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1.  Recovery from sleep disturbance precedes that of depression and anxiety following mild traumatic brain injury: a 6-week follow-up study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(1):e004205.
The detailed course of mental disorders at the acute and subacute stages of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), especially with regard to recovery from sleep disturbances, has not been well characterised. The aim of this study was to determine the course of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance, following an mTBI.
We recruited patients with mTBI from three university hospitals in Taipei and healthy participants as control group for this study.
100 patients with mTBI (35 men) who were older than 20 years, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15 and loss of consciousness for <30 min, completed the baseline and 6-week follow-up assessments. 137 controls (47 men) without TBI were recruited in the study. None of the participants had a history of cerebrovascular disease, mental retardation, previous TBI, epilepsy or severe systemic medical illness.
Primary outcome measures
The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were assessed for the patients with mTBI at baseline and 6 weeks after mTBI and for the controls.
The ESS scores were not significantly different between the mTBI at baseline or at 6 weeks after mTBI and controls. Although the BAI, BDI and PSQI scores of the mTBI group were significantly different than those of the control group at baseline, all had improved significantly 6 weeks later. However, only the PSQI score improved to a level that was not significantly different from that of the control group.
Daytime sleepiness is not affected by mTBI. However, mTBI causes depression and anxiety and diminished sleep quality. Although all these conditions improve significantly within 6 weeks post-mTBI, only sleep quality improves to a pre-mTBI level. Thus, recovery from mTBI-induced sleep disturbance occurs more rapidly than that of mTBI-induced depression and anxiety.
PMCID: PMC3902386  PMID: 24459040
2.  Assessment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in Korea 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(6):444-450.
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has a significant effect on quality of life and imposes a great economical burden on society. In a number of studies, validated questionnaires had been given to CLBP patients to determine their health-associated quality of life, sleep disturbance, and psychological status. However, such outcome studies had not been performed previously in Korea.
We used self-report questionnaires to compare CLBP patients with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Between September 2012 and August 2013, we enrolled 47 patients who had CLBP for more than 3 months (group P) and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (group C), who completed the following self-report questionnaires: 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
The scores from the ODI, BDI, and BAI were significantly higher in group P than in group C. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in group P than in group C, suggesting lower quality of life in group P. The incidence of depression and anxiety was significantly higher in group P than in group C. However, neither the PSQI score nor the incidence of sleep disturbance was significantly different between the groups.
Patients with CLBP showed considerable functional disability and significant impairment of psychological status with a low quality of life. Hence, it is important to evaluate CLBP patients to provide adequate psychological support.
PMCID: PMC4085265  PMID: 25006368
Chronic low back pain; Dyssomnias; Psychological status; Quality of life
3.  Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Sleep, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Newly-Diagnosed Patients 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e10211.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean ± std age: 46.8±9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1±20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight <125 kg). We evaluated relationships between the AHI and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI), and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), as well as sex and body mass index (BMI). AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.
PMCID: PMC2855711  PMID: 20419135
4.  Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with anxiety and depression in a sample of Greek chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outpatients 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem, especially in adults over 40 years of age, and has a great social and economic impact. The psychological morbidity of COPD patients with regard to anxiety and depressive symptoms has been extensively studied in the past. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of alexithymia in these patients, as well as its association with this comorbidity. Based on this fact, we studied the prevalence of alexithymia and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms in COPD outpatients.
The present study included 167, randomly selected, outpatients diagnosed with COPD. Alexithymia, anxiety and depression were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively.
The mean BDI score was 12.88 (SD: 7.7), mean STAI score 41.8 (SD: 11.0) and mean TAS-20 score 48.2 (SD: 11.5). No differences were observed between genders regarding age and alexithymia (t test P > 0.05), while female patients presented higher depression and trait anxiety scores than males (t test P < 0.05). Clinically significant levels of anxiety were present in 37.1% of men, and in 45.7% of women. The mean depression score was also higher than the corresponding mean score in the general population (one-sample t test P < 0.01), while 27.7% and 30.5% of the sample presented mild and moderate to severe depression, respectively. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between alexithymia, depression and anxiety.
This study confirms the high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in Greek outpatients with COPD. The prevalence of alexithymia in COPD patients, contrary to what has been observed in patients with other chronic respiratory diseases, seem to be lower. However, we observed a strong association between alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels. This observation suggests that alexithymia should be taken into consideration when drafting specific psychotherapeutic interventions for these patients.
PMCID: PMC2873300  PMID: 20398249
5.  Trazodone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: an open-label, 12-week study 
Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients. In the present study have we evaluated the potential effectiveness and tolerability of trazodone in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
A flexible dose of trazodone (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement Scale (PGI). Trazodone's emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test.
