Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem, especially in adults over 40 years of age, and has a great social and economic impact. The psychological morbidity of COPD patients with regard to anxiety and depressive symptoms has been extensively studied in the past. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of alexithymia in these patients, as well as its association with this comorbidity. Based on this fact, we studied the prevalence of alexithymia and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms in COPD outpatients.
The present study included 167, randomly selected, outpatients diagnosed with COPD. Alexithymia, anxiety and depression were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively.
The mean BDI score was 12.88 (SD: 7.7), mean STAI score 41.8 (SD: 11.0) and mean TAS-20 score 48.2 (SD: 11.5). No differences were observed between genders regarding age and alexithymia (t test P > 0.05), while female patients presented higher depression and trait anxiety scores than males (t test P < 0.05). Clinically significant levels of anxiety were present in 37.1% of men, and in 45.7% of women. The mean depression score was also higher than the corresponding mean score in the general population (one-sample t test P < 0.01), while 27.7% and 30.5% of the sample presented mild and moderate to severe depression, respectively. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between alexithymia, depression and anxiety.
This study confirms the high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in Greek outpatients with COPD. The prevalence of alexithymia in COPD patients, contrary to what has been observed in patients with other chronic respiratory diseases, seem to be lower. However, we observed a strong association between alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels. This observation suggests that alexithymia should be taken into consideration when drafting specific psychotherapeutic interventions for these patients.
Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients. In the present study have we evaluated the potential effectiveness and tolerability of trazodone in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
A flexible dose of trazodone (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement Scale (PGI). Trazodone's emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test.
Trazodone markedly improved sleep quality, with large effect sizes in total PSQI score as well on sleep quality, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Significant improvement, although with moderate effect sizes, were also observed in total FIQ scores, anxiety and depression scores (both HADS and BDI), and pain interference with daily activities. Unexpectedly, the most frequent and severe side effect associated with trazodone in our sample was tachycardia, which was reported by 14 (21.2%) patients.
In doses higher than those usually prescribed as hypnotic, the utility of trazodone in fibromyalgia management surpasses its hypnotic activity. However, the emergence of tachycardia should be closely monitored.
This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT-00791739.
Improving patients' health status is one of the major goals in COPD treatment. Questionnaires could facilitate the guidance of patient-tailored disease management by exploring which aspects of health status are problematic, and which aspects are not. Health status consists of four main domains (physiological functioning, symptoms, functional impairment, and quality of life), and at least sixteen sub-domains. A prerequisite for patient-tailored treatment is a detailed assessment of all these sub-domains. Most questionnaires developed to measure health status consist of one or a few subscales and measure merely some aspects of health status. The question then rises which aspects of health status are measured by these instruments, and which aspects are not covered. As it is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in COPD, we evaluated which aspects of health status are measured and which aspects are not measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
One hundred and forty-six outpatients with COPD participated. Correlations were calculated between the three sections of the SGRQ and ten sub-domains of the Nijmegen Integral Assessment Framework, covering Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Quality of Life. As the SGRQ was not expected to measure physiological functioning, we did not include this main domain in the statistical analyses. Pearson's r ≥ 0.70 was used as criterion for conceptual similarity.
The SGRQ sections Symptoms and Total showed conceptual similarity with the sub-domain Subjective Symptoms (main domain Symptoms). The sections Activity, Impacts and Total were conceptual similar to Subjective Impairment (main domain Functional Impairment). The SGRQ sections were not conceptual similar to other sub-domains of Symptoms, Functional Impairment, nor to any sub-domain of Quality of Life.
The SGRQ could facilitate the guidance of disease management in COPD only partially. The SGRQ is appropriately only for measuring problems in the sub-domains Subjective Symptoms and Subjective Impairment, and not for measuring problems in other sub-domains of health status, such as Quality of Life.
The study of the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and their correlation with the severity and management of the disease, the somatometric parameters, subjective dyspnea and the pulmonary function tests.
