Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions formed by tumor cells that degrade the extracellular matrix for invasion. Invadopodia formation involves membrane protrusions driven by Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the focal degrading sites. The exocyst mediates the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane for exocytosis and has recently been implicated in regulating actin dynamics during cell migration. Here, we report that the exocyst plays a pivotal role in invadopodial activity. With RNAi knockdown of the exocyst component Exo70 or Sec8, MDA-MB-231 cells expressing constitutively active c-Src failed to form invadopodia. On the other hand, overexpression of Exo70 promoted invadopodia formation. Disrupting the exocyst function by siEXO70 or siSEC8 treatment or by expression of a dominant negative fragment of Exo70 inhibited the secretion of MMPs. We have also found that the exocyst interacts with the Arp2/3 complex in cells with high invasion potential; blocking the exocyst-Arp2/3 interaction inhibited Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and invadopodia formation. Together, our results suggest that the exocyst plays important roles in cell invasion by mediating the secretion of MMPs at focal degrading sites and regulating Arp2/3-mediated actin dynamics.
Rho GTPases are important regulators of polarity in eukaryotic cells. In yeast they are involved in regulating the docking and fusion of secretory vesicles with the cell surface. Our analysis of a Rho3 mutant that is unable to interact with the Exo70 subunit of the exocyst reveals a normal polarization of the exocyst complex as well as other polarity markers. We also find that there is no redundancy between the Rho3–Exo70 and Rho1–Sec3 pathways in the localization of the exocyst. This suggests that Rho3 and Cdc42 act to polarize exocytosis by activating the exocytic machinery at the membrane without the need to first recruit it to sites of polarized growth. Consistent with this model, we find that the ability of Rho3 and Cdc42 to hydrolyze GTP is not required for their role in secretion. Moreover, our analysis of the Sec3 subunit of the exocyst suggests that polarization of the exocyst may be a consequence rather than a cause of polarized exocytosis.
Invasion and metastasis are aggressive cancer phenotypes that are highly related to the ability of cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). At the cellular level, specialized actin-rich structures called invadopodia mediate focal matrix degradation by serving as exocytic sites for ECM-degrading proteinases. Adhesion signaling is likely to be a critical regulatory input to invadopodia, but the mechanism and location of such adhesion signaling events are poorly understood. Here, we report that adhesion rings surround invadopodia shortly after formation and correlate strongly with invadopodium activity on a cell-by-cell basis. By contrast, there was little correlation of focal adhesion number or size with cellular invadopodium activity. Prevention of adhesion ring formation by inhibition of RGD-binding integrins or knockdown (KD) of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) reduced the number of ECM-degrading invadopodia and reduced recruitment of IQGAP to invadopodium actin puncta. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed that the rate of extracellular MT1-MMP accumulation at invadopodia was greatly reduced in both integrin-inhibited and ILK-KD cells. Conversely, KD of MT1-MMP reduced invadopodium activity and dynamics but not the number of adhesion-ringed invadopodia. These results suggest a model in which adhesion rings are recruited to invadopodia shortly after formation and promote invadopodium maturation by enhancing proteinase secretion. Since adhesion rings are a defining characteristic of podosomes, similar structures formed by normal cells, our data also suggest further similarities between invadopodia and podosomes.
Invadopodia; Adhesion rings; MT1-MMP; ILK; Integrin; Invasion
Invasive carcinoma cells use specialized actin polymerization-driven protrusions called invadopodia to degrade and possibly invade through the extracellular matrix during metastasis. Phosphorylation of the invadopodium protein cortactin is a master switch that activates invadopodium maturation and function. Cortactin was originally identified as a hyperphosphorylated protein in v-Src-transformed cells, but the kinase or kinases which are directly responsible for cortactin phosphorylation in invadopodia remain unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the Abl-related non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg mediates EGF-induced cortactin phosphorylation, triggering actin polymerization in invadopodia, extracellular matrix degradation, and matrix proteolysis-dependent tumor cell invasion. Both Src and Arg localize to invadopodia and are required for EGF-induced actin polymerization. Notably, Arg overexpression in Src knockdown cells can partially rescue actin polymerization in invadopodia, while Src overexpression can not compensate for loss of Arg, arguing that Src indirectly regulates invadopodium maturation through Arg activation. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which an EGFR-Src-Arg-cortactin pathway mediates functional maturation of invadopodia and breast cancer cell invasion. Further, they identify Arg as a novel mediator of invadopodium function and a candidate therapeutic target to inhibit tumor invasion in vivo.
