and sequenced to analyze the chromosomal location of HPV integration.
RESULTS: HPV18 DNA was detected in EC109 cells by PCR using the general primer sets of My09/11 and GP5 +/6 + for HPV L1 and the type-specific primer sets for HPV18 E6 and E6-E7 to generate products of 450 bp, 150 bp, 335 bp and 944 bp, respectively. Approximately 600 bp of integrated HPV18-specific transcript was identified. The final nested PCR product of integrated HPV18 DNA was cloned into a pMD-18T vector and sequenced to analyze the chromosomal location of HPV integration. Sequence alignment showed that the HPV18 sequence from EC109 cells was identical to that of the encoded early protein E7-E1 of the standard HPV18 strain X05015, and another partial gene sequence was identical to a partial sequence of human chromosome 8.
CONCLUSION: Integration of the HPV genome into the host cell chromosome suggests that persistent HPV infection is vital for malignant cell transformation and carcinogenesis.
Esophageal carcinoma; Human papillomavirus; Integration; Infection; Genome
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia. Accurate and sensitive genotyping of multiple oncogenic HPVs is essential for a multitude of both clinical and research uses. We developed a modified general primer (MGP) PCR system with five forward and five reverse consensus primers. The MGP system was compared to the classical HPV general primer system GP5+/6+ using a proficiency panel with HPV plasmid dilutions as well as cervical samples from 592 women with low-grade cytological abnormalities. The reference method (GP5+/6+) had the desirable high sensitivity (five copies/PCR) for five oncogenic HPV types (HPV type 16 [HPV-16], HPV-18, HPV-56, HPV-59, and HPV-66). The MGP system was able to detect all 14 oncogenic HPV types at five copies/PCR. In the clinical samples, the MGP system detected a significantly higher proportion of women with more than two concomitant HPV infections than did the GP5+/6+ system (102/592 women compared to 42/592 women). MGP detected a significantly greater number of infections with HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -42, -43, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, and -70 than did GP5+/6+. In summary, the MGP system primers allow a more sensitive amplification of most of the HPV types that are established as oncogenic and had an improved ability to detect multiple concomitant HPV infections.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is an oncogenic HPV type prevalent in Asia. The aim of the study was to analyze HPV 52 genetic variations in women from Northeast China. To explore the intratypic variants of HPV 52, the genomic regions of L1, E6, E7 and long control region (LCR) of HPV 52, which have been identified in women from Northeast China by HPV GenoArray test, were analyzed. Twenty-five mutations were identified in the regions examined. Of the mutations found in the L1 gene, three novel nonsynonymous mutations of C5640T, A5641T and G5642A were located within the region that encodes the binding domain of neutralizing antibodies against HPV 52. Although four variations were identified in HPV 52 E6 and E7 genes, no significant association was found between the mutations and the cytological lesion of the patients. Eight mutations, including a novel CTT7681–7683 deletion, found in the LCR of HPV 52 encompassed the known transcription binding sites, which may possibly affect the transcription of the oncogenic genes of E6 and E7. The most prevalent HPV 52 variant in women from northeastern China belongs to clade L1-LN-A. The genetic variations of HPV 52, including three novel nonsynonymous mutations of C5640T, A5641T and G5642A in the L1 gene and a novel CTT7681–7683 deletion in the LCR, were first documented in strains from women in Northeast China. The statistical result showed no associations between the variants and the severities of the infected women. These findings provide new data regarding gene variations of HPV 52.
HPV 52; E6; E7; LCR; L1; genomic polymorphism
A rapid quantitative real-time PCR method was employed to quantify the copy number of E2 and E6 genes for analysis of the physical status of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA. Significant differences with respect to both copy numbers were found when more than 40% of HPV-16 DNA was integrated with disruption of the E2 gene in an experimental model. The physical status of HPV-16 DNA in 50 clinical samples was exclusively episomal in 21 cases (42%), concomitant in 14 cases (28%), and integrated in 15 cases (30%). The prevalence of integrated and/or concomitant forms of HPV-16 DNA increased with progression of cervical disease. Four of 11 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia involved integrated forms of HPV-16 DNA partially or exclusively. This rapid, sensitive technique is useful in the analysis of the physical status of HPV DNA.
In this study, we have examined intratype human papillomavirus (HPV) sequence variation in a worldwide collection of cervical specimens. Twelve different HPV types including HPV-18, HPV-33, HPV-35, HPV-39, HPV-45, HPV-51, HPV-52, HPV-58, HPV-59, HPV-68 (ME180), MM9/PAP238A (recently designated HPV-73), and a novel partial genomic HPV sequence designated MM4/Wl3B were analyzed in this study. Cervical specimens were collected as part of epidemiological investigations conducted in New Mexico and an international study of invasive cervical cancer (IBSCC). Specimens from several countries including Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Benin, Cuba, Colombia, Chile, Germany, Mali, Panama, Paraguay, Spain, Algeria, Uganda, Guinea, Tanzania, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and the United States were evaluated. Specimen DNAs were subjected to amplification with the MY09/11 L1 consensus PCR system. The PCR products were cloned, and an approximately 410-bp region in the L1 open reading frame was sequenced from 146 specimens (approximately 60,000 bp). Within a single HPV type, nucleotide diversity varied between 0.2 and 2.9% (i.e., between any pair of variants) and the majority of nucleotide changes were synonymous (amino acid conserving). These data provide information pertinent to HPV diagnostic probe development and are potentially relevant to future rational vaccine strategies. Similarly, amino acid diversity varied between 0 and 5.1%. Some of these amino acid changes may represent markers of intertype evolutionary relationships. Presuming that HPVs have evolved under the same constraints as their corresponding hosts, the limited genetic diversity observed for all HPVs studied to date may reflect an evolutionary bottleneck occurring in both virus and host populations.