Patients and methods
Twenty-five consecutive patients with diagnosed COPD who visited the outpatient pulmonology clinic of General Hospital of Serres during 07-09/2012 were studied. The patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis, 6 minute walking test (6MWD) and filled validated questionnaires for the detection of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI-Gr X-2), depression (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II), subjective dyspnea (MRC) and level of COPD control (COPD Assessment Test - CAT). The correlation analysis was performed using Spearman’s correlation test and the SPSS v15 software.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlated negatively with BDI (r=–0.4, P<0.05). Dyspnea (MRC score) positively correlated with the presence of depression (r=0.61, P=0.001) and anxiety (r=0.6, P=0.001), with CAT score (r=0.8, P<0.001) and negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.55, P<0.007). CAT presented a positive correlation with BDI (r=0.71, P<0.001), STAI (r=0.73, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.44, P=0.036). Arterial PO2 had a negative correlation with BDI (r=–0.57, P=0.003) and STAI (r=-0.41, P=0.039), whilst BDI had a positive correlation with STAI (r=0.55, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039). Finally, STAI score correlated negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039).
Patients with a lower BMI had higher rates of depression, possibly due to the increased percentage of patients presenting an emphysematic phenotype (as derived by the data analysis from the study population). Both the subjective dyspnea feeling and the poor COPD control showed correlation with high rates of anxiety and depression, as well as with smaller walking distances in the 6 minute tests. Hypoxemia alone significantly correlated with depression and anxiety, whereas these two correlated with each other and with lower exercise capacity.
To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers.
Materials and Methods
Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire.
BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative.
Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field.
Music therapy; mood; stroke; depression; anxiety
The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale is assumed to measure a distinct salutogenic construct separated from measures of anxiety and depression. Our aim was to challenge this concept.
The SOC-scale, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) , the emotional subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-em) and self-assessed health-related and physiological parameters were collected from a sample of non-clinical adolescent females (n = 66, mean age 16.5 years with a range of 15.9-17.7 years) and from female psychiatric patients (n = 73), mean age 16.8 years with a range of 14.5-18.4 years), with diagnoses of major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders.
The SOC scores showed high inverse correlations to BDI, BAI and SDQ-em. In the non-clinical sample the correlation coefficient was -0.86 to -0.73 and in the clinical samples -0.74 to -0.53 (p < 0.001). Multiple regression models showed that BDI was the strongest predictor of SOC in the non-clinical (beta coefficient -0.47) and clinical sample (beta coefficient -0.52). The total degree of explanation of self assessed anxiety and depression on the SOC variance estimated by multiple R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.73 in the non-clinical sample and multiple R2 = 0.66, adjusted R2 = 0.65 in the clinical sample.
Multivariate analyses failed to isolate SOC as a separate construct and the SOC-scale, BDI, BAI and SDQ-em showed similar patterns of correlations to self-reported and physiological health parameters in both samples. The SOC-scale was the most stable measure over six months.
The SOC-scale did not appear to be a measure of a distinct salutogenic construct, but an inverse measure of persistent depressive symptoms and generalized social anxiety similar to the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to DSM-IV. These symptoms were better captured with SOC than by the specialized scales for anxiety and depression. Self-assessment scales that adequately identify MDD, dysthymic disorder, GAD and SAD need to be implemented. Comorbidity of these disorders is common in adolescent females and corresponds to a more severe symptomatology and impaired global function.
Somatic symptom overlap between depression and insomnia has emerged as a major concern. Self-report measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) include somatic symptoms related to depression that are also present in the research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. This study aimed firstly to examine the relationship between the cognitive and somatic factors of the BDI-II and global scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in individuals presenting for insomnia treatment and secondly to examine whether treating insomnia in depressed individuals with insomnia will lead to a reduction in their depressive symptoms and whether this reduction is related to a decrease in the somatic or cognitive factors of depressive symptoms.
A total of 379 individuals (133 males and 246 females), with a mean (M) age of 49.95 (standard deviation [SD] = 14.15) years, were used to address the first aim. To address the second aim, a total of 64 participants (27 males and 37 females) with both insomnia and depressive symptoms were treated for their insomnia. Their ages ranged between 22 and 87 (M = 50.97, SD = 15.13) years.
A significant relationship was found between both the cognitive and somatic factors of the BDI-II and global scores on the PSQI. Furthermore, although results in this study are only suggestive, they lend support to the idea that the relationship between insomnia and depression is not due to somatic symptom overlap. Results may also support the hypothesis that insomnia is primary to the presentation of depressive symptoms.