invadopodia; Arg; Src; phosphorylation; actin polymerization
RhoGTPases have been implicated in the regulation of cancer metastasis. Invasive carcinoma cells form invadopodia, F-actin-rich matrix degrading protrusions that are thought to be important for tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Regulation of actin dynamics at invadopodial protrusions is crucial to drive invasion. This process requires the severing activity of cofilin to generate actin-free barbed ends. Previous work demonstrates that cofilin’s severing activity is tightly regulated through multiple mechanisms including regulation of cofilin serine phosphorylation by Rho GTPases. However, it is not known which Rho GTPase is involved in regulating cofilin’s phosphorylation status at invadopodia.
We show here, for the first time, how RhoC activation is controlled at invadopodia and how this activation regulates cofilin phosphorylation to control cofilin’s generation of actin-free barbed ends. Live-cell imaging of fluorescent RhoC biosensor reveals that RhoC activity is spatially confined to areas surrounding invadopodia. This spatiotemporal restriction of RhoC activity is controlled by “spatially distinct regulatory elements” that confines RhoC activation within this compartment. p190RhoGEF localizes around invadopodia to activate RhoC, while p190RhoGAP localizes inside invadopodia to deactivate the GTPase within the structure. RhoC activation enhances cofilin phosphorylation outside invadopodia.
These results show how RhoC activity is spatially regulated at invadopodia by p190RhoGEF and p190RhoGAP. RhoC activation in areas surrounding invadopodia restricts cofilin activity to within the invadopodium core resulting in a focused invadopodial protrusion. This mechanism likely enhances tumor cell invasion during metastasis.
Metastasis; Invadopodia; RhoC; p190RhoGEF; p190RhoGAP; Cofilin; Cofilin phosphorylation; tumor invasion
Invadopodia are actin-dependent organelles that function in the invasion and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by tumor cells. Cortactin, a regulator of the Arp2/3 complex, is of particular importance in invadopodia function. While most of the focus has been on the possible role of cortactin in actin assembly for direct formation of actin-rich invadopodia puncta, our recent data suggest that the primary role of cortactin in invadopodia is to promote protease secretion. In this manuscript, we review our previous work and present new data showing that cortactin is essential for both the localization of key invadopodia matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to actin-positive puncta at the cell-ECM interface and for ECM degradation induced by overexpression of MT1-MMP-GFP. Based on these data and results from the literature, we propose potential mechanisms by which cortactin may link vesicular trafficking and dynamic branched actin assembly to regulate protease secretion for invadopodia-associated ECM degradation.
Cortactin; Invadopodia; Matrix metalloproteinase; Protease; Membrane trafficking; Vesicle
The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk.
The Sec6 subunit of the multisubunit exocyst tethering complex interacts with the Sec1/Munc18 protein Sec1 and with the t-SNARE Sec9. Assembly of the exocyst upon vesicle arrival at sites of secretion is proposed to release Sec9 for SNARE complex assembly and to recruit Sec1 for interaction with SNARE complexes to facilitate fusion.