The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in penile carcinoma (PeC) is currently reported and about half of the PeC is associated with HPV16 and 18. We used a PCR-based strategy by using HPV general primers to analyze 86 penile carcinomas paraffin-embedded tissues. Some clinical data, the histological subtype, growth pattern, and differentiation degree were also collected. The amplified fragments were then sequenced to confirm the HPV type and for HPV16/18 variants. DNA samples were also subjected to relative real time PCR for hTERC gene copy number. Some clinical data were also collected. Global HPV frequency was 77.9%. Relative contributions was for HPV16 (85%), 31 (4.4%), 11 (4.4%), 58, 33, 18, and 59 (1.4% each one). Sequence analysis of HPV16 identified European variants and Asian-American (AAb-c) variants in 92% and in 8% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore hTERC gene amplification was observed in only 17% of the cases. Our results suggest that some members of HPV A9 group (represented by HPV16, 58, and 31) are the most frequent among PeC patients studied with an important contribution from HPV16 European variant. The hTERC gene amplification could be poorly related to penile epithelial tissue.
HPV; penile carcinoma; México
The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was investigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and 270 with normal cytology. Quantitative, PCR-based fluorescent assays for each of the HPV genotypes and for the β-globin gene were used. The amount of cellular DNA increased significantly with increasing disease; thus, HPV was expressed as copies per microgram of cellular DNA. The assay had a dynamic range of >107, allowing documentation for the first time of the wide range of HPV copy numbers seen in clinical specimens. Median HPV DNA copy number varied by more than 104 among the viral types. HPV16 was present in the highest copy number; over 55% of HPV16-positive samples contained more than 108 copies/μg. Median copy number for HPV16 showed dramatic increases with increasing epithelial abnormality, an effect not seen with the other HPV types. HPV16 increased from a median of 2.2 × 107 in patients with normal cytology, to 4.1 × 107 in CIN I patients, to 1.3 × 109 copies/μg in CIN II-III patients. Even when stratified by cervical disease and viral type, the range of viral DNA copies per microgram of cellular DNA was quite large, precluding setting a clinically significant cutoff value for “high” copy numbers predictive of disease. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of HPV quantitation requires reassessment and is assay dependent.
The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18.
HPV Typing Methods; ACE; HC2; HPV Typing Set Test
The association between cervical cancers and human papillomavirus (HPV) is now well established. To estimate the extent of infection with common HPVs among Korean women, we have examined 224 cervical scrapes of various cervical lesions. Detection and typing of HPVs were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers followed by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR using type-specific primers. The prevalence of total HPV infection in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer were significantly higher than those in healthy women and patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). HPV typing in 41 invasive carcinomas of the cervix revealed the prevalence of HPV 16 in 15 cases, followed by HPV 58, 18, 33, 31, 52 and 35. The distribution pattern of HPV types in CIN were not much different from carcinomas. HPV types except HPV 18 had a tendency to show higher prevalence in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), however, HPV 18 was detected in LSIL but not in HSIL. HPV 18 tended to have the worse clinical stage, although it was not statistically significant. These findings suggest the importance of HPV typing other than HPV 16 and 18 and a different clinicopathologic significance of HPV 18.
Infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types is common. However, it is unknown whether viral DNA load is related to the coexistence of other types.
Study subjects were 802 and 303 women who were positive for HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, at enrollment into the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. HPV16 and HPV18 E7 copies per nanogram of cellular DNA in cervical swab samples were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in triplicate.
Concurrent coinfection was common in this population of women with minor cervical lesions; multiple HPV types were detected in 573 (71.4%) of 802 HPV16-positive women and 227 (74.9%) of 303 HPV18-positive women. The adjusted odds ratio associating coinfection with per 1 log unit increase in HPV16 DNA load was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.89); it was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.52-0.79) for a similar analysis of HPV18 DNA load. Women with, compared to without, coinfection of A9 species possessed a significantly lower HPV16 DNA load (p < 0.001) whereas women with, compared to without, coinfection of A7 species types possessed a significantly lower HPV18 DNA load (p = 0.001). A trend of decrease in HPV16 DNA load with increasing number of the coexisting non-HPV16 A9 species types was statistically significant (p for trend = 0.001).
Coinfection with other types was associated with lower HPV16 and HPV18 DNA load. The extent of reduction was correlated to phylogenetic distance of the coexisting types to HPV16 and HPV18, respectively.
Human Papillomavirus; Viral Load; Coinfection