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1.  Nanoparticles of Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)-d-a-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate Random Copolymer for Cancer Treatment 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(7):1161-1169.
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies could provide potential solutions. In this research, a novel biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLGA-TPGS) random copolymer was synthesized from lactide, glycolide and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained random copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles made of PLGA-TPGS copolymer were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. The nanoparticles were then characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques. The results revealed that the size of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was around 250 nm. The docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could achieve much faster drug release in comparison with PLGA nanoparticles. In vitro cellular uptakes of such nanoparticles were investigated by CLSM, demonstrating the fluorescence PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could be internalized by human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). The results also indicated that PLGA-TPGS-based nanoparticles were biocompatible, and the docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles had significant cytotoxicity against Hela cells. The cytotoxicity against HeLa cells for PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS random copolymer could be acted as a novel and promising biocompatible polymeric matrix material applicable to nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9620-3
PMCID: PMC2893931  PMID: 20596457
PLGA-TPGS; Random copolymer; Docetaxel; Nanoparticle; HeLa; Cancer chemotherapy
2.  Nanoparticles of Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)-d-a-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate Random Copolymer for Cancer Treatment 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(7):1161-1169.
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies could provide potential solutions. In this research, a novel biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLGA-TPGS) random copolymer was synthesized from lactide, glycolide and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained random copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles made of PLGA-TPGS copolymer were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. The nanoparticles were then characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques. The results revealed that the size of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was around 250 nm. The docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could achieve much faster drug release in comparison with PLGA nanoparticles. In vitro cellular uptakes of such nanoparticles were investigated by CLSM, demonstrating the fluorescence PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could be internalized by human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). The results also indicated that PLGA-TPGS-based nanoparticles were biocompatible, and the docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles had significant cytotoxicity against Hela cells. The cytotoxicity against HeLa cells for PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS random copolymer could be acted as a novel and promising biocompatible polymeric matrix material applicable to nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9620-3
PMCID: PMC2893931  PMID: 20596457
PLGA-TPGS; Random copolymer; Docetaxel; Nanoparticle; HeLa; Cancer chemotherapy
3.  Polymeric nanoparticles conjugate a novel heptapeptide as an epidermal growth factor receptor-active targeting ligand for doxorubicin 
Background
This study was performed to develop a functional poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)- poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG)-bearing amino-active end group for peptide conjugation.
Methods and results
PLGA was preactivated following by copolymerization with PEG diamine. The resulting amphiphilic PLGA-PEG copolymer bearing 97.0% of amino end groups had a critical micelle concentration of 3.0 × 10−8 mol/L, and the half-effective inhibition concentration (IC50) of the prepared PLGA-PEG nanoparticles was >100 mg/mL, which was much higher than that of PLGA nanoparticles (1.02 ± 0.37 mg/mL). The amphiphilic properties of PLGA-PEG spontaneously formed a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment, and this special feature provided the amino group on the PEG chain scattered on the surface of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for efficient peptide conjugation. The peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles showed three-fold higher uptake than peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles in a SKOV3 cell line with high expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. Both peptide-conjugated and peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were used as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin. Although the rate of release of doxorubicin from both nanoparticles was similar, drug release at pH 4.0 (500 U lipase) was faster than at pH 7.4. The IC50 of doxorubicin-loaded peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles in SKOV3 cells (0.05 ± 0.03 μg/mL) was much lower (by 62.4-fold) than that of peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (3.12 ± 1.44 μg/mL).
Conclusion
This in vivo biodistribution study in SKOV3 tumor-bearing mice was further promising in that accumulation of doxorubicin in tumor tissue was in the order of peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles > peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles > doxorubicin solution.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S32830
PMCID: PMC3433327  PMID: 22973097
amphiphilic copolymer; peptide; nanoparticles; SKOV3 cell; doxorubicin
4.  Preparation and in vitro evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers 
Background
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and therapeutic applications. In our study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and the anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride, were encapsulated into poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet.
Methods
A series of PLGA:PEG triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide and glycolide with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG2000, PEG3000, and PEG4000) as an initiator. The bulk properties of these copolymers were characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the resulting particles were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry.
Results
The doxorubicin encapsulation amount was reduced for PLGA:PEG2000 and PLGA:PEG3000 triblock copolymers, but increased to a great extent for PLGA:PEG4000 triblock copolymer. This is due to the increased water uptake capacity of the blended triblock copolymer, which encapsulated more doxorubicin molecules into a swollen copolymer matrix. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PLGA:PEG2000, PLGA:PEG3000, and PLGA:PEG4000 copolymers was 69.5%, 73%, and 78%, respectively, and the release kinetics were controlled. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the Fe3O4-PLGA:PEG4000 magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible.