Trafficking of protein and lipid cargo through the secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles. Secretory vesicle targeting and fusion require a conserved multisubunit protein complex termed the exocyst, which has been implicated in specific tethering of vesicles to sites of polarized exocytosis. The exocyst is directly involved in regulating soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and membrane fusion through interactions between the Sec6 subunit and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sec9. Here we show another facet of Sec6 function—it directly binds Sec1, another SNARE regulator, but of the Sec1/Munc18 family. The Sec6–Sec1 interaction is exclusive of Sec6–Sec9 but compatible with Sec6–exocyst assembly. In contrast, the Sec6–exocyst interaction is incompatible with Sec6–Sec9. Therefore, upon vesicle arrival, Sec6 is proposed to release Sec9 in favor of Sec6–exocyst assembly and to simultaneously recruit Sec1 to sites of secretion for coordinated SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion.
Invadopodia or invasive feet, which are actin-rich membrane protrusions with matrix degradation activity formed by invasive cancer cells, are a key determinant in the malignant invasive progression of tumors and represent an important target for cancer therapies. In this work, we presented a microfluidic 3D culture device with continuous supplement of fresh media via a syringe pump. The device mimicked tumor microenvironment in vivo and could be used to assay invadopodia formation and to study the mechanism of human lung cancer invasion. With this device, we investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, GM6001 on invadopodia formation by human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 in 3D matrix model. This device was composed of three units that were capable of achieving the assays on one control group and two experimental groups' cells, which were simultaneously pretreated with EGF or GM6001 in parallel. Immunofluorescence analysis of invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation was conducted using confocal imaging system. We observed that EGF promoted invadopodia formation by A549 cells in 3D matrix and that GM6001 inhibited the process. These results demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling played a significant role in invadopodia formation and related ECM degradation activity. Meanwhile, it was suggested that MMP inhibitor (GM6001) might be a powerful therapeutic agent targeting invadopodia formation in tumor invasion. This work clearly demonstrated that the microfluidic-based 3D culture device provided an applicable platform for elucidating the mechanism of cancer invasion and could be used in testing other anti-invasion agents.
IQGAPs are multidomain scaffolding proteins that integrate Rho GTPase and Ca2+/calmodulin signals with cell adhesive and cytoskeletal reorganizational events. Targeted disruption of the murine Iqgap2 gene resulted in the age-dependent development of apoptosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), characterized by the overexpression of IQGAP1, the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression, the cytoplasmic translocation (and activation) of β-catenin, and the overexpression of a nuclear target of β-catenin, cyclin D1. In normal hepatocytes, IQGAP2 was found to exist as one component of a multifunctional scaffolding complex comprising IQGAP1, β-catenin, and E-cadherin, with no evidence for direct IQGAP1-IQGAP2 interactions. Interbreeding of Iqgap2−/− mice into the Iqgap1−/− background resulted in the phenotypic correction of the preexisting hepatopathy, decreases in the incidence and sizes of HCC tumors, and the normalization of overall survival rates compared to those of Iqgap2−/− mice, suggesting that maximal penetrance of the Iqgap2−/− HCC phenotype requires the coordinate expression of IQGAP1. These results identify Iqgap2 as a novel tumor suppressor gene specifically linked to the development of HCC and the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while also suggesting that IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 retain functionally divergent roles in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
Invadopodia are matrix-degrading membrane protrusions in invasive carcinoma cells. The mechanisms regulating invadopodium assembly and maturation are not understood. We have dissected the stages of invadopodium assembly and maturation and show that invadopodia use cortactin phosphorylation as a master switch during these processes. In particular, cortactin phosphorylation was found to regulate cofilin and Arp2/3 complex–dependent actin polymerization. Cortactin directly binds cofilin and inhibits its severing activity. Cortactin phosphorylation is required to release this inhibition so cofilin can sever actin filaments to create barbed ends at invadopodia to support Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization. After barbed end formation, cortactin is dephosphorylated, which blocks cofilin severing activity thereby stabilizing invadopodia. These findings identify novel mechanisms for actin polymerization in the invadopodia of metastatic carcinoma cells and define four distinct stages of invadopodium assembly and maturation consisting of invadopodium precursor formation, actin polymerization, stabilization, and matrix degradation.
