A major question concerning the immunopathology of rheumatoid arthritis is why the disease is localized to particular joints. A possible explanation could be the presence within the synovium of cells that foster inflammation or easy accessibility of the synovium to migratory disease enhancing cells. Within both the bone marrow and the synovium, fibroblastic stromal cells play an important role in supporting the differentiation and survival of normal cells, and also contribute to the pathologic processes. Among fibroblastic stromal cells in synovial tissue and bone marrow, nurse-like cells are a unique population having the specific capacity to promote pseudoemperipolesis (adhesion and holding beneath) of lymphocytes, and also the ability to promote the growth and function of some populations of lymphocytes and monocytes. Nurse-like cells could therefore contribute to the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and may contribute to the localization of inflammation within specific joints. The present review considers the evidence that supports these possibilities.
The nucleic acid-binding protein YB-1, a member of the cold-shock domain protein family, has been implicated in the progression of breast cancer and is associated with poor patient survival. YB-1 has sequence similarity to LIN28, another cold-shock protein family member, which has a role in the regulation of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, to investigate whether there is an association between YB-1 and sncRNAs in breast cancer, we investigated whether sncRNAs were bound by YB-1 in two breast cancer cell lines (luminal A-like and basal cell-like), and whether the abundance of sncRNAs and mRNAs changed in response to experimental reduction of YB-1 expression.
RNA-immunoprecipitation with an anti-YB-1 antibody showed that several sncRNAs are bound by YB-1. Some of these were bound by YB-1 in both breast cancer cell lines; others were cell-line specific. The small RNAs bound by YB-1 were derived from various sncRNA families including miRNAs such as let-7 and miR-320, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA). Reducing YB-1 expression altered the abundance of a number of transcripts encoding miRNA biogenesis and processing proteins but did not alter the abundance of mature or precursor miRNAs.
YB-1 binds to specific miRNAs, snoRNAs and tRNA-derived fragments and appears to regulate the expression of miRNA biogenesis and processing machinery. We propose that some of the oncogenic effects of YB-1 in breast cancer may be mediated through its interactions with sncRNAs.
Mechanisms whereby T lymphocytes contribute to synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis are poorly understood. Here we review data that indicate an important role for cell contact between synovial T cells, adjacent macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Thus, T cells activated by cytokines, endothelial transmigration, extracellular matrix or by auto-antigens can promote cytokine, particularly TNFα, metalloproteinase production by macrophages and FLS through cell-membrane interactions, mediated at least through β-integrins and membrane cytokines. Since soluble factors thus induced may in turn contribute directly to T cell activation, positive feedback loops are likely to be created. These novel pathways represent exciting potential therapeutic targets.
adhesion molecule; cell contact; cytokine; T lymphocyte; rheumatoid arthritis
B-cell accumulation and formation of ectopic germinal centers are characteristic changes in the diseased joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier studies suggested that interactions between B lymphocytes and specialized synovial “nurse-like” cells peculiar to the RA synovium may be responsible for the homing and sustained survival of B cells in the synovium. However, in this study, we found that B cells spontaneously migrate beneath ordinary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and then experience prolonged survival. FLSs isolated from joints of patients with osteoarthritis also supported this activity, termed B-cell pseudoemperipolesis. We found that FLSs constitutively expressed the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that pertussis toxin or antibodies to the SDF-1 receptor (CXCR4) could inhibit B-cell pseudoemperipolesis. However, expression of SDF-1 is not sufficient, as dermal fibroblasts also expressed this chemokine but were unable to support B-cell pseudoemperipolesis unless previously stimulated with IL-4 to express CD106 (VCAM-1), a ligand for the α4β1 integrin, very-late-antigen-4 (VLA-4 or CD49d). Furthermore, mAb’s specific for CD49d and CD106, or the synthetic CS1 fibronectin peptide, could inhibit B-cell pseudoemperipolesis. We conclude that ordinary FLSs can support B-cell pseudoemperipolesis via a mechanism dependent upon fibroblast expression of SDF-1 and CD106.
Human interleukin-26 induces Th17 cells, is over-expressed in rheumatoid arthritis, and is thus a promising therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory disease.
Interleukin-26 (IL-26), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells. IL-26 has been also reported overexpressed in Crohn's disease, suggesting that it may be involved in the physiopathology of chronic inflammatory disorders. Here, we have analyzed the expression and role of IL-26 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint synovial inflammation. We report that the concentrations of IL-26 are higher in the serums of RA patients than of healthy subjects and dramatically elevated in RA synovial fluids compared to RA serums. Immunohistochemistry reveals that synoviolin+ fibroblast-like synoviocytes and CD68+ macrophage-like synoviocytes are the main IL-26-producing cells in RA joints. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA patients constitutively produce IL-26 and this production is upregulated by IL-1-beta and IL-17A. We have therefore investigated the role of IL-26 in the inflammatory process. Results show that IL-26 induces the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1-beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by human monocytes and also upregulates the expression of numerous chemokines (mainly CCL20). Interestingly, IL-26-stimulated monocytes selectively promote the generation of RORgamma t+ Th17 cells, through IL-1-beta secretion by monocytes. More precisely, IL-26-stimulated monocytes switch non-Th17 committed (IL-23R− or CCR6− CD161−) CD4+ memory T cells into Th17 cells. Finally, synovial fluids from RA patients also induce Th17 cell generation and this effect is reduced after IL-26 depletion. These findings show that IL-26 is constitutively produced by RA synoviocytes, induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion by myeloid cells, and favors Th17 cell generation. IL-26 thereby appears as a novel proinflammatory cytokine, located upstream of the proinflammatory cascade, that may constitute a promising target to treat RA and chronic inflammatory disorders.
In the present study, we investigated the ability of microparticles isolated from synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis to induce the synthesis and release of key cytokines of B-lymphocyte modulation such as B cell-activating factor, thymic stroma lymphopoietin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor by rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes.
Microparticles were analyzed in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, microcristalline arthritis, and reactive arthritis. In addition, microparticle release after activation from various cell lines (CEM lymphocyte and THP-1 cells) was assessed. Microparticles were isolated by differential centrifugation, and quantitative determinations were carried out by prothrombinase assay after capture on immobilized annexin V. B cell-activating factor, thymic stroma lymphopoietin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor release was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Microparticles isolated from synovial fluids obtained from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients or microparticles derived from activated THP-1 cells were able to induce B cell-activating factor, thymic stroma lymphopoietin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor release by rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Conversely, CEM-lymphocytes-derived microparticles generated by treatment with a combination of PHA, PMA and Adt-D did not promote the release of B cell-activating factor but favored the secretion of thymic stroma lymphopoietin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor by rheumatoid arthritis fibrobast-like synoviocytes. However, microparticles isolated from actinomycin D-treated CEM lymphocytes were not able to induce B cell-activating factor, thymic stroma lymphopoietin, or secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor release, indicating that microparticles derived from apoptotic T cells do not function as effectors in B-cell activation.
These results demonstrate that microparticles are signalling structures that may act as specific conveyors in the triggered induction and amplification of autoimmunity. This study also indicates that microparticles have differential effects in the crosstalk between B lymphocytes and target cells of autoimmunity regarding the parental cells from which they derive.
MOS1 (MODIFIER OF snc1) was identified through a genetic screen for suppressors of snc1, an autoimmune mutant caused by a gain-of-function mutation in a TIR-NB-LRR-type Resistance gene. Loss of MOS1 function completely suppresses snc1-mediated autoimmunity. The MOS1 protein contains a BAT2 domain and regulates the expression of SNC1 in a locus-specific manner, but the mechanism on how MOS1 epigenetically regulates SNC1 gene expression is unclear. Here, we report the gene expression pattern and subcellular localization of MOS1. In addition, we analyze and discuss the roles of DNA and histone methylation in mos1-mediated suppression of SNC1 expression.
MOS1; SNC1; Resistance gene; plant immunity; BAT2; epigenetic regulation
Recently, it has been demonstrated that oxygen free radicals have an important role as a signaling messenger in the development of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis, suggesting the implication of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of arthritis. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of a strong free-radical scavenger, water-soluble fullerene (C60), as a protective agent against synovitis in arthritis, both in vitro and in vivo. In the presence or absence of C60 (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 μM), human synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages were incubated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (10.0 ng/mL), and the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the individual cells were analyzed. C60 significantly suppressed the TNF-α-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro. Adjuvant induced arthritic rats were used as an animal model of arthritis. Rats were divided into two subgroups: control and treatment with C60 at 10.0 μM. The left ankle joint was injected intraarticularly with water-soluble C60 (20 μl) in the C60-treated group, while, as a control, the left ankle joint in the control rats received phosphate-buffered saline (20 μl), once weekly for eight weeks. Ankle joint tissues were prepared for histological analysis. In adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, intra-articular treatment with C60 in vivo reduced synovitis and alleviated bone resorption and destruction in the joints, while control ankle joints showed progression of synovitis and joint destruction with time. These findings indicate that C60 is a potential therapeutic agent for inhibition of arthritis.
fullerene; inflammation; arthritis; synovitis; bone resorption
Heat shock proteins (hsp) have been repeatedly implicated to participate in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we investigated the regulation of synovial hsp70 expression by analyzing the DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) as well as inducible hsp70 expression. Experiments were performed both on synovial tissue and on synovial fibroblast-like cells (SFC). Gel mobility shift analysis revealed increased HSF1 activation, and Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed increased hsp70 expression in RA synovial tissue, but not in synovial tissue derived from patients with osteoarthritis. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6), but not IFN-gamma or TGF-beta, induced activation of HSF1-DNA binding and hsp70 expression in cultivated SFC. Activation of HSF1 in SFC was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation and nuclear translocation of HSF1. Furthermore, shear stress also induced a complete heat shock response in cultivated synovial cells. In contrast, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs triggered only an incomplete heat shock response, with HSF1 activation but not hsp70 induction, whereas steroids and immunosuppressive drugs did not affect the heat shock response at all. In summary, these data suggest that induction of hsp70 expression in rheumatoid synovial tissue is based on transcriptional activation of HSF1 due to the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (and possibly also shear stress).
OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to investigate in situ the expression of the classic vitronectin (VN) receptor consisting of the αv and β3 subunits in synovial lining cells (SLC) of chronic synovitis occurring in osteoarthritis (OA) and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression and function of αv and β3 as VN receptor in cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FBS) derived from patients with OA and RA was also compared.
METHODS—Expression of αv and β3 was examined immunohistochemically in normal synovial tissue and in synovial tisssue from patients with OA and RA. The effect of proinflammatory cytokines and of a synovial fluid of a patient with RA on the expression of the αv and β3 subunits of cultured FBS was determined by flow cytometry. Binding of OA and RA-FBS to VN was quantified using adhesion assays and the effect of interleukin 1β (IL1β) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) on adhesion was measured. The specifity of the adhesion was tested by inhibition studies using monoclonal antibodies to integrin subunits.
RESULTS—In in situ studies normal SLC showed a parallel distribution of αv and β3 subunits. OA-SLC strongly and uniformly expressed αv whereas RA-SLC showed heterogeneous expression of αv. In situ both OA-SLC and RA-SLC lacked the expression of the integrin subunit β3. In in vitro studies, OA-FBS and RA-FBS did not differ as regards expression of αv and β3, and VN attachment. Binding of RA-FBS to VN was partially blocked by antibodies against αv, β1, and β3 subunits, whereas only antibodies against αv and β3 inhibited the binding of OA-FBS to VN. The proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL1β increased the expression of αv and β3, and the VN binding of OA-FBS, whereas αv and β3 expression, and VN binding were downregulated in RA-FBS. Similar effects were found when the synovial fluid of an RA patient was used.
CONCLUSION—The integrin subunit β3 seems to be one partner but not the major one with which the subunit αv forms functional vitronectin receptors in OA-FBS and RA-FBS. The interaction between synovial cells and inflammatory cytokines seems to be different for OA and RA; the basis for this difference, however, remains to be established.
High expression of galectin 3 at sites of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests that galectin 3 plays a role in RA pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of galectins on immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that galectin 3 induces proinflammatory effects in RA by modulating the pattern of cytokine and chemokine production in synovial fibroblasts.
Matched samples of RA synovial and skin fibroblasts were pretreated with galectin 3 or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and the levels of a panel of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and multiplex assays. Specific inhibitors were used to dissect signaling pathways, which were confirmed by Western blotting and NF-κB activation assay.
Galectin 3 induced secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CXCL8, and MMP-3 in both synovial and skin fibroblasts. By contrast, galectin 3–induced secretion of TNFα, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5 was significantly greater in synovial fibroblasts than in skin fibroblasts. TNFα blockade ruled out autocrine TNFα-stimulated induction of chemokines. The MAPKs p38, JNK, and ERK were necessary for IL-6 production, but phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) was required for selective CCL5 induction. NF-κB activation was required for production of both IL-6 and CCL5.
Our findings indicate that galectin 3 promotes proinflammatory cytokine secretion by tissue fibroblasts. However, galectin 3 induces the production of mononuclear cell–recruiting chemokines uniquely from synovial fibroblasts, but not matched skin fibroblasts, via a PI 3-kinase signaling pathway. These data provide further evidence of the role of synovial fibroblasts in regulating the pattern and persistence of the inflammatory infiltrate in RA and suggest a new and important functional consequence of the observed high expression of galectin 3 in the rheumatoid synovium.
Background. Cell signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to assess effects of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with recent-onset RA, osteoarthrosis (OA), and healthy control (HC).
Methods. PBMCs were stimulated with LPS, biglycan and cytokine mix. Cytokines were analyzed in supernatants with ELISA. Expression of toll-like receptors mRNA in leukocytes was analyzed using real-time qPCR.
Results. PBMCs from RA patients spontaneously produced less IL-6 and TNFα than cells from OA and HC subjects.
LPS increased cytokines' production in all groups. In RA patients increase was dramatic (30 to 48-fold and 17 to 31-fold, for respective cytokines) compared to moderate (2 to 8-fold) in other groups. LPS induced 15-HETE generation in PBMCs from RA (mean 251%) and OA patients (mean 43%), although only in OA group, the increase was significant. TLR2 and TLR4 gene expressions decreased in response to cytokine mix, while LPS enhanced TLR2 expression in HC and depressed TLR4 expression in OA patients.
Conclusion. PBMCs from recent-onset RA patients are overresponsive to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
TLR expression is differentially regulated in healthy and arthritic subjects.
Integrins play an important role in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and other cells. Upon ligand binding, signaling is initiated and several intracellular pathways are activated. This leads to a wide variety of effects, depending on cell type. Integrin activation has been linked to proliferation, secretion of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokine production, migration, and invasion. Dysregulated integrin expression is often found in malignant disease. Tumors use integrins to evade apoptosis or metastasize, indicating that integrin signaling has to be tightly controlled. During the course of rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial tissue is infiltrated by immune cells that secrete large amounts of cytokines. This pro-inflammatory milieu leads to an upregulation of integrin receptors and their ligands in the synovial tissue. As a consequence, integrin signaling is enhanced, leading to enhanced production of matrix-degrading enzymes and cytokines. Furthermore, in analogy to invading tumors, synovial fibroblasts start invading and degrading cartilage, thereby generating extracellular matrix debris that can further activate integrins.
Leukocyte infiltration into the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium is a multistep process in which leukocytes leave the bloodstream and invade the synovial tissue (ST). Leukocyte transendothelial migration and adhesion to RA ST requires adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and RA ST fibroblasts. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) in mediating leukocyte recruitment and retention in the RA joint.
Immunohistologic analysis was performed on RA, osteoarthritis (OA), and normal ST samples to quantify JAM-C expression. Fibroblast JAM-C expression was also analyzed using Western blotting, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence. To determine the role of JAM-C in leukocyte retention in the RA synovium, in vitro and in situ adhesion assays and RA ST fibroblast transmigration assays were performed.
JAM-C was highly expressed by RA ST lining cells, and its expression was increased in OA ST and RA ST endothelial cells compared with normal ST endothelial cells. JAM-C was also expressed on the surface of OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that myeloid U937 cell adhesion to both OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts and to RA ST was dependent on JAM-C. U937 cell migration through an RA ST fibroblast monolayer was enhanced in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against JAM-C.
Our results highlight the novel role of JAM-C in recruiting and retaining leukocytes in the RA synovium and suggest that targeting JAM-C may be important in combating inflammatory diseases such as RA.
Coexpressed and colocalized μ- and δ-opioid
have been established to exist as heteromers in cultured cells and in vivo. However the biological significance of opioid receptor
heteromer activation is less clear. To explore this significance,
the efficacy of selective activation of opioid receptors by SNC80
was assessed in vitro in cells singly and coexpressing
opioid receptors using a chimeric G-protein-mediated calcium fluorescence
assay, SNC80 produced a substantially more robust response in cells
expressing μ–δ heteromers than in all other cell
lines. Intrathecal SNC80 administration in μ- and δ-opioid
receptor knockout mice produced diminished antinociceptive activity
compared with wild type. The combined in vivo and in vitro results suggest that SNC80 selectively activates
μ–δ heteromers to produce maximal antinociception.
These data contrast with the current view that SNC80 selectively activates
δ-opioid receptor homomers to produce antinociception. Thus,
the data suggest that heteromeric μ–δ receptors
should be considered as a target when SNC80 is employed as a pharmacological
tool in vivo.
μ opioid receptor; δ opioid receptor; μ−δ heteromer; SNC80; knockout; antinociception
We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) are expressed in inflammatory cells and, through ligand binding, play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as in regulation of cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. Inflammatory cytokines and MMPs play a significant role in cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA) and in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the prototype of inflammatory arthritis. To determine if RARα is expressed in the synovial membrane (SM) of patients with OA and compare it with RA, SM biopsy samples were used in this study which were from 31 patients with late OA and 14 patients with late RA. Cryostat sections were studied by immunochemistry using a RARα-specific antibody. All SM samples from OA and RA patients exhibited cellular localization for RARα. Immunoreactivity was present in mononuclear inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, synovial lining cells, and fibroblasts. Inflammatory infiltrates were interstitial and nodular. Roughly one half of mononuclear cells in the inflammatory nodules in OA and RA were positive for RARα. The conclusion is that the presence of RARα in SM of patients with OA and RA suggests that RARs may play a role in the immunomodulation of synovial inflammation and therefore can be a potential target of therapeutic intervention in these arthritides.
osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; retinoic acid receptor; synovial membrane
BTN2 gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is up-regulated in response to the deletion of BTN1, which encodes the ortholog of a human Batten disease protein. We isolated Btn2 as a Snc1 v-SNARE binding protein using the two-hybrid assay and examined its role in intracellular protein trafficking. We show that Btn2 is an ortholog of theDrosophila and mammalian Hook1 proteins that interact with SNAREs, cargo proteins, and coat components involved in endosome-Golgi protein sorting. By immunoprecipitation, it was found that Btn2 bound the yeast endocytic SNARE complex (e.g., Snc1 and Snc2 [Snc1/2], Tlg1, Tlg2, and Vti1), the Snx4 sorting nexin, and retromer (e.g., Vps26 and Vps35). In in vitro binding assays, recombinant His6-tagged Btn2 bound glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Snc1 and GST-Vps26. Btn2-green fluorescent protein and Btn2-red fluorescent protein colocalize with Tlg2, Snx4, and Vps27 to a compartment adjacent to the vacuole that corresponds to a late endosome. The deletion of BTN2 blocks Yif1 retrieval back to the Golgi apparatus, while the localization of Ste2, Fur4, Snc1, Vps10, carboxypeptidases Y (CPY) and S (CPS), Sed5, and Sec7 is unaltered in btn2Δ cells. Yif1 delivery to the vacuole was observed in other late endosome-Golgi trafficking mutants, including ypt6Δ, snx4Δ, and vps26Δ cells. Thus, Btn2 facilitates specific protein retrieval from a late endosome to the Golgi apparatus, a process which may be adversely affected in patients with Batten disease.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory neuropeptide with therapeutic potential demonstrated for collagen-induced arthritis. The aim of this study was to characterise its potential anti-arthritic effect on human monocytes, macrophages, T cells, and rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane cells. Monocytes, macrophages, and T cells derived from human peripheral blood were treated with VIP and compared with other cAMP-elevating drugs for a range of activating stimuli. Cytokine production was assessed for cell cultures and, in addition, the ability of VIPs to activate cAMP response element binding protein. VIP partially suppressed monocyte- and macrophage-derived tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with no effect on IL-10, whereas VIP fails to regulate IL-10 and TNF-α production by T