Conclusion
There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application. Future work includes in vivo investigation of the targeting capability and effectiveness of these nanoparticles in the treatment of lung cancer.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S24326
PMCID: PMC3273983  PMID: 22334781
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; triblock copolymer; doxorubicin encapsulation; water uptake; drug encapsulation efficiency
5.  Formulation and Evaluation of Biodegradable Nanoparticles for the Oral Delivery of Fenretinide 
Fenretinide is an anticancer drug with low water solubility and poor bioavailability. The goal of this study was to develop biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles of fenretinide with the intent of increasing its apparent aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. Three biodegradable polymers were investigated for this purpose: two different poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) polymers, one acid terminated and one ester terminated, and one poly lactide-co-glycolide/polyethylene glycol (PLGA/PEG) diblock copolymer. Nanoparticles were obtained by using an emulsification solvent evaporation technique. The formulations were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and particle size analysis. Dissolution studies and Caco-2 cell permeation studies were also carried out for all formulations. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) and ultraviolet detection was used for the quantitative determination of fenretinide. Drug loading and the type of polymer affected the nanoparticles’ physical properties, drug release rate, and cell permeability. While the acid terminated PLGA nanoparticles performed the best in drug release, the ester terminated PLGA nanoparticles performed the best in the Caco-2 cell permeability assays. The PLGA/PEG copolymer nanoparticles performed better than the formulations with ester terminated PLGA in terms of drug release but had the poorest performance in terms of cell permeation. All three categories of formulations performed better than the drug alone in both drug release and cell permeation studies.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2015.04.024
PMCID: PMC4461492  PMID: 25933716
fenretinide; formulation; biodegradable; nanoparticles
6.  Gemcitabine-loaded PLGA-PEG immunonanoparticles for targeted chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer 
Cancer Nanotechnology  2013;4(6):145-157.
The aim of the present study was the direct covalent coupling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the surface of poly(lactide)-co-glycolide (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles in order to achieve a cell type-specific drug carrier system against pancreatic cancer. The PLGA-PEG-NH2 diblock copolymer was synthesized by coupling reaction via amide linkage between PEG-diamine and activated PLGA. PLGA and PLGA-PEG-NH2 nanoparticles loaded with gemcitabine were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. PLGA-PEG immunonanoparticles were prepared by glutaraldehyde mediated cross-linking method. The conjugated antibody was analysed by transmission electron microscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. Cell viability study was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cell uptake study was performed on fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded formulations using confocal microscopy. The PAGE results indicated that mAb integrity was remained intact in the formulations after conjugation. Biological activity was confirmed under cell culture conditions: antibody-conjugated nanoparticles showed specific targeting to EGFR-overexpressing MIA PaCa-2 cell lines as shown in fluorescence image using confocal microscopy. The obtained data provide the basis for the development of stable and biologically active carrier systems for direct targeting of tumour cells using antibody-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. Direct covalent coupling of antibodies to nanoparticles using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker is an appropriate method to achieve cell type-specific drug carrier systems based on PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and the anti-EGFR-decorated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles have potentials to be applied for targeted chemotherapy against EGFR positive cancers.
doi:10.1007/s12645-013-0046-3
PMCID: PMC4452077  PMID: 26069510
Adenocarcinoma; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Targeting; Gemcitabine; Multifunctional nanoparticles; MIA PaCa-2
7.  Synthesis of three-arm block copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)–poly(ethylene glycol) with oxalyl chloride and its application in hydrophobic drug delivery 
Purpose
Synthesis of star-shaped block copolymer with oxalyl chloride and preparation of micelles to assess the prospect for drug-carrier applications.
Materials and methods
Three-arm star block copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (3S-PLGA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization, then PEG as the hydrophilic block was linked to the terminal hydroxyl of 3S-PLGA with oxalyl chloride. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to identify the structure and properties of 3S-PLGA-PEG. Rapamycin (RPM)-loaded micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation, and pyrene was used as the fluorescence probe to detect the critical micelle concentration of the copolymer. The particle size, distribution, and ζ-potential of the micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology of the RPM-loaded micelles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. High-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to analyze encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading capacity, as well as the release behavior of RPM-loaded micelles. The biocompatibility of material and the cytostatic effect of RPM-loaded micelles were investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay.
Results
FT-IR, GPC, and 1H-NMR suggested that 3S-PLGA-PEG was successfully synthesized. The RPM-loaded micelles prepared with the 3S-PLGA-PEG possessed good properties. The micelles had good average diameter and encapsulation efficiency. For in vitro release, RPM was released slowly from 3S-PLGA-PEG micelles, showing that 3S-PLGA-PEG-RPM exhibited a better and longer antiproliferative effect than free RPM.