The exocyst consists of eight rod-shaped subunits that align in a side-by-side manner to tether secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane in preparation for fusion. Two subunits, Sec3p and Exo70p, localize to exocytic sites by an actin-independent pathway, whereas the other six ride on vesicles along actin cables. Here, we demonstrate that three of the four domains of Exo70p are essential for growth. The remaining domain, domain C, is not essential but when deleted, it leads to synthetic lethality with many secretory mutations, defects in exocyst assembly of exocyst components Sec5p and Sec6p, and loss of actin-independent localization. This is analogous to a deletion of the amino-terminal domain of Sec3p, which prevents an interaction with Cdc42p or Rho1p and blocks its actin-independent localization. The two mutations are synthetically lethal, even in the presence of high copy number suppressors that can bypass complete deletions of either single gene. Although domain C binds Rho3p, loss of the Exo70p-Rho3p interaction does not account for the synthetic lethal interactions or the exocyst assembly defects. The results suggest that either Exo70p or Sec3p must associate with the plasma membrane for the exocyst to function as a vesicle tether.
The invasiveness of cells is correlated with the presence of dynamic actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia, which are membrane protrusions that are associated with localized polymerization of sub-membrane actin filaments. Similar to focal adhesions and podosomes, invadopodia are cell matrix adhesion sites. Indeed, invadopodia share several features with podosomes, but whether they are distinct structures is still a matter of debate. Invadopodia are built upon an N-WASP-dependent branched actin network, and the Rho GTPase Cdc42 is involved in inducing invadopodial-membrane protrusion, which is mediated by actin filaments that are organized in bundles to form an actin core. Actin-core formation is thought to be an early step in invadopodium assembly, and the actin core is perpendicular to the extracellular matrix and the plasma membrane; this contrasts with the tangential orientation of actin stress fibers anchored to focal adhesions. In this Commentary, we attempt to summarize recent insights into the actin dynamics of invadopodia and podosomes, and the forces that are transmitted through these invasive structures. Although the mechanisms underlying force-dependent regulation of invadopodia and podosomes are largely unknown compared with those of focal adhesions, these structures do exhibit mechanosensitivity. Actin dynamics and associated forces might be key elements in discriminating between invadopodia, podosomes and focal adhesions. Targeting actin regulatory molecules that specifically promote invadopodium formation is an attractive strategy against cancer-cell invasion.
Actins; Animals; Cell Adhesion; Cell Movement; Cell-Matrix Junctions; Extracellular Matrix; Focal Adhesions; Humans; Integrins; Models, Biological; Podosomes; invadopodia; invasion; cancer; osteoporosis
Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions with a matrix degradation activity formed by invasive cancer cells. We have studied the molecular mechanisms of invadopodium formation in metastatic carcinoma cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitors blocked invadopodium formation in the presence of serum, and EGF stimulation of serum-starved cells induced invadopodium formation. RNA interference and dominant-negative mutant expression analyses revealed that neural WASP (N-WASP), Arp2/3 complex, and their upstream regulators, Nck1, Cdc42, and WIP, are necessary for invadopodium formation. Time-lapse analysis revealed that invadopodia are formed de novo at the cell periphery and their lifetime varies from minutes to several hours. Invadopodia with short lifetimes are motile, whereas long-lived invadopodia tend to be stationary. Interestingly, suppression of cofilin expression by RNA interference inhibited the formation of long-lived invadopodia, resulting in formation of only short-lived invadopodia with less matrix degradation activity. These results indicate that EGF receptor signaling regulates invadopodium formation through the N-WASP–Arp2/3 pathway and cofilin is necessary for the stabilization and maturation of invadopodia.