Trazodone markedly improved sleep quality, with large effect sizes in total PSQI score as well on sleep quality, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Significant improvement, although with moderate effect sizes, were also observed in total FIQ scores, anxiety and depression scores (both HADS and BDI), and pain interference with daily activities. Unexpectedly, the most frequent and severe side effect associated with trazodone in our sample was tachycardia, which was reported by 14 (21.2%) patients.
In doses higher than those usually prescribed as hypnotic, the utility of trazodone in fibromyalgia management surpasses its hypnotic activity. However, the emergence of tachycardia should be closely monitored.
Trial registration
This trial has been registered with number NCT-00791739.
PMCID: PMC2945951  PMID: 20831796
6.  Acupuncture and Counselling for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomised Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(9):e1001518.
In a randomized controlled trial, Hugh MacPherson and colleagues investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared with usual care alone for the treatment of depression symptoms in primary care settings.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Depression is a significant cause of morbidity. Many patients have communicated an interest in non-pharmacological therapies to their general practitioners. Systematic reviews of acupuncture and counselling for depression in primary care have identified limited evidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate acupuncture versus usual care and counselling versus usual care for patients who continue to experience depression in primary care.
Methods and Findings
In a randomised controlled trial, 755 patients with depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II score ≥20) were recruited from 27 primary care practices in the North of England. Patients were randomised to one of three arms using a ratio of 2∶2∶1 to acupuncture (302), counselling (302), and usual care alone (151). The primary outcome was the difference in mean Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores at 3 months with secondary analyses over 12 months follow-up. Analysis was by intention-to-treat.
PHQ-9 data were available for 614 patients at 3 months and 572 patients at 12 months. Patients attended a mean of ten sessions for acupuncture and nine sessions for counselling. Compared to usual care, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean PHQ-9 depression scores at 3 months for acupuncture (−2.46, 95% CI −3.72 to −1.21) and counselling (−1.73, 95% CI −3.00 to −0.45), and over 12 months for acupuncture (−1.55, 95% CI −2.41 to −0.70) and counselling (−1.50, 95% CI −2.43 to −0.58). Differences between acupuncture and counselling were not significant. In terms of limitations, the trial was not designed to separate out specific from non-specific effects. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported.
In this randomised controlled trial of acupuncture and counselling for patients presenting with depression, after having consulted their general practitioner in primary care, both interventions were associated with significantly reduced depression at 3 months when compared to usual care alone.
Trial Registration ISRCTN63787732
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Depression–overwhelming sadness and hopelessness–is responsible for a substantial proportion of the global disease burden and is a major cause of suicide. It affects more than 350 million people worldwide and about one in six people will have an episode of depression during their lifetime. Depression is different from everyday mood fluctuations. For people who are clinically depressed, feelings of severe sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, and worthlessness can last for months and years. Affected individuals lose interest in activities they used to enjoy and sometimes have physical symptoms such as disturbed sleep. Clinicians can diagnose depression and determine its severity by asking patients to complete a questionnaire (for example, the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II] or the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 [PHQ-9]) about their feelings and symptoms. The answer to each question is given a score and the total score from the questionnaire (“depression rating scale”) indicates the severity of depression. Antidepressant drugs are usually the front-line treatment for depression in primary care.
Why Was This Study Done?
Unfortunately, antidepressants don't work for more than half of patients. Moreover, many patients would like to be offered non-pharmacological treatment options for depression such as acupuncture–a therapy originating from China in which fine needles are inserted into the skin at specific points of the body–and counseling–a “talking therapy” that provides patients with a safe, non-judgmental place to express feelings and emotions and that helps them recognize their capacity for growth and fulfillment. However, it is unclear whether either of these treatments is effective in depression. In this pragmatic randomized controlled trial, the researchers investigate the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture or counseling in patients with depression compared to usual care in primary care in northern England. A randomized controlled trial compares outcomes in groups of patients who are assigned to different interventions through the play of chance. A pragmatic trial asks whether the intervention works under real-life conditions. Patient selection reflects routine practice and some aspects of the intervention are left to the discretion of clinician, By contrast, an explanatory trial asks whether an intervention works under ideal conditions and involves a strict protocol for patient selection and treatment.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers recruited 755 patients who had consulted their primary health care provider about depression within the past 5 years and who had a score of more than 20 on the BDI-II–a score that is defined as moderate-to-severe depression on this depression rating scale–at the start of the study. Patients were randomized to receive up to 12 weekly sessions of acupuncture plus usual care (302 patients), up to 12 weekly sessions of counseling plus usual care (302 patients), or usual care alone (151 patients). Both the acupuncture protocol and the counseling protocols allowed for some individualization of treatment. Usual care, including antidepressants, was available according to need and monitored in all three groups. Compared to usual care alone, there was a significant reduction (a reduction unlikely to have occurred by chance) in the average PHQ-9 scores at both 3 and 6 months for both the acupuncture and counseling interventions. The difference between the mean PHQ-9 score for acupuncture and counseling was not significant. At 9 months and 12 months, because of improvements in the PHQ-9 scores in the usual care group, acupuncture and counseling were no longer significantly better than usual care.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that, compared to usual care alone, both acupuncture and counseling when provided alongside usual care provided significant benefits at 3 months in primary care to patients with recurring depression. Because this trial was a pragmatic trial, these findings cannot indicate which aspects of acupuncture and counseling are likely to be most or least beneficial. Nevertheless they do provide an estimate of the overall effects of these complex interventions, an estimate that is of most interest to patients, practitioners, and health care providers. Moreover, because this trial only considers the effect of these interventions on patients with moderate-to-severe depression as classified by the BDI-II; it provides no information about the effectiveness of acupuncture or counseling compared to usual care for patients with mild depression. Importantly, however, these findings suggest that further research into optimal treatment regimens for the treatment of depression with acupuncture and counseling is merited.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Institute of Mental Health provides information on all aspects of depression (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides detailed information about depression, including personal stories about depression, and information on counseling and acupuncture
The UK charity Mind provides information on depression, on talking treatments, and on complementary and alternative therapies including acupuncture; Mind also includes personal stories about depression on its website
More personal stories about depression are available from Healthtalkonline
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about depression and about acupuncture (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC3782410  PMID: 24086114
7.  AB 23. Anxiety and depression in a COPD population sample from the general hospital of serres 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB23.