Conclusion
In this study, we first used oxalyl chloride as the linker to synthesize 3S-PLGA-PEG successfully, and compared with reported literature, this method shortened the reaction procedure and improved the reaction yield. The micelles prepared with this material proved suitable for drug-carrier application.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S119446
PMCID: PMC5117906  PMID: 27895480
block copolymer; RPM; micelles; cytostatic effect
8.  Stealth Amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: In vitro optimization 
Purpose
Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial agent. However, AmB has low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and adverse effects (e.g., nephrotoxicity). The objectives of this study were to improve the oral bioavailability by entrapping AmB in pegylated (PEG) poly lactide co glycolide copolymer (PLGA–PEG) nanoparticles (NPs). The feasibility of different surfactants and stabilizers on the mean particle size (MPS) and entrapment efficiency were also investigated.
Materials and methods
NPs of AmB were prepared by a modified emulsification diffusion method employing a vitamin E derivative as a stabilizer. Physicochemical properties and particle size characterization were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vitro dissolution profiles were performed for all formulated AmB NPs.
Results
MPS of the prepared spherical particles of AmB ranged from 26.4 ± 2.9 to 1068 ± 489.8 nm. An increased stirring rate favored AmB NPs with a smaller MPS. There was a significant reduction in MPS, drug content and drug release, when AmB NPs were prepared using the diblock polymer PLGA–PEG with 15% PEG. Addition of three emulsifying agents poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Vitamin E (TPGS) and pluronic F-68 to AmB formulations led to a significant reduction in particle size and increase in drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) compared to addition of PVP alone. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated a successful loading of AmB to pegylated PLGA–PEG copolymers. PLGA–PEG copolymer entrapment efficiency of AmB was increased up to 56.7%, with 92.7% drug yield. After a slow initial release, between 20% and 54% of AmB was released in vitro within 24 h phosphate buffer containing 2% sodium deoxycholate and were best fit Korsmeyer–Peppas model. In conclusion, PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer with 15% PEG produced a significant reduction (>70%) in MPS with highest drug content. The percentage of PEG in the copolymer and the surfactant/stabilizer used had a direct effect on AmB release in vitro, entrapment efficiency and MPS. These developed formulations are feasible, effective and improved alternatives to other carriers for oral delivery of AmB.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2014.11.004
PMCID: PMC4475820  PMID: 26106277
Amphotericin B; Oral delivery; Nanoparticles; Emulsification–diffusion; PLGA–PEG copolymer
9.  Endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation 
Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, which was approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration in 2005, has a broad spectrum of activity against solid tumors. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the anticancer effect of Endostar is increased by using a nanocarrier system. It is expected that the prolonged circulation of endostar will improve its anticancer activity. Endostar-loaded nanoparticles were prepared to improve controlled release of the drug in mice and rabbits, as well as its anticancer effects in mice with colon cancer. A protein release system could be exploited to act as a drug carrier. Nanoparticles were formulated from poly (ethylene glycol) modified poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA) by a double emulsion technique. Physical and release characteristics of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vitro were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and micro bicinchoninic acid protein assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of endostar nanoparticles in rabbit and mice plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used to detect endostatin in different tissues. To study the effects of endostar-loaded nanoparticles in vivo, nude mice in which tumor cells HT-29 were implanted, were subsequently treated with endostar or endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Using TEM and PCS, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles were found to have a spherical core-shell structure with a diameter of 169.56 ± 35.03 nm. Drug-loading capacity was 8.22% ± 2.35% and drug encapsulation was 80.17% ± 7.83%. Compared with endostar, endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a longer elimination half-life and lower peak concentration, caused slower growth of tumor cell xenografts, and prolonged tumor doubling times. The nanoparticles changed the pharmacokinetic characteristics of endostar in mice and rabbits, thereby reinforcing anticancer activity. In conclusion, PEG-PLGA nanoparticles are a feasible carrier for endostar. Endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles seem to have a better anticancer effect than conventional endostar. We believe that PEG-PLGA nanoparticles are an effective carrier for protein medicines.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S14753
PMCID: PMC3000203  PMID: 21170352
medical physics; biologic physics; nanoparticles
10.  Conjugation of cell-penetrating peptides with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles improves ocular drug delivery 
In this work, a peptide for ocular delivery (POD) and human immunodeficiency virus transactivator were conjugated with biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG)-nanoparticles (NPs) in an attempt to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method following two different pathways. One involved preparation of PLGA NPs followed by PEG and peptide conjugation (PLGA-NPs-PEG-peptide); the other involved self-assembly of PLGA-PEG and the PLGA-PEG-peptide copolymer followed by NP formulation. The conjugation of the PEG and the peptide was confirmed by a colorimetric test and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Flurbiprofen was used as an example of an anti-inflammatory drug. The physicochemical properties of the resulting NPs (morphology, in vitro release, cell viability, and ocular tolerance) were studied. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in rabbit eyes after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate. Of the formulations developed, the PLGA-PEG-POD NPs were the smaller particles and exhibited greater entrapment efficiency and more sustained release. The positive charge on the surface of these NPs, due to the conjugation with the positively charged peptide, facilitated penetration into the corneal epithelium, resulting in more effective prevention of ocular inflammation. The in vitro toxicity of the NPs developed was very low; no ocular irritation in vitro (hen’s egg test–chorioallantoic membrane assay) or in vivo (Draize test) was detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLGA-PEG-POD NPs are promising vehicles for ocular drug delivery.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S71198
PMCID: PMC4315550  PMID: 25670897
peptide for ocular delivery; flurbiprofen; controlled release; ocular tolerance; anti-inflammatory
11.  Enhanced antibacterial activity of roxithromycin loaded pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles 
Background and the purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to prepare pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with roxithromycin (RXN) with appropriate physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity. Roxithromycin, a semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin, is more stable than erythromycin under acidic conditions and exhibits improved clinical effects.