Fascin is an actin bundling protein involved in filopodia assembly and cancer invasion and metastasis of multiple epithelial cancer types. Fascin forms stable actin bundles with slow dissociation kinetics in vitro  and is regulated by phosphorylation of serine 39 by protein kinase C (PKC) . Cancer cells use invasive finger-like protrusions termed invadopodia to invade into and degrade extracellular matrix. Invadopodia have highly dynamic actin that is assembled by both Arp2/3 complex and formins [3, 4]; they also contain components of membrane trafficking machinery such as dynamin and cortactin  and have been compared with focal adhesions and podosomes [6, 7]. We show that fascin is an integral component of invadopodia and that it is important for the stability of actin in invadopodia. The phosphorylation state of fascin at S39, a PKC site, contributes to its regulation at invadopodia. We further implicate fascin in invasive migration into collagen I-Matrigel gels and particularly in cell types that use an elongated mesenchymal type of motility in 3D. We provide a potential molecular mechanism for how fascin increases the invasiveness of cancer cells and we compare invadopodia with invasive filopod-like structures in 3D.
Polarized exocytosis is important for morphogenesis and cell growth. The exocyst is a multiprotein complex implicated in tethering secretory vesicles at specific sites of the plasma membrane for exocytosis. In the budding yeast, the exocyst is localized to sites of bud emergence or the tips of small daughter cells, where it mediates secretion and cell surface expansion. To understand how exocytosis is spatially controlled, we systematically analyzed the localization of Sec15p, a member of the exocyst complex and downstream effector of the rab protein Sec4p, in various mutants. We found that the polarized localization of Sec15p relies on functional upstream membrane traffic, activated rab protein Sec4p, and its guanine exchange factor Sec2p. The initial targeting of both Sec4p and Sec15p to the bud tip depends on polarized actin cable. However, different recycling mechanisms for rab and Sec15p may account for the different kinetics of polarization for these two proteins. We also found that Sec3p and Sec15p, though both members of the exocyst complex, rely on distinctive targeting mechanisms for their localization. The assembly of the exocyst may integrate various cellular signals to ensure that exocytosis is tightly controlled. Key regulators of cell polarity such as Cdc42p are important for the recruitment of the exocyst to the budding site. Conversely, we found that the proper localization of these cell polarity regulators themselves also requires a functional exocytosis pathway. We further report that Bem1p, a protein essential for the recruitment of signaling molecules for the establishment of cell polarity, interacts with the exocyst complex. We propose that a cyclical regulatory network contributes to the establishment and maintenance of polarized cell growth in yeast.
The exocyst is an octameric protein complex implicated in tethering post-Golgi secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane in preparation for fusion. However, it is not clear how the exocyst is targeted to and physically associates with specific domains of the plasma membrane and how its functions are regulated at those regions. We demonstrate that the N terminus of the exocyst component Sec3 directly interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. In addition, we have identified key residues in Sec3 that are critical for its binding to the guanosine triphosphate–bound form of Cdc42. Genetic analyses indicate that the dual interactions of Sec3 with phospholipids and Cdc42 control its function in yeast cells. Disrupting these interactions not only blocks exocytosis and affects exocyst polarization but also leads to defects in cell morphogenesis. We propose that the interactions of Sec3 with phospholipids and Cdc42 play important roles in exocytosis and polarized cell growth.
Invadopodia are specialized actin-rich protrusions of metastatic tumor and transformed cells with crucial functions in ECM degradation and invasion. Although early electron microscopy studies described invadopodia as long filament-like protrusions of the cell membrane adherent to the matrix, fluorescence microscopy studies have focused on invadopodia as actin-cortactin aggregates localized to areas of ECM degradation. The absence of a clear conceptual integration of these two descriptions of invadopodial structure has impeded understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern invadopodia. To determine the relationship between the membrane filaments identified by electron microscopy and the actin-cortactin aggregates of invadopodia, we applied rapid live-cell high-resolution TIRF microscopy to examine cell membrane dynamics at the cortactin core of the invadopodia of human carcinoma cells. We found that cortactin docking to the cell membrane adherent to 2D fibronectin matrix initiates invadopodium assembly associated with the formation of a invadopodial membrane process that extends from a ventral cell membrane lacuna toward the ECM. The tip of the invadopodial process flattens as it interacts with the 2D matrix, and it undergoes constant rapid ruffling and dynamic formation of filament-like protrusions as the invadopodium matures. To describe this newly discovered dynamic relationship between the actin-cortactin core and invadopodial membranes, we propose a model of the invadopodial complex. Using TIRF microscopy, we also established that – in striking contrast to the invadopodium – membrane at the podosome of a macrophage fails to form any process- or filament-like membrane protrusions. Thus, the undulation and ruffling of the invadopodial membrane together with the formation of dynamic filament-like extensions from the invadopodial cortactin core defines invadopodia as invasive superstructures that are distinct from the podosomes.