Clinicians and health care providers could initially treat insomnia in individuals suffering from insomnia who also experience depressive symptoms, as this will not only remit insomnia but also abate the accompanying depressive symptoms.
cognitive depressive symptoms; somatic depressive symptoms; symptom overlap
classifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) depend largely
upon spirometric measurements but disability is only weakly related to
measurements of lung function. With the increased use of pulmonary
rehabilitation, a need has been identified for a simple and
standardised method of categorising disability in COPD. This study
examined the validity of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea
scale for this purpose.
hundred patients with COPD were recruited from an outpatient pulmonary
rehabilitation programme. Assessments included the MRC dyspnoea scale,
spirometric tests, blood gas tensions, a shuttle walking test, and Borg
scores for perceived breathlessness before and after exercise. Health
status was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire
(SGRQ) and Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ). The Nottingham
Extended Activities of Daily Living (EADL) score and Hospital Anxiety
and Depression (HAD) score were also measured.
patients studied, 32 were classified as having MRC grade 3 dyspnoea, 34 MRC grade 4 dyspnoea, and 34 MRC grade 5 dyspnoea. Patients with MRC
grades 1 and 2 dyspnoea were not included in the study. There was a
significant association between MRC grade and shuttle distance, SGRQ
and CRQ scores, mood state and EADL. Forced expiratory volume in one
second (FEV1) was not associated with MRC grade. Multiple
logistic regression showed that the determinants of disability appeared
to vary with the level of disability. Between MRC grades 3 and 4 the
significant covariates were exercise performance, SGRQ and depression
score, whilst between grades 4 and 5 exercise performance and age were
the major determinants.
dyspnoea scale is a simple and valid method of categorising patients
with COPD in terms of their disability that could be used to complement
FEV1 in the classification of COPD severity.
Patients with chronic airway lung diseases often experience depression and anxiety, but little information is available regarding Koreans with these conditions. We thus assessed depression and anxiety in Korean patients with chronic airway lung diseases.
The degree of depression and anxiety in 84 outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 37 with asthma, 33 with bronchiectasis, and 73 healthy controls were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
The patients with COPD and bronchiectasis had higher BDI scores and were more likely than controls to experience depression ([COPD, 17; range, 0 to 42; prevalence, 55%], [bronchiectasis, 16; range, 3 to 51; prevalence, 55%], [controls, 13; range, 0 to 31; prevalence, 30%], p < 0.05). The state-anxiety scores of the patients were higher than those of the controls, but only the bronchiectasis group demonstrated a higher frequency of state-anxiety compared with the controls (39 vs. 16%, patients vs. controls, p = 0.015). Among all patients, 22% presented with concomitant depression and state-anxiety, and 25% demonstrated depression and trait-anxiety. Depression was positively correlated with both state-anxiety (r = 0.644) and trait-anxiety (r = 0.597, p < 0.0001). Irrespective of individual diagnosis, post-bronchodilator FEV1 (odds ratio [OR], 0.972; p = 0.027) and smoking history (OR, 3.894; p = 0.018) were independent risk factors for depression in patients with chronic airway lung diseases.
Chronic airway lung diseases are associated with depression and/or anxiety, particularly in those with a higher airflow limitation and/or history of smoking.
Depression; Anxiety; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Bronchiectasis
The quality of sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient from India has not been studied. Aim of this study was evaluation of subjective assessment of sleep quality in stable COPD patients and its relationship with associated depression.
Materials and Methods:
Forty clinically stable COPD patients were recruited from outpatient department and their disease status was classified as per Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline. Presence of depression was assessed by administering Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 and subjective quality of sleep was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
All study subjects were male and mean age of study population was 62.2 ± 9.2 years, 12 patients (30%) in stage II, 19 patients (47.5%) in stage III and 9 patients (22.5%) in stage IV were enrolled. All subjects had poor sleep quality with the median global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score 11. PHQ-9 score was significantly correlated with daytime function and global PSQI score (P<0.01). No correlation of global PSQI score with severity of COPD was observed.
The prevalence of poor sleep quality among COPD patients is high. Irrespective of severity of airflow obstruction, the presence of depression in COPD is a risk factor for poor sleep quality.
COPD; depression; PHQ-9; PSQI; sleep quality
Health status, dyspnea and psychological status are important clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured by spirometry, the standard measurement of airflow limitation, has only a weak relationship with these outcomes in COPD. Recently, in addition to spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) measuring lung resistance (R) and reactance (X) is increasingly being used to assess pulmonary functional impairment.
We aimed to identify relationships between IOS measurements and patient-reported outcomes in 65 outpatients with stable COPD. We performed pulmonary function testing, IOS, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and assessment of health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), dyspnea using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and psychological status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We then investigated the relationships between these parameters. For the IOS measurements, we used lung resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20, respectively) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5). Because R5 and R20 are regarded as reflecting total and proximal airway resistance, respectively, the fall in resistance from R5 to R20 (R5-R20) was used as a surrogate for the resistance of peripheral airways. X5 was also considered to represent peripheral airway abnormalities.
R5-R20 and X5 were significantly correlated with the SGRQ and the MRC. These correlation coefficients were greater than when using other objective measurements of pulmonary function, R20 on the IOS and CT instead of R5-R20 and X5. Multiple regression analyses showed that R5-R20 or X5 most significantly accounted for the SGRQ and MRC scores.
IOS measurements, especially indices of peripheral airway function, are significantly correlated with health status and dyspnea in patients with COPD. Therefore, in addition to its simplicity and non-invasiveness, IOS may be a useful clinical tool not only for detecting pulmonary functional impairment, but also to some extent at least estimating the patient's quality of daily life and well-being.
Psoriasis exerts significant, negative, impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). Recently, the relationship between QOL and skin lesion improvement has been emphasized in the treatment of psoriasis patients.
The purpose of study was to compare the QOL in psoriasis and other skin diseases, and to evaluate the generic QOL, skin specific QOL, stress, depression and anxiety before and after treatment in patients.
A total of 138 patients with psoriasis were recruited in this study and 83 patients complete the questionnaire at week 16. Questionnaires were comprised of generic WHO QOL scale, dermatology specific questionnaires (Skindex-29), psoriasis life stress inventory (PLSI), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Clinical response was assessed by the PASI.
After treatment, health-related QOL was improved and PASI improvement showed smaller correlation with Skindex-29, compared with the correlations between self-reported severity score (SRSS) improvement and Skindex-29. Regression analysis revealed that duration, SRSS, stress, and depression were factors affecting baseline HRQOL in patients, and age, duration, and SRSS were predictors associated with HTQOL score changes.
Treatment improved HRQOL, BAI, BDI, and PLSI scores. Psoriasis may become more burdensome in groups of patients who suffer long disease duration, high SRSS, depression, and stressful environments.
Psoriasis; Quality of life
Fatigue is a distressing, complex, multidimensional sensation common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While fatigue negatively impacts functional performance and quality of life, there has been little study of the fatigue that affects participants in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical dimensions of fatigue and their relationships to dyspnea, mental health, sleep, and physiologic factors.
Patients and methods
A convenience sample of 42 pulmonary rehabilitation participants with COPD completed self-report questionnaires which measured dimensions of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data on other clinical variables were abstracted from pulmonary rehabilitation program health records.
Almost all (95.3%) participants experienced high levels of physical fatigue. High levels of fatigue were also reported for the dimensions of reduced activity (88.1%), reduced motivation (83.3%), mental fatigue (69.9%), and general fatigue (54.5%). Close to half (42.9%) of participants reported symptoms of anxiety, while almost one quarter (21.4%) reported depressive symptoms. Age was related to the fatigue dimensions of reduced activity (ρ = 0.43, P < 0.01) and reduced motivation (ρ = 0.31, P < 0.05). Anxiety was related to reduced motivation (ρ = −0.47, P < 0.01). Fatigue was not associated with symptoms of depression, sleep quality, gender, supplemental oxygen use, smoking status, or Medical Research Council dyspnea scores.
Fatigue (particularly the physical and reduced motivation dimensions of fatigue) was experienced by almost all participants with COPD attending this pulmonary rehabilitation program. Fatigue affected greater proportions of participants than either anxiety or depression. The high prevalence of fatigue may impact on enrolment, participation, and attrition in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Further investigation of the nature, correlates, and impact of fatigue in this population is required.
COPD; fatigue; pulmonary rehabilitation; anxiety; depression; sleep quality
Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea.
Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ.
In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes.
To identify the prevalence and severity of fatigue and predicting factors for severe fatigue in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).
We studied a cross-section of 123 patients with SCA. Six functional scales were used in a self-assessment: the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS); the Short Form–36 health survey, distinguishing a norm-based physical and mental component score (Nb-PCS and Nb-MCS); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A subset of 58 patients was clinically evaluated, measuring severity of ataxia with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and cognitive functioning with the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Severe fatigue (FSS ≥5) was present in 69% of patients and FSS value correlated with the scores on RHS, Nb-PCS, Nb-MCS, BDI, PSQI, and ESS. There was no relation with disease duration, gender, or medication use. Multivariate analysis revealed that Nb-PCS and BDI were the best independent predictors for severe fatigue. Interestingly, the presence of visual symptoms was related to FSS value in the clinically evaluated subgroup.
Fatigue is a severe and disabling symptom in adult patients with SCA, even early in the course of disease. Physical functioning and depression are the strongest predictors of fatigue. In treatment strategies, all treatable factors for fatigue should be addressed, especially depression, visual symptoms, and sleeping disorders.
Background and Purpose
The risk of suicide or suicide attempts is reported higher in people with epilepsy (PWE) than in the general population. Although epileptic, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors are known risk factors for suicide or suicide attempt, no studies have evaluated the predictors of the severity of suicidal ideation-which is a warning sign for suicide attempts-in PWE. Therefore, we measured the severity of suicidal ideation and its risk factors.
Consecutive PWE who were medicated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and attended epilepsy clinic were included in the study. The subjects completed self-reported questionnaires, which included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and Scale for Suicide Ideation-Beck (SSI-Beck). We compared the patients' demographic and clinical variables, and BDI, BAI, and SCL-90-R scores with their SSI-Beck score, and used our findings to determine the predictors for suicidal ideation.
In total, 257 PWE were enrolled in the study. SSI-Beck scores correlated strongly with several seizure-related variables, duration of education, IQ, BDI and BAI scores, and nine domains of the SCL-90-R questionnaire. However, the strongest predictor for suicidal ideation was BDI score (β=0.41, p<0.001), followed by several SCL-90-R domains, such as obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.39, p<0.001), depression (β=0.38, p<0.001), hostility (β=0.22, p=0.002), paranoid ideation (β=0.17, p=0.01), and IQ (β=-0.10, p=0.017). These variables explained 59% of the variance in the SSI-Beck score. The seizure-related variables that influenced the BDI score were seizure frequency, duration of education, MRI abnormality, and number of AEDs. However, these variables explained only 18% of the variance in the BDI score.
Major risk factors for suicidal ideation in PWE were depressive and psychiatric symptoms rather than seizure-related variables. Therefore, clinicians should focus on screening for depression and other psychiatric problems and treat them appropriately in order to reduce suicidal behavior in PWE. Since seizure-related variables also exhibited a minor role in determining depressive symptoms, stronger seizure-related risk factors for depression should be sought, such as seizure severity or psychosocial factors, to minimize suicidal behavior.
epilepsy; suicidal ideation; suicide; depression; psychiatric symptoms; predictors
The aim of this prospective repeated measures, mixed-methods observational study was to assess whether depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are associated with postpartum relapse to smoking.
A total of 65 women who smoked prior to pregnancy and had not smoked during the last month of pregnancy were recruited at delivery and followed for 24 weeks. Surveys administered at baseline and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum assessed smoking status and symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]), and stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]). In-depth interviews were conducted with women who reported smoking.
Although 92% of the participants reported a strong desire to stay quit, 47% resumed smoking by 24 weeks postpartum. Baseline factors associated with smoking at 24 weeks were having had a prior delivery, not being happy about the pregnancy, undergoing counseling for depression or anxiety during pregnancy, and ever having struggled with depression (p < .05). In a repeated measures regression model, the slope of BDI scores from baseline to the 12-week follow-up differed between nonsmokers and smokers (−0.12 vs. +0.11 units/week, p = .03). The slope of PSS scores also differed between nonsmokers and smokers (−0.05 vs. +0.08 units/week, p = .04). In qualitative interviews, most women who relapsed attributed their relapse and continued smoking to negative emotions.
Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, a worsening of depressive and stress symptoms over 12 weeks postpartum was associated with an increased risk of smoking by 24 weeks.
Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test.
Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects.
Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good.
Patient centred outcomes, such as health status, are important in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Extensive questionnaires on health status have good measurement properties, but are not suitable for use in primary care. The newly developed, short Clinical COPD Questionnaire, CCQ, was therefore validated against the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
111 patients diagnosed by general practitioners as having COPD completed the questionnaires twice, 2–3 months apart, without systematic changes in treatment. Within this sample of patients with "clinical COPD" a subgroup of patients with spirometry verified COPD was identified. All analyses was performed on both groups.
The mean FEV1 (% predicted) was 58.1% for all patients with clinical COPD and 52.4% in the group with verified COPD (n = 83). Overall correlations between SGRQ and CCQ were strong for all patients with clinical COPD (0.84) and the verified COPD subgroup (0.82). The concordance intra-class correlation between SGRQ and CCQ was 0.91 (p < 0.05). Correlations between CCQ and SGRQ were moderate to good, regardless of COPD severity.
The CCQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessments of health status on the group level in patients treated for COPD in primary care but its reliability may not be sufficient for the monitoring of individual patients.
The objective of this study was to examine clinical factors associated with depressive state in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).
Setting and participants
We evaluated 287 consecutive cases of MG seen at six neurological centres located in Eastern Japan.
All MG patients completed the Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory–Second Edition (BDI-II). Disease severity was determined according to the MG Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative MG score, MG activities of daily living scale and MG composite scale (MG composite). Clinical state following treatment was categorised according to MGFA postintervention status. Associations between detailed clinical parameters of MG and BDI-II score were then examined statistically.
Mean BDI-II score for patients with MG (11.0±8.1) did not differ substantially from and overlapped with that reported as the Japanese standard (8.7±6.4). The mean +2 SDs for the Japanese standard is 21.5, approximately equal to the cut-off level indicative of moderate or worse depression (>20 points) in the original English version. We thus defined BDI-II >21.5 as depressive state, with a frequency of 13.6% in patients with MG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed current dose of oral prednisolone (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17; p=0.01), unchanged MGFA postintervention status (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.18 to 10.71; p=0.02), time since onset (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99; p=0.03) and MG composite (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.34; p=0.046) as factors independently associated with depressive state in MG.
Dose of oral corticosteroids appears to represent the major factor associated with depressive state in MG. Unchanged status despite treatment and early disease stage are also significant background factors for depressive state, along with disease severity.
Background factors associated with depressive state in MG were statistically examined.
Dose of oral corticosteroids appears to represent the major factor associated with depressive state in MG. Unchanged status despite treatment and early disease stage are also significant background factors for depressive state, along with disease severity.
Achieving early improvement of disease by adequate MG therapy without long-term use of higher dose oral corticosteroids may be important to avoiding depressive state in patients with MG.
Strengths and limitations of this study
Strength: this study probably is the first to systematically and statistically examine the associations between detailed disease-related parameters of MG and depressive state.
Limitation: predictive modelling cannot be strictly performed on this cross-sectional sample. Weakness: the absence of social factors as variables.
This study evaluated whether improvements in nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS), depression and anxiety are greater for body acupuncture than for sham acupuncture. Smoking volunteers from the public were randomized to receive six sessions of either real or sham acupuncture for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was NWS measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Score, and the secondary measures were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Eighty volunteers were randomized into real acupuncture (n = 38) and sham acupuncture (n = 42) groups, of which 46 subjects (22 and 24 in the real and sham acupuncture groups, respectively) completed the treatment and the 2-week follow-up. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the NWS did not differ significantly between the real and sham acupuncture groups immediately after the treatment (12.2 ± 9.7 and 12.8 ± 7.7, respectively; mean ± SD) and at the 2-week follow-up (11.7 ± 10.2 and 12.6 ± 7.8). Both groups also showed similar improvements in BDI and BAI scores. These results indicate that the real acupuncture treatment tested in this trial was no more effective than sham acupuncture at reducing NWS, depression and anxiety for smoking cessation.
acupuncture; nicotine withdrawal symptoms; smoking cessation; anxiety
Symptoms of depression and anxiety overlap strongly and are independent predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Although these symptoms commonly co-occur in medical patients, little is known about combined effects of depression and anxiety on CVD risk.
To study the independent and interactive effects of depression and anxiety symptoms as predictors of CVD events in a sample of women with suspected myocardial ischemia.
A total of 489 women completed a baseline protocol including coronary angiogram, CVD risk factor assessment, and questionnaire-based measures of depression and anxiety symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), respectively. Participants were followed for a median 5.9 years to track the incidence of CVD events (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and CVD-related mortality). We tested the BDI * STAI interaction effect in addition to the BDI and STAI main effects.
Seventy-five women (15.3% of sample) experienced a CVD event, of which 18 were deaths attributed to cardiovascular causes. Results using Cox regression indicated a significant BDI * STAI interaction effect in the prediction of CVD events (p=.02) after covariate adjustment. Simple effect analyses indicated that depression scores were significant predictors of CVD events among women with low anxiety scores (HR=2.3 [in standard deviation units], 95% CI=1.3-3.9, p=.005) but not among women with higher levels of anxiety (HR=.99, 95% CI=.70-1.4, p=.95).
Among women with suspected myocardial ischemia, the value of depression symptoms for predicting CVD events varied by the severity of comorbid anxiety. These results suggest that the clinical utility of depression measures may be improved by using them in combination with measures of anxiety.
Depression; anxiety; cardiovascular disease; women; prospective
This study examined the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana use in young adult smokers
Young adult smokers completed self-report measures of nicotine, caffeine, alcohol and marijuana use, Conner's Adult ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) Rating Scale-Short Version (CAARS-SS), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI), and provided a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample.
Self-reported cigarette use was positively correlated with carbon monoxide, CAARS-SS and the BDI levels. Caffeine intake was correlated with CAARS-SS, BAI and BDI levels and emerged as the more significant predictor of BDI, BAI and CAARS-SS scores when regressed with cigarette use.
Caffeine use is associated with psychiatric symptoms in young adult cigarette smokers and should be considered in future research.
nicotine; caffeine; alcohol; marijuana
A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety/depression and duration/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility. This was studied in relation to patients' age, educational level, socio-economic status and job (patients and their husbands).
Age range was 17–45 years and duration and cause of infertility was 1–20 years. This survey showed that 151 women (40.8%) had depression and 321 women (86.8%) had anxiety. Depression had a significant relation with cause of infertility, duration of infertility, educational level, and job of women. Anxiety had a significant relationship with duration of infertility and educational level, but not with cause of infertility, or job. Findings showed that anxiety and depression were most common after 4–6 years of infertility and especially severe depression could be found in those who had infertility for 7–9 years.
Adequate attention to these patients psychologically and treating them properly, is of great importance for their mental health and will improve quality of their lives.
Literature data suggest that sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and have a close correlation with pain. Other studies indicate that sleep disturbances are constantly accompanied by depression and anxiety in AS, but their interrelations are poorly understood. This study was designed to evaluate sleep disturbances and their association with demographic variables, pain, disease-specific variables, functional status, covering depression and anxiety in AS patients.
The 314 patients with AS and age- and sex-matched controls took part in the study, completed a battery of questionnaires, and participated in long-term follow-up. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The association among sleep, pain, disease activity, functional status, depression, and anxiety were assessed by using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multiple regression analysis.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of the Chinese version was significantly higher in the AS group than in the control group (P = 0.020). Of the 314 patients with AS, 184 (58.6%) had a high risk for sleep disturbances. The PSQI score was associated with age, years of education, ESR, CRP, overall assessment of health, pain, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), depression, and anxiety (all P < 0.001), but were not associated with disease duration, fingertip-to-floor distance, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) (P > 0.05). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, the medical and psychological variables contributed significantly to the variance in sleep-disturbances scores, adding an additional 23.9% to the overall R2 beyond that accounted for by demographic variables (R-square, 8.5%), resulting in a final R2of 42.6%. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that anxiety was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting sleep disturbances (standardized coefficients, 0.287).
The prevalence of sleep disturbances in AS patients is higher than it is generally thought to be. Depression, anxiety, nocturnal pain, and total back pain are the major contributors of sleep disturbances in AS.