The study of the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and their correlation with the severity and management of the disease, the somatometric parameters, subjective dyspnea and the pulmonary function tests.
Patients and methods
Twenty-five consecutive patients with diagnosed COPD who visited the outpatient pulmonology clinic of General Hospital of Serres during 07-09/2012 were studied. The patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis, 6 minute walking test (6MWD) and filled validated questionnaires for the detection of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI-Gr X-2), depression (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II), subjective dyspnea (MRC) and level of COPD control (COPD Assessment Test - CAT). The correlation analysis was performed using Spearman’s correlation test and the SPSS v15 software.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlated negatively with BDI (r=–0.4, P<0.05). Dyspnea (MRC score) positively correlated with the presence of depression (r=0.61, P=0.001) and anxiety (r=0.6, P=0.001), with CAT score (r=0.8, P<0.001) and negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.55, P<0.007). CAT presented a positive correlation with BDI (r=0.71, P<0.001), STAI (r=0.73, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.44, P=0.036). Arterial PO2 had a negative correlation with BDI (r=–0.57, P=0.003) and STAI (r=-0.41, P=0.039), whilst BDI had a positive correlation with STAI (r=0.55, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039). Finally, STAI score correlated negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039).
Patients with a lower BMI had higher rates of depression, possibly due to the increased percentage of patients presenting an emphysematic phenotype (as derived by the data analysis from the study population). Both the subjective dyspnea feeling and the poor COPD control showed correlation with high rates of anxiety and depression, as well as with smaller walking distances in the 6 minute tests. Hypoxemia alone significantly correlated with depression and anxiety, whereas these two correlated with each other and with lower exercise capacity.
PMCID: PMC3537384
Depression and anxiety  2013;30(9):10.1002/da.22064.
Sleep disturbance (SD) has complex associations with depression, both preceding and following the onset and recurrence of depression. We hypothesized that students with depressive symptoms with SD would demonstrate a greater burden of comorbid psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD.
During a mental health screening, 287 undergraduate students endorsed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] ≥ 13) and filled out the following self-report measures: demographic questionnaire, BDI, Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire—intensity and frequency (ASQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ), and the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ). SD was measured using the BDI sleep item #16 dichotomized (score 0: no SD; or score > 0: some SD).
Students with depressive symptoms and SD (n = 220), compared to those without SD (n = 67), endorsed significantly more intense and frequent anxiety and poorer cognitive and physical functioning. Students with depressive symptoms with and without SD did not significantly differ in depressive severity, hopelessness, or quality of life.
College students with depressive symptoms with SD may experience a greater burden of comorbid anxiety symptoms and hyperarousal, and may have impairments in functioning, compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD. These findings require replication. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–8, 2013.
PMCID: PMC3791314  PMID: 23681944
sleep; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; functioning; quality of life; college students; mental health screening; hyperarousal
9.  Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study 
Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test.
Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects.
Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good.
Trial Registration NCT00791739
PMCID: PMC3112435  PMID: 21575194
10.  Low Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a mirror of general anxiety and persistent depressive symptoms in adolescent girls - a cross-sectional study of a clinical and a non-clinical cohort 
The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale is assumed to measure a distinct salutogenic construct separated from measures of anxiety and depression. Our aim was to challenge this concept.
The SOC-scale, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) , the emotional subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-em) and self-assessed health-related and physiological parameters were collected from a sample of non-clinical adolescent females (n = 66, mean age 16.5 years with a range of 15.9-17.7 years) and from female psychiatric patients (n = 73), mean age 16.8 years with a range of 14.5-18.4 years), with diagnoses of major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders.