invadopodia; podosomes; cortactin; focal adhesions; invasion
Metastasis is a complex process during which several gross cellular changes occur. Cells must dissociate from the tumor mass and gain the ability to degrade extracellular matrix and migrate in order to ultimately attach and form a satellite tumor. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is an indispensible aspect of cell migration, and many different factors have been implicated in this process. We identified interactions between RalA and its effectors in the Exocyst complex as directly necessary for migration and invasion of prostate cancer tumor cells. Blocking RalA-Exocyst binding caused significant morphological changes and defects in single and coordinated cell migration.
The exocyst complex tethers post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to docking and fusion. In this study, we identify Sec3, the missing component of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe exocyst complex (SpSec3). SpSec3 shares many properties with its orthologs, and its mutants are rescued by human Sec3/EXOC1. Although involved in exocytosis, SpSec3 does not appear to mark the site of exocyst complex assembly at the plasma membrane. It does, however, mark the sites of actin cytoskeleton recruitment and controls the organization of all three yeast actin structures: the actin cables, endocytic actin patches and actomyosin ring. Specifically, SpSec3 physically interacts with For3 and sec3 mutants have no actin cables as a result of a failure to polarize this nucleating formin. SpSec3 also interacts with actin patch components and sec3 mutants have depolarized actin patches of reduced endocytic capacity. Finally, the constriction and disassembly of the cytokinetic actomyosin ring is compromised in these sec3 mutant cells. We propose that a role of SpSec3 is to spatially couple actin machineries and their independently polarized regulators. As a consequence of its dual role in secretion and actin organization, Sec3 appears as a major co-ordinator of cell morphology in fission yeast.
actin; endocytosis; exocyst; morphology; Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Invadopodia are actin-rich subcellular protrusions with associated proteases used by cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) . Molecular components of invadopodia include branched actin assembly proteins, membrane trafficking proteins, signaling proteins and transmembrane proteinases. Similar structures exist in nontransformed cells, such as osteoclasts and dendritic cells, but are generally called podosomes and are thought to be more involved in cell-matrix adhesion than invadopodia [2–4]. Despite intimate contact with their ECM substrates, it is unknown whether physical or chemical ECM signals regulate invadopodia function. Here, we report that ECM rigidity directly increases both the number and activity of invadopodia. Transduction of ECM rigidity signals depends on the cellular contractile apparatus [5–7], as inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho kinase all abrogate invadopodia-associated ECM degradation. Whereas myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated myosin light chain do not localize to invadopodia puncta, active phosphorylated forms of the mechanosensing proteins p130Cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are present in actively degrading invadopodia and the levels of phospho-Cas and phospho-FAK in invadopodia are sensitive to myosin inhibitors. Overexpression of Cas or FAK further enhances invadopodia activity in cells plated on rigid polyacrylamide substrates. Thus, in invasive cells, ECM rigidity signals lead to increased matrix-degrading activity at invadopodia, via a myosin II-FAK/Cas pathway. These data suggest a potential mechanism, via invadopodia, for the reported correlation of tissue density with cancer aggressiveness.