Methods
RXN was loaded in pegylated PLGA NPs in different drug;polymer ratios by solvent evaporation technique and characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, surface morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release profile, and in vitro antibacterial effects on S. aureus, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis.
Results and conclusion
NPs were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. The particle size of nanoparticles ranged from 150 to 200 nm. NPs with entrapment efficiency of up to 80.0±6.5% and drug loading of up to 13.0±1.0% were prepared. In vitro release study showed an early burst release of about 50.03±0.99% at 6.5 h and then a slow and steady release of RXN was observed after the burst release. In vitro antibacterial effects determined that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RXN loaded PEG-PLGA NPs were 9 times lower on S. aureus, 4.5 times lower on B. subtilis, and 4.5 times lower on S. epidermidis compared to RXN solution. In conclusion it was shown that polymeric NPs enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of RXN substantially.
doi:10.1186/2008-2231-20-92
PMCID: PMC3607925  PMID: 23351784
Roxithromycin; PLGA; Pegylation; Nanoparticles; Antibacterial
12.  Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients 
The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol)-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume) on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84), and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs) have a better physicochemical characterization and can be developed as a drug carrier in order to treat different malignancies.
PMCID: PMC2950404  PMID: 20957168
long circulating nanoparticle; 9-nitrocamptothecin; in vitro characterization
13.  Biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles for cancer chemotherapy and its dependence on the carrier, PLGA 
Nanoscaled devices have great potential for drug delivery applications due to their small size. In the present study, we report for the first time the preparation and evaluation of antitumor efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-entrapped poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with dependence on the lactide/glycolide combination of PLGA. 5-FU-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with two different monomer combinations, 50-50 and 90-10 were synthesized using a modified double emulsion method, and their biological evaluation was done in glioma (U87MG) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines. 5-FU-entrapped PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles showed smaller size with a high encapsulation efficiency of 66%, which was equivalent to that of PLGA 90-10 nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggested the presence of 5-FU in molecular dispersion form. In vitro release studies showed the prolonged and sustained release of 5-FU from nanoparticles with both the PLGA combinations, where PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles showed faster release. Nanoparticles with PLGA 50-50 combination exhibited better cytotoxicity than free drug in a dose- and time-dependent manner against both the tumor cell lines. The enhanced efficiency of PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles to induce apoptosis was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Cell cycle perturbations studied using flow cytometer showed better S-phase arrest by nanoparticles in comparison with free 5-FU. All the results indicate that PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles possess better antitumor efficacy than PLGA 90-10 nanoparticles and free 5-FU. Since, studies have shown that long-term exposure of ailing tissues to moderate drug concentrations is more favorable than regular administration of higher concentration of the drug; our results clearly indicate the potential of 5-FU-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with dependence on carrier combination as controlled release formulation to multiplex the therapeutic effect of cancer chemotherapy.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S20165
PMCID: PMC3184929  PMID: 21980233
5-FU; poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); controlled release
14.  Synthesis and characterization of tumor-targeted copolymer nanocarrier modified by transferrin 
To increase the encapsulation of hydrophilic antitumor agent daunorubicin (DNR) and multidrug resistance reversal agent tetrandrine (Tet) in the drug delivery system of nano-particles (NPs), a functional copolymer NP composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized and then loaded with DNR and Tet simultaneously to construct DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. And to increase the targeted antitumor effect, DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs were further modified with transferrin (Tf) due to its specific binding to Tf receptors (TfR), which is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this study, the influence of the diversity of formulation parameters was investigated systematically, such as drug loading, mean particle size, molecular weight, the concentration of PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf, volume ratio of acetone to dichloromethane, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the external aqueous phase, the volume ratio of the internal aqueous phase to the external aqueous phase, and the type of surfactants in the internal aqueous phase. Meanwhile, its possible effect on cell viability was evaluated. Our results showed that the regular spherical DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs with a smooth surface, a relatively low polydispersity index, and a diameter of 213.0±12.0 nm could be produced. The encapsulation efficiency was 70.23%±1.91% for DNR and 86.5%±0.70% for Tet, the moderate drug loading was 3.63%±0.15% for DNR and 4.27%±0.13% for Tet. Notably, the accumulated release of DNR and Tet could be sustained over 1 week, and the Tf content was 2.18%±0.04%. In cell viability tests, DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs could inhibit the proliferation of K562/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration value (total drug) of DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs was lower than that of DNR, a mixture of DNR and Tet, and DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs. These results clearly indicate that the PLGA–PLL–PEG formulation is a potential drug delivery system for hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, and that Tf modification may increase its targeting properties.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S80948
PMCID: PMC4448924  PMID: 26045659
PLGA; PLL; PEG; daunorubicin; tetrandrine
15.  Suitable carriers for encapsulation and distribution of endostar: comparison of endostar-loaded particulate carriers 
Background
Particulate carriers are necessary to control the release of endostar and prolong its circulation in vivo. The purpose of this study was to identify a suitable carrier for the capsulation and delivery of endostar.
Methods
We prepared a series of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified PLGA (PEG-PLGA) particulate carriers, and then characterized them according to their ability to prolong the circulation of endostar, their physicochemical properties, endostar-loading content, and in vitro and in vivo particulate carrier release profiles.
Results
All the particulate carriers had spherical core shell structures. The PEG-PLGA material and nanosize range appeared to enable the carriers to encapsulate more endostar, release endostar faster in vitro, and accumulate more endostar in vivo. The drug loading capacity of PEG-PLGA and PLGA nanoparticles was 8.03% ± 3.41% and 3.27% ± 5.26%, respectively, and for PEG-PLGA and PLGA microspheres was 15.32% ± 5.61% and 9.21% ± 4.73%. The cumulative amount of endostar released from the carriers in phosphate-buffered saline over 21 days was 23.79%, 20.45%, 15.13%, and 10.41%, respectively. Moreover, the terminal elimination half-life of endostar in the rabbit was 26.91 ± 7.93 hours and 9.32 ± 5.53 hours in the PEG-PLGA group and the PLGA nanoparticle group. Peak endostar concentration was reached at day 7 in the group treated with subcutaneous injection of PEG-PLGA microspheres and at day 14 in the group receiving subcutaneous injection of PLGA microspheres. Endostar was detectable in vivo in both groups after injection of the particulate carriers.
Conclusion
PEG-PLGA nanoparticles might be better than other nanoparticulate carriers for encapsulation and distribution of endostar.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S21881
PMCID: PMC3152471  PMID: 21845043
poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide); nanoparticle; microsphere; endostar; peptide delivery
16.  Effect of formulation parameters on 2-methoxyestradiol release from injectable cylindrical poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) implants 
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of various formulation strategies to achieve 1-month continuous (improved) release of the novel anti-cancer drug, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), from injectable cylindrical poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) implants. PLGA implants were prepared by a solvent extrusion method. PLGA 50:50 (Mw = 51 kDa, end group = lauryl ester) (PLGA–lauryl ester) implants loaded with 3–30 wt% 2-ME exhibited a pronounced lag phase (i.e., corresponding to induction time to polymer mass loss) and triphasic release profile. Incorporation of 5 wt% hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) (~57% release after 28 days) or Pluronic® F127 (~42% release after 28 days) in PLGA–lauryl ester implants reduced the lag-phase and improved the drug release moderately over a period of 28 days. The formation and the incorporation of a 2-ME/polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 solid dispersion in PLGA–lauryl ester implants further increased drug release (~21% and 73% release after 1 and 28 days, respectively), attributable to improved drug solubility/dissolution, higher matrix porosity, and accelerated polymer degradation. Blending of PLGA 50:50 (Mw = 24 kDa, end group = COOH) (PLGA–COOH) with the PLGA–lauryl ester also provided moderate enhancement of 2-ME release over a period of 28 days. PLGA–COOH (Mw = 24 kDa) implants with 3–5% w/w pore-forming MgCO3 exhibited the most desirable drug release among all the formulations tested, and, demonstrated 1-month slow and continuous in vitro release of ~80% 2-ME after a minimal initial burst. Hence, these formulation approaches provide several possible avenues to improve release rates of the hydrophobic drug, 2-ME, from PLGA for future application in regional anti-cancer therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.03.007
PMCID: PMC2884995  PMID: 18472254
2-Methoxyestradiol; Controlled drug release; Cylindrical PLGA injectable implants; Effect of water soluble additives; Solid dispersion; Polymer blending; Effect of MgCO3
17.  Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells 
Molecular Pharmaceutics  2015;12(6):2080-2092.
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT’s stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that treatment of MCF7 cells with 4-OHT–anti-miR-21 co-loaded NPs resulted in dose-dependent antiproliferative effects at 24 h, which was significantly higher than what was achieved with free 4-OHT at 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Cell proliferation analysis showed that 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded NPs significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell growth compared to that of free 4-OHT (1.9-fold) and untreated cells (5.4-fold) at 1 μM concentration. The growth rate of MCF7 cells treated with control NPs or NPs loaded with anti-miR-21 showed no significant difference from that of untreated cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of the PLGA-b-PEG polymer NPs as an effective nanocarrier for co-delivery of anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT as well as the potential of this drug combination for use in the treatment of ER+ breast cancer.
doi:10.1021/mp500852s
PMCID: PMC4687493  PMID: 25880495
polymer nanoparticles; PLGA; 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT); microRNA-21; anti-miR’s; estrogen receptor; breast cancer therapy
18.  Cellular delivery of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles 
Objectives
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of uptake of PEGylated polylactide-co-gycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles by breast cancer cells.
Methods
Nanoparticles of PLGA containing various amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 5%–15%) were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles were loaded with coumarin-6 (C6) as a fluorescence marker. The particles were characterized for surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and for cellular uptake by 4T1 murine breast cancer cells.
Key findings
Irrespective of the amount of PEG, all formulations yielded smooth spherical particles. However, a comparison of the particle size of various formulations showed bimodal distribution of particles. Each formulation was later passed through a 1.2 μm filter to obtain target size particles (114–335 nm) with zeta potentials ranging from −2.8 mV to −26.2 mV. While PLGA-PEG di-block (15% PEG) formulation showed significantly higher 4T1 cellular uptake than all other formulations, there was no statistical difference in cellular uptake among PLGA, PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri-block (10% PEG), PLGA-PEG di-block (5% PEG) and PLGA-PEG di-block (10% PEG) nanoparticles.
Conclusion
These preliminary findings indicated that the nanoparticle formulation prepared with 15% PEGylated PLGA showed maximum cellular uptake due to it having the smallest particle size and lowest zeta potential.
doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01376.x
PMCID: PMC3319145  PMID: 22150673
4T1 murine breast cancer cell line; cellular uptake; di-block copolymer; nanoparticles; tri-block copolymer
19.  Encapsulation of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: In Vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases 
Background
Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT) belongs to the superfamily of serpins and inhibits different proteases. α1AT protects the lung from cellular inflammatory enzymes. In the absence of α1AT, the degradation of lung tissue results to pulmonary complications. The pulmonary route is a potent noninvasive route for systemic and local delivery. The aerosolized α1AT not only affects locally its main site of action but also avoids remaining in circulation for a long period of time in peripheral blood. Poly (D, L lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer approved for sustained controlled release of peptides and proteins. The aim of this work was to prepare a wide range of particle size as a carrier of protein-loaded nanoparticles to deposit in different parts of the respiratory system especially in the deep lung. Various lactide to glycolide ratio of the copolymer was used to obtain different release profile of the drug which covers extended and rapid drug release in one formulation.
Results
Nonaqueous and double emulsion techniques were applied for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of surface morphology, size distribution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To evaluate the nanoparticles cytotoxicity, cell cytotoxicity test was carried out on the Cor L105 human epithelial lung cancer cell line.
Nanoparticles were spherical with an average size in the range of 100 nm to 1μ. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher when the double emulsion technique was applied. XRD and DSC results indicated that α1AT encapsulated in the nanoparticles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio affects the release profile of α1AT. Hence, PLGA with a 50:50 ratios exhibited the ability to release %60 of the drug within 8, but the polymer with a ratio of 75:25 had a continuous and longer release profile. Cytotoxicity studies showed that nanoparticles do not affect cell growth and were not toxic to cells.
Conclusion
In summary, α1AT-loaded nanoparticles may be considered as a novel formulation for efficient treatment of many pulmonary diseases.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-10-20
PMCID: PMC3485170  PMID: 22607686
Cytotoxicity; DSC (differential scanning calorimetry); FTIR; Nanoparticle; Sustained drug release; XRD (x-ray diffraction)
20.  Polymeric Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing 
International journal of pharmaceutics  2008;367(1-2):195-203.
Gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has several potential therapeutic applications. In the present study, we investigated nanoparticles formulated using the biodegradable polymer, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for siRNA delivery. A cationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was incorporated in the PLGA matrix to improve siRNA encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles. PLGA-PEI nanoparticles were formulated using double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized for siRNA encapsulation and in vitro release. The effectiveness of siRNA-loaded PLGA-PEI nanoparticles in silencing a model gene, fire fly luciferase, was investigated in cell culture. Presence of PEI in PLGA nanoparticle matrix increased siRNA encapsulation by about 2-fold and also improved the siRNA release profile. PLGA-PEI nanoparticles carrying luciferase-targeted siRNA enabled effective silencing of the gene in cells stably expressing luciferase as well as in cells that could be induced to overexpress the gene. Quantitative studies indicated that presence of PEI in PLGA nanoparticles resulted in 2-fold higher cellular uptake of nanoparticles while fluorescence microscopy studies showed that PLGA-PEI nanoparticles delivered the encapsulated siRNA in the cellular cytoplasm; both higher uptake and greater cytosolic delivery could have contributed to the gene silencing effectiveness of PLGA-PEI nanoparticles. Serum stability and lack of cytotoxicity further add to the potential of PLGA-PEI nanoparticles in gene silencing-based therapeutic applications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.09.039
PMCID: PMC2660441  PMID: 18940242
RNA interference; siRNA; poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide); luciferase; sustained release
21.  Development of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres vaccine against plague 
Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) (PLGA/PEG) microspheres were produced using a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion/solvent extraction technique and assayed for their percent yield, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro release properties, and in vivo animal protect efficacy. The Y. pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres (mean particle size 3.8 μm) exhibited a high loading capacity (4.5% w/w), yield (85.2%), and entrapment efficiency (38.1%), and presented a controlled in vitro release profile with a low initial burst (18.5%), then continued to release Y. pestis F1 antigen over 70 days. The distribution (%) of Y. pestis F1 on the microspheres surface, outer layer, and core was 3.1%, 28.9%, and 60.7%, respectively. A steady release rate was noticed to be 0.55 μg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres/day of Y. pestis F1 antigen release maintained for 42 days. The cumulative release amount at the 1st, 28th, and 42nd days was 8.2, 26.7, and 31.0 μg Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres, respectively. The 100 times median lethal dose 50% (LD50) of Y. pestis Yokohama-R strain by intraperitoneal injection challenge in mice test, in which mice received one dose of 40 μg F1 antigen content of PLGA/PEG microspheres, F1 antigen in Al(OH)3, and in comparison with F1 antigen in Al(OH)3 vaccine in two doses, was evaluated after given by subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice. The study results show that the greatest survival was observed in the group of mice immunized with one dose of F1 antigen-loaded PLGA/PEG microspheres, and two doses of F1 antigen in Al(OH)3 vaccine (100%). In vivo vaccination studies also demonstrated that F1 vaccines microspheres had a protective ability; its steady-state IgG immune protection in mice plasma dramatic increased from 2 weeks (18,764±3,124) to 7 weeks (126,468±19,176) after vaccination. These findings strongly suggest that F1-antigen loaded microspheres vaccine offer a new therapeutic strategy in optimizing the vaccine incorporation and delivery properties of these potential vaccine targeting carriers.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S56260
PMCID: PMC3926461  PMID: 24550673
PLGA; immunological; protective responses
22.  Novel PLGA-based nanoparticles for the oral delivery of insulin 
Background
Insulin is the drug therapy for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A number of attempts have been made in the past to overcome the problems associated with the oral delivery of insulin, but with little success. Orally administered insulin has encountered with many difficulties such as rapid degradation and poor intestinal absorption. The potential use of D-α-tocopherol poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate (TPGS)-emulsified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-capped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated for sustained delivery of insulin (IS).
Objective
To investigate the efficacy of TPGS-emulsified PEG-capped PLGA NPs (TPPLG NPs) as a potential drug carrier for the oral delivery of insulin.
Methods
A series of biodegradable low-molecular-weight PLGA (80/20 [PLG4] and 70/30 [PLG6]) copolymers were synthesized by melt polycondensation. The commercial insulin-loaded TPGS-emulsified PEG-capped PLGA NPs (ISTPPLG NPs) were synthesized by water–oil–water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The physical and chemical properties of PLGA copolymers, particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of the NPs were examined. The in vivo studies of ISTPPLG NPs were carried out in diabetic rats by oral administration.
Results
The maximum encapsulation efficiency of ISTPPLG6 NPs was 78.6%±1.2%, and the mean diameter of the NPs was 180±20 nm. The serum glucose level was significantly (twofold) decreased on treatment with ISTPPLG NPs, and there was a threefold decrease with insulin-loaded PLGA (70/30) NPs when compared to that of free insulin-treated diabetic rats. The results show that the oral administration of ISTPPLG6 NPs is an effective method of reducing serum glucose level for a period of 24 hours. Histopathological studies reveal that ISTPPLG NPs could restore the damage caused by streptozotocin in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, indicating its biocompatibility and regenerative effects.
Conclusion
ISTPPLG6 NPs can act as potential drug carriers for the oral delivery of insulin.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S67947
PMCID: PMC4383223  PMID: 25848248
drug delivery; polymer nanoparticles; poly(ethylene glycol); tocopherol poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate; hypoglycemic effect; histopathology
23.  Impact of Surface Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Density on Biodegradable Nanoparticle Transport in Mucus ex vivo and Distribution in vivo 
ACS nano  2015;9(9):9217-9227.
Achieving sustained drug delivery to mucosal surfaces is a major challenge due to the presence of the protective mucus layer that serves to trap and rapidly remove foreign particulates. Nanoparticles engineered to rapidly penetrate mucosal barriers (mucus-penetrating particles, “MPP”) have shown promise for improving drug distribution, retention and efficacy at mucosal surfaces. MPP are densely coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which shields the nanoparticle core from adhesive interactions with mucus. However, the PEG density required to impart the “stealth” properties to nanoparticles in mucus, and thus, uniform distribution in vivo, is still unknown. We prepared biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a range of PEG surface densities by blending various ratios of a diblock copolymer of PLGA and 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG5k) with PLGA. We then evaluated the impact of PEG surface density, measured using an 1H NMR method, on mucin binding in vitro, nanoparticle transport in freshly obtained human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) ex vivo, and nanoparticle distribution in the mouse cervicovaginal tract in vivo. We found that at least 5% PEG was required to effectively shield the nanoparticle core from interacting with mucus components in vitro and ex vivo, thus leading to enhanced nanoparticle distribution throughout the mouse vagina in vivo. We then demonstrated that biodegradable MPP could be formulated from blends of PLGA and PLGA-PEG polymers of various molecular weights, and that these MPP provide tunable drug loading and drug release rates and durations. Overall, we describe a methodology for rationally designing biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for more uniform delivery to the vagina.
Graphic abstract
doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b03876
PMCID: PMC4890729  PMID: 26301576
drug delivery; vagina; paclitaxel; PLGA; mucosal surface
24.  Process and formulation variables in the preparation of injectable and biodegradable magnetic microspheres 
The aim of this study was to prepare biodegradable sustained release magnetite microspheres sized between 1 to 2 μm. The microspheres with or without magnetic materials were prepared by a W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as the biodegradable matrix forming polymer. Effects of manufacturing and formulation variables on particle size were investigated with non-magnetic microspheres. Microsphere size could be controlled by modification of homogenization speed, PLGA concentration in the oil phase, oil phase volume, solvent composition, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration in the outer water phase. Most influential were the agitation velocity and all parameters that influence the kinematic viscosity of oil and outer water phase, specifically the type and concentration of the oil phase. The magnetic component yielding homogeneous magnetic microspheres consisted of magnetite nanoparticles of 8 nm diameter stabilized with a polyethylene glycole/polyacrylic acid (PEG/PAA) coating and a saturation magnetization of 47.8 emu/g. Non-magnetic and magnetic microspheres had very similar size, morphology, and size distribution, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The optimized conditions yielded microspheres with 13.7 weight% of magnetite and an average diameter of 1.37 μm. Such biodegradable magnetic microspheres seem appropriate for vascular administration followed by magnetic drug targeting.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-5-2
PMCID: PMC1863415  PMID: 17407608
25.  Codelivery of SH-aspirin and curcumin by mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis 
Natural product curcumin (Cur) and H2S-releasing prodrug SH-aspirin (SH-ASA) are potential anticancer agents with diverse mechanisms, but their clinical application prospects are restricted by hydrophobicity and limited efficiency. In this work, we coencapsulated SH-ASA and Cur into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-coglycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles through a modified oil-in-water single-emulsion solvent evaporation process. The prepared SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 122.3±6.8 nm and were monodispersed (polydispersity index =0.179±0.016) in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. Intriguingly, by treating with SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obvious synergistic anticancer effects on ES-2 and SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were observed in vitro, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was indicated. Our results demonstrated that SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles could have potential clinical advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S84326
PMCID: PMC4547632  PMID: 26316750
drug delivery; cancer therapy; ovarian cancer; synergistic effect

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