The SOC scores showed high inverse correlations to BDI, BAI and SDQ-em. In the non-clinical sample the correlation coefficient was -0.86 to -0.73 and in the clinical samples -0.74 to -0.53 (p < 0.001). Multiple regression models showed that BDI was the strongest predictor of SOC in the non-clinical (beta coefficient -0.47) and clinical sample (beta coefficient -0.52). The total degree of explanation of self assessed anxiety and depression on the SOC variance estimated by multiple R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.73 in the non-clinical sample and multiple R2 = 0.66, adjusted R2 = 0.65 in the clinical sample.
Multivariate analyses failed to isolate SOC as a separate construct and the SOC-scale, BDI, BAI and SDQ-em showed similar patterns of correlations to self-reported and physiological health parameters in both samples. The SOC-scale was the most stable measure over six months.
The SOC-scale did not appear to be a measure of a distinct salutogenic construct, but an inverse measure of persistent depressive symptoms and generalized social anxiety similar to the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to DSM-IV. These symptoms were better captured with SOC than by the specialized scales for anxiety and depression. Self-assessment scales that adequately identify MDD, dysthymic disorder, GAD and SAD need to be implemented. Comorbidity of these disorders is common in adolescent females and corresponds to a more severe symptomatology and impaired global function.
PMCID: PMC2906444  PMID: 20537185
11.  Predictors of Suicidal Ideation in People with Epilepsy Living in Korea 
Background and Purpose
The risk of suicide or suicide attempts is reported higher in people with epilepsy (PWE) than in the general population. Although epileptic, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors are known risk factors for suicide or suicide attempt, no studies have evaluated the predictors of the severity of suicidal ideation-which is a warning sign for suicide attempts-in PWE. Therefore, we measured the severity of suicidal ideation and its risk factors.
Consecutive PWE who were medicated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and attended epilepsy clinic were included in the study. The subjects completed self-reported questionnaires, which included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and Scale for Suicide Ideation-Beck (SSI-Beck). We compared the patients' demographic and clinical variables, and BDI, BAI, and SCL-90-R scores with their SSI-Beck score, and used our findings to determine the predictors for suicidal ideation.
In total, 257 PWE were enrolled in the study. SSI-Beck scores correlated strongly with several seizure-related variables, duration of education, IQ, BDI and BAI scores, and nine domains of the SCL-90-R questionnaire. However, the strongest predictor for suicidal ideation was BDI score (β=0.41, p<0.001), followed by several SCL-90-R domains, such as obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.39, p<0.001), depression (β=0.38, p<0.001), hostility (β=0.22, p=0.002), paranoid ideation (β=0.17, p=0.01), and IQ (β=-0.10, p=0.017). These variables explained 59% of the variance in the SSI-Beck score. The seizure-related variables that influenced the BDI score were seizure frequency, duration of education, MRI abnormality, and number of AEDs. However, these variables explained only 18% of the variance in the BDI score.
Major risk factors for suicidal ideation in PWE were depressive and psychiatric symptoms rather than seizure-related variables. Therefore, clinicians should focus on screening for depression and other psychiatric problems and treat them appropriately in order to reduce suicidal behavior in PWE. Since seizure-related variables also exhibited a minor role in determining depressive symptoms, stronger seizure-related risk factors for depression should be sought, such as seizure severity or psychosocial factors, to minimize suicidal behavior.
PMCID: PMC2895228  PMID: 20607047
epilepsy; suicidal ideation; suicide; depression; psychiatric symptoms; predictors
12.  Subjective assessment of quality of sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient and its relationship with associated depression 
The quality of sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient from India has not been studied. Aim of this study was evaluation of subjective assessment of sleep quality in stable COPD patients and its relationship with associated depression.
Materials and Methods:
Forty clinically stable COPD patients were recruited from outpatient department and their disease status was classified as per Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline. Presence of depression was assessed by administering Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 and subjective quality of sleep was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
All study subjects were male and mean age of study population was 62.2 ± 9.2 years, 12 patients (30%) in stage II, 19 patients (47.5%) in stage III and 9 patients (22.5%) in stage IV were enrolled. All subjects had poor sleep quality with the median global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score 11. PHQ-9 score was significantly correlated with daytime function and global PSQI score (P<0.01). No correlation of global PSQI score with severity of COPD was observed.
The prevalence of poor sleep quality among COPD patients is high. Irrespective of severity of airflow obstruction, the presence of depression in COPD is a risk factor for poor sleep quality.
PMCID: PMC3519018  PMID: 23243346
COPD; depression; PHQ-9; PSQI; sleep quality
13.  The correlation of anxiety and depression with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder characterized by repeated upper airway obstruction during sleep. While respiratory pauses followed by loud snoring and daytime sleepiness are the main symptoms of OSAS, the patients may complain from sleep disruption, headache, mood disturbance, irritability, and memory impairment. However, the association of sleep apnea with anxiety and depression is not completely understood. Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the treatment of choice for OSAS, may be influenced by psychological conditions, especially claustrophobia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of OSAS with anxiety and depression symptoms. This study also investigated the association of anxiety with body mass index (BMI) and the severity of OSAS.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a cross-sectional study on 178 adult individuals diagnosed with OSAS at the sleep laboratory between September 2008 and May 2012. The participants were interviewed according to a checklist regarding both their chief complaints and other associated symptoms. The psychological status was assessed according to Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) scoring. The severity of breathing disorder was classified as mild, moderate, and severe based on apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) which was ascertained by overnight polysomnography. Daytime sleepiness was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS).
The mean (SD) age of participants was 50.33 years. In terms of sex, 85.5% of the study population were males and14.4% were females. We found no relation between sex and the symptoms of OSAS. Regarding the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms, 53.9% of the individuals had some degree of anxiety, while 46.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In terms of OSAS severity, this study showed that OSAS severity was associated with the frequency of anxiety, chocking, and sleepiness (P : 0.001). According to polysomnographic results, we found that the majority of patients suffering from anxiety and chocking (66.7% and 71.4%, respectively) had severe OSAS, while only 23.1% of patients with sleepiness had severe OSAS.
Our study showed that the frequency of anxiety in OSAS patients is higher than in the general population regardless of the gender. Furthermore, it is more likely that OSAS patients present with anxiety and depression than the typical symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4061640  PMID: 24949026
Anxiety; depression; obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
14.  Fatigue in patients with COPD participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program 
Fatigue is a distressing, complex, multidimensional sensation common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While fatigue negatively impacts functional performance and quality of life, there has been little study of the fatigue that affects participants in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical dimensions of fatigue and their relationships to dyspnea, mental health, sleep, and physiologic factors.
Patients and methods
A convenience sample of 42 pulmonary rehabilitation participants with COPD completed self-report questionnaires which measured dimensions of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data on other clinical variables were abstracted from pulmonary rehabilitation program health records.
Almost all (95.3%) participants experienced high levels of physical fatigue. High levels of fatigue were also reported for the dimensions of reduced activity (88.1%), reduced motivation (83.3%), mental fatigue (69.9%), and general fatigue (54.5%). Close to half (42.9%) of participants reported symptoms of anxiety, while almost one quarter (21.4%) reported depressive symptoms. Age was related to the fatigue dimensions of reduced activity (ρ = 0.43, P < 0.01) and reduced motivation (ρ = 0.31, P < 0.05). Anxiety was related to reduced motivation (ρ = −0.47, P < 0.01). Fatigue was not associated with symptoms of depression, sleep quality, gender, supplemental oxygen use, smoking status, or Medical Research Council dyspnea scores.
Fatigue (particularly the physical and reduced motivation dimensions of fatigue) was experienced by almost all participants with COPD attending this pulmonary rehabilitation program. Fatigue affected greater proportions of participants than either anxiety or depression. The high prevalence of fatigue may impact on enrolment, participation, and attrition in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Further investigation of the nature, correlates, and impact of fatigue in this population is required.
PMCID: PMC2962297  PMID: 21037955
COPD; fatigue; pulmonary rehabilitation; anxiety; depression; sleep quality
15.  Relationship between peripheral airway function and patient-reported outcomes in COPD: a cross-sectional study 
Health status, dyspnea and psychological status are important clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured by spirometry, the standard measurement of airflow limitation, has only a weak relationship with these outcomes in COPD. Recently, in addition to spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) measuring lung resistance (R) and reactance (X) is increasingly being used to assess pulmonary functional impairment.
We aimed to identify relationships between IOS measurements and patient-reported outcomes in 65 outpatients with stable COPD. We performed pulmonary function testing, IOS, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and assessment of health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), dyspnea using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and psychological status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We then investigated the relationships between these parameters. For the IOS measurements, we used lung resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20, respectively) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5). Because R5 and R20 are regarded as reflecting total and proximal airway resistance, respectively, the fall in resistance from R5 to R20 (R5-R20) was used as a surrogate for the resistance of peripheral airways. X5 was also considered to represent peripheral airway abnormalities.
R5-R20 and X5 were significantly correlated with the SGRQ and the MRC. These correlation coefficients were greater than when using other objective measurements of pulmonary function, R20 on the IOS and CT instead of R5-R20 and X5. Multiple regression analyses showed that R5-R20 or X5 most significantly accounted for the SGRQ and MRC scores.
IOS measurements, especially indices of peripheral airway function, are significantly correlated with health status and dyspnea in patients with COPD. Therefore, in addition to its simplicity and non-invasiveness, IOS may be a useful clinical tool not only for detecting pulmonary functional impairment, but also to some extent at least estimating the patient's quality of daily life and well-being.
PMCID: PMC2841100  PMID: 20205936
16.  Health status in COPD cannot be measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire alone: an evaluation of the underlying concepts of this questionnaire 
Respiratory Research  2010;11(1):98.
Improving patients' health status is one of the major goals in COPD treatment. Questionnaires could facilitate the guidance of patient-tailored disease management by exploring which aspects of health status are problematic, and which aspects are not. Health status consists of four main domains (physiological functioning, symptoms, functional impairment, and quality of life), and at least sixteen sub-domains. A prerequisite for patient-tailored treatment is a detailed assessment of all these sub-domains. Most questionnaires developed to measure health status consist of one or a few subscales and measure merely some aspects of health status. The question then rises which aspects of health status are measured by these instruments, and which aspects are not covered. As it is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in COPD, we evaluated which aspects of health status are measured and which aspects are not measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
One hundred and forty-six outpatients with COPD participated. Correlations were calculated between the three sections of the SGRQ and ten sub-domains of the Nijmegen Integral Assessment Framework, covering Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Quality of Life. As the SGRQ was not expected to measure physiological functioning, we did not include this main domain in the statistical analyses. Pearson's r ≥ 0.70 was used as criterion for conceptual similarity.
The SGRQ sections Symptoms and Total showed conceptual similarity with the sub-domain Subjective Symptoms (main domain Symptoms). The sections Activity, Impacts and Total were conceptual similar to Subjective Impairment (main domain Functional Impairment). The SGRQ sections were not conceptual similar to other sub-domains of Symptoms, Functional Impairment, nor to any sub-domain of Quality of Life.
The SGRQ could facilitate the guidance of disease management in COPD only partially. The SGRQ is appropriately only for measuring problems in the sub-domains Subjective Symptoms and Subjective Impairment, and not for measuring problems in other sub-domains of health status, such as Quality of Life.
PMCID: PMC2919469  PMID: 20649991
17.  The psychometric properties of the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a literature review 
Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is particularly important in patients with progressive and incurable diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has frequently been used to measure HRQL in patients with IPF, but it was developed for patients with obstructive lung diseases. The aim of this review was to examine published data on the psychometric performance of the SGRQ in patients with IPF. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies reporting data on the internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and interpretability of the SGRQ in patients with IPF, published up to August 2013. In total, data from 30 papers were reviewed. Internal consistency was moderate for the SGRQ symptoms score and excellent for the SGRQ activity, impact and total scores. Validity of the SGRQ symptoms, activity, impact and total scores was supported by moderate to strong correlations with other patient-reported outcome measures and with a measure of exercise capacity. Most correlations were moderately strong between SGRQ activity or total scores and forced or static vital capacity, the most commonly used marker of IPF severity. There was evidence that changes in SGRQ domain and total scores could detect within-subject improvement in health status, and differentiate groups of patients whose health status had improved, declined or remained unchanged. Although the SGRQ was not developed specifically for use with patients with IPF, on balance, its psychometric properties are adequate and suggest that it may be a useful measure of HRQL in this patient population. However, several questions remain unaddressed, and further research is needed to confirm the SGRQ’s utility in IPF.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12955-014-0124-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4148554  PMID: 25138056
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Patient-reported outcomes; PROs; St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; SGRQ; Health-related quality of life; HRQL; Psychometrics; Validity; Reliability
18.  Sleep disturbances are associated with increased pain, disease activity, depression, and anxiety in ankylosing spondylitis: a case-control study 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(5):R215.
Literature data suggest that sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and have a close correlation with pain. Other studies indicate that sleep disturbances are constantly accompanied by depression and anxiety in AS, but their interrelations are poorly understood. This study was designed to evaluate sleep disturbances and their association with demographic variables, pain, disease-specific variables, functional status, covering depression and anxiety in AS patients.
The 314 patients with AS and age- and sex-matched controls took part in the study, completed a battery of questionnaires, and participated in long-term follow-up. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The association among sleep, pain, disease activity, functional status, depression, and anxiety were assessed by using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multiple regression analysis.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of the Chinese version was significantly higher in the AS group than in the control group (P = 0.020). Of the 314 patients with AS, 184 (58.6%) had a high risk for sleep disturbances. The PSQI score was associated with age, years of education, ESR, CRP, overall assessment of health, pain, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), depression, and anxiety (all P < 0.001), but were not associated with disease duration, fingertip-to-floor distance, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) (P > 0.05). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, the medical and psychological variables contributed significantly to the variance in sleep-disturbances scores, adding an additional 23.9% to the overall R2 beyond that accounted for by demographic variables (R-square, 8.5%), resulting in a final R2of 42.6%. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that anxiety was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting sleep disturbances (standardized coefficients, 0.287).
The prevalence of sleep disturbances in AS patients is higher than it is generally thought to be. Depression, anxiety, nocturnal pain, and total back pain are the major contributors of sleep disturbances in AS.
PMCID: PMC3580527  PMID: 23058191
19.  Effect of acupuncture on patients with insomnia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15(1):403.
Hypnotic drugs tend to be the dominant form of treatment of insomnia, but these come with a number of reported side effects. Acupuncture has been studied as an alternative, resulting in a rising need for methodological research towards verifying its efficacy as insomnia treatment.
We describe a proposal for a single-center, patient-assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms. A total of 38 patients complete screening tests at the first visit, are registered into the clinical trial, and then randomly assigned to the experimental or sham control groups (19 patients for each group). All subjects are clinical insomnia patients who score a 6 or above on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and meet all inclusion criteria. All subjects are treated with acupuncture and intradermal acupuncture (IDA) three times during the first week. Five sham acupoints are used in the control group. In the experimental group, five real acupoints (PC6, SP6, HT7, KI6, and BL62) are used unilaterally in turn. Sham acupoints are over 1 cm away from each real acupoint.
The primary outcomes are the scores on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and PSQI. Secondary outcomes are the sleep log, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), the Korean-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (K-AVLT), the Digit Span Test (DS), Event Related Potentials (ERPs) and heart rate variability (HRV) to assess emotional states, sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and electro-physiological changes.
Subjects are assessed at three time points: baseline, post-treatment and follow-up. The duration of the clinical trial is 18 days.
To study the enhancement of the effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia, we test the intradermal acupuncture method, which is performed continuously on the subject’s skin and stimulated at home by the subject every night. In the trial, objective measurements including ERPs and HRV are used to evaluate states of cognition and autonomic nervous system functioning and subjective self-report questionnaires assess insomnia symptoms.
'Sham’ acupuncture points provided by STRICTA are used for the control group.
Trial registration NCT01956760, registered 5 September 2013.
PMCID: PMC4213556  PMID: 25342100
Insomnia; Acupuncture; Intradermal acupuncture; Clinical trial
20.  Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19576.
Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV).
Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI), quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire) and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI)-II questionnaire). Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected.
From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med) duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5) were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4%) than in male (43.9%) (p<0.05) and moderate to serious depressive symptoms (BDI score>19) in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p<0.05) were depression (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–6.8), male gender (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9), active employment (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9), living single (OR 1.5; CI 1.2–2.0), tobacco-smoking (OR 1.3; CI 1.0–1.8), duration of HIV infection (>10 vs. <10 y.) (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0), ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9) or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7).
Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological status than HIV infection. Depression is frequent and should be taken in care to improve sleep quality.
PMCID: PMC4224925  PMID: 25394083
21.  Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study 
Respiratory Research  2010;11(1):29.
Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea.
Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ.
In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes.
Trail Registration NCT00000606
PMCID: PMC2848143  PMID: 20214820
22.  Sleep disturbance, depression and pain in adults with sickle cell disease 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:207.
Sleep disturbance and depression are commonly encountered in primary care. In sickle cell disease, depression is associated with pain, poor treatment compliance, and lower quality of life. The prevalence of sleep disturbance and its effect upon quality of life in adults with sickle cell disease is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance and if it is associated with pain and depression in sickle cell disease.
Three hundred twenty eight adults with sickle cell disease enrolled on the Bethesda Sickle Cell Cohort Study were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory II screening measures as a cross-sectional survey. Scores greater than 5 (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and 16 (Beck Depression Inventory II) defined sleep disturbance and depression, respectively. Clinical and laboratory parameters were also assessed.
The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 8.4 (SD ± 4.2) indicating a 71.2% prevalence of sleep disturbance. The mean Beck Depression Inventory II score was 8.0 (SD ± 8.9). Sixty five (20.6%) participants had a score indicating depression, and half of these (10.0%) had thoughts of suicide. Both Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory II scores were significantly correlated (p < .001). The number of days with mild/moderate pain (p = .001) and a history of headaches (p = .005) were independently associated with depression by multivariate regression analysis. Patients with sleep disturbance were older (p = .002), had higher body mass index (p = .011), had more days of pain (p = .003) and more frequent severe acute painful events (emergency room visits and hospitalizations) during the previous 12 months (p < .001).
More than 70 percent of adults with sickle cell disease had sleep disturbance, while 21 percent showed evidence of clinical depression. Sleep disturbance and depression were correlated, and were most common among those with more frequent pain. Providers caring for adults with sickle cell disease and frequent pain should consider screening for these common co-morbidities. Additional study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if treatments for pain, depression or sleep disturbances will improve quality of life measures in this patient population.
Trial registration identifier: NCT00011648.
PMCID: PMC4223647  PMID: 25047658
Sickle cell disease; Sleep disturbance; Depression; Chronic pain; Patient reported outcomes; Bethesda sickle cell cohort study
23.  Effects of telephone health mentoring in community-recruited chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on self-management capacity, quality of life and psychological morbidity: a randomised controlled trial 
BMJ Open  2013;3(9):e003097.
To assess benefits of telephone-delivered health mentoring in community-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Tasmanian general practices: capital city (11), large rural (3), medium rural (1) and small rural (16).
Patients were invited (1207) from general practitioner (GP) databases with COPD diagnosis and/or tiotropium prescription, response rate 49% (586), refused (176) and excluded (criteria: smoking history or previous study, 68). Spirometry testing (342) confirmed moderate or severe COPD in 182 (53%) patients.
By random numbers code, block stratified on location, allocation by sequentially numbered, opaque and sealed envelopes.
Health mentor (HM) group received regular calls to manage illness issues and health behaviours from trained community health nurses using negotiated goal setting: problem solving, decision-making and action planning. Control: usual care (UC) group received GP care plus non-interventional brief phone calls.
Measured at 0, 6 and 12 months, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, primary); Partners In Health (PIH) Scale for self-management capacity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Satisfaction with life and hospital admissions (secondary).
182 participants with COPD (age 68±8 years, 62% moderate COPD and 53% men) were randomised (HM=90 and UC=92). Mixed model regression analysis accounting for clustering, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status and airflow limitation assessed efficacy (regression coefficient, β, reported per 6-month visit). There was no difference in quality of life between groups, but self-management capacity increased in the HM group (PIH overall 0.15, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.29; knowledge domain 0.25, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.50). Anxiety decreased in both groups (HADS A 0.35; 95% CI −0.65 to −0.04) and coping capacity improved (PIH coping 0.15; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.26).
Health mentoring improved self-management capacity but not quality of life compared to regular phone contact, which itself had positive effects where decline is generally expected.
PMCID: PMC3773640  PMID: 24014482
Preventive Medicine; Primary Care
24.  Anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with beta thalassemia major and their caregivers 
Mental health and health related quality of life is commonly affected in patients with chronic problems and their caregivers. In the present study, it was aimed to assess depression and anxiety in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) and in their caregivers; and to evaluate effects of these disorders on quality of life. The study was carried out in a district Hereditary Hemoglobinopathy Center and included 88 patients with BTM and 63 of their caregivers. All subjects were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) by a trained psychiatry resident via face-to-face interview. The BDI scores were 17 or above in 20.5% of the patients with BTM and 28.6% of their caregivers (P = 0.248). Of the patients with BTM, there were mild anxiety symptoms in 19.3%, while moderate and severe anxiety symptoms in 14.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Anxiety levels were similar between the patients with BTM and their caregivers (P = 0.878). It was found that BDI and BAI scores were negatively correlated to scores of physical health and mental health components of SF-36 in patients with BTM and their caregivers. In linear regression analysis, it was seen that depression affected physical and mental health of the patients with BTM and their caregivers regardless from anxiety. BTM leads an increase in the frequency of depression and anxiety in both patients and their caregivers, and affects negatively physical and mental components of quality of life.
PMCID: PMC4161562  PMID: 25232402
Beta-thalassemia; quality of life; anxiety; depression; caregivers
25.  The Association between Pain and Depression, Anxiety, and Cognitive Function among Advanced Cancer Patients in the Hospice Ward 
Korean Journal of Family Medicine  2013;34(5):347-356.
Pain is the most common but severe physical symptom among cancer patients. This study aimed to identify correlation between pain and psychological symptoms for terminal cancer patients.
The total sample consisted of 69 subjects who were recruited through two hospice wards, limited to patients who were mentally alert and had no psychiatric diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the numerical rating scale: the pain-free group, 0 to 3 points; and the pain group, 4 to 10 points. We used the Beck depression inventory (BDI), Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), mini-mental status examination-Korea (MMSE-K), and short form 36 health survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to verify the correlation between pain and other psychosocial disorders.
The mean scores of BDI in the pain-free and pain groups were 25.7 and 31.5; mean BAI scores were 23.4 and 34.7; mean MMSE-K scores were 25.7 and 21.8, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in SF-36 score except scores of body pain. The results of logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, marital status, types of cancer, history of chemotherapy, or radiotherapy showed significant correlation between pain and depression (BDI ≥ 24; odds ratio [OR], 4.199; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.171 to 15.060), and pain and cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24; OR, 5.495; 95% CI, 1.449 to 20.843); but not between pain and anxiety (BAI ≥ 22; OR, 3.011; 95% CI, 0.907 to 9.997).
Pain significantly affects depression and cognitive impairment among advanced cancer patients in the hospice ward. Accordingly, more aggressive treatment of pain is required to reduce not only physical suffering but also physiological distress.
PMCID: PMC3791342  PMID: 24106587
Terminal Cancer; Hospices; Pain; Depression; Anxiety; Cognition

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