Invadopodia; Extracellular matrix; rigidity; mechanotransduction; cell contractility; tumor invasion
The Diaphanous-related formin Dia1 nucleates actin polymerization, thereby regulating cell shape and motility. Mechanisms that control the cellular location of Dia1 to spatially define actin polymerization are largely unknown. In this study, we identify the cytoskeletal scaffold protein IQGAP1 as a Dia1-binding protein that is necessary for its subcellular location. IQGAP1 interacts with Dia1 through a region within the Diaphanous inhibitory domain after the RhoA-mediated release of Dia1 autoinhibition. Both proteins colocalize at the front of migrating cells but also at the actin-rich phagocytic cup in macrophages. We show that IQGAP1 interaction with Dia1 is required for phagocytosis and phagocytic cup formation. Thus, we identify IQGAP1 as a novel component involved in the regulation of phagocytosis by mediating the localization of the actin filament nucleator Dia1.
Activation of the rab GTPase, Sec4p, by its exchange factor, Sec2p, is needed for polarized transport of secretory vesicles to exocytic sites and for exocytosis. A small region in the C-terminal half of Sec2p regulates its localization. Loss of this region results in temperature-sensitive growth and the depolarized accumulation of secretory vesicles. Here, we show that Sec2p associates with the exocyst, an octameric effector of Sec4p involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. Specifically, the exocyst subunit Sec15p directly interacts with Sec2p. This interaction normally occurs on secretory vesicles and serves to couple nucleotide exchange on Sec4p to the recruitment of the Sec4p effector. The mislocalization of Sec2p mutants correlates with dramatically enhanced binding to the exocyst complex. We propose that Sec2p is normally released from the exocyst after vesicle tethering so that it can recycle onto a new round of vesicles. The mislocalization of Sec2p mutants results from a failure to be released from Sec15p, blocking this recycling pathway.
Invadopodia are matrix-degrading ventral cell surface structures formed in invasive carcinoma cells. Podosomes are matrix-degrading structures formed in normal cell types including macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells that are believed to be related to invadopodia in function. Both invadopodia and podosomes are enriched in proteins that regulate actin polymerization including proteins involved in N-WASp/WASp-dependent Arp2/3-complex activation. However, it is unclear whether invadopodia and podosomes use distinct mediators for N-WASp/WASp-dependent Arp2/3-complex activation. We investigated the localization patterns of the upstream N-WASp/WASp activators Nck1 and Grb2 in invadopodia of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells, podosomes formed in macrophages, and degradative structures formed in Src-transformed fibroblasts and PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. We provide evidence that Nck1 specifically localizes to invadopodia, but not to podosomes formed in macrophages or degradative structures formed in Src-transformed fibroblasts and PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. In contrast, Grb2 specifically localizes to degradative structures formed in Src-transformed fibroblasts and PMA-stimulated endothelial cells, but not invadopodia or podosomes formed in macrophages. These findings suggest that distinct upstream activators are responsible for N-WASp/WASp activation in invadopodia and podosomes, and that all these ventral cell surface degradative structures have distinguishing molecular as well as structural characteristics. These patterns of Nck1 and Grb2 localization, identified in our study, can be used to sub classify ventral cell surface degradative structures.
cancer invasion; invadopodia; podosomes; Src-transformed fibroblasts; Nck1; Grb2; N-WASp
The exocyst is an octameric protein complex required to tether secretory vesicles to exocytic sites and to retain ER tubules at the apical tip of budded cells. Unlike the other five exocyst genes, SEC3, SEC5, and EXO70 are not essential for growth or secretion when either the upstream activator rab, Sec4p, or the downstream SNARE-binding component, Sec1p, are overproduced. Analysis of the suppressed sec3Δ, sec5Δ, and exo70Δ strains demonstrates that the corresponding proteins confer differential effects on vesicle targeting and ER inheritance. Sec3p and Sec5p are more critical than Exo70p for ER inheritance. Although nonessential under these conditions, Sec3p, Sec5p, and Exo70p are still important for tethering, as in their absence the exocyst is only partially assembled. Sec1p overproduction results in increased SNARE complex levels, indicating a role in assembly or stabilization of SNARE complexes. Furthermore, a fraction of Sec1p can be coprecipitated with the exoycst. Our results suggest that Sec1p couples exocyst-mediated vesicle tethering with SNARE-mediated docking and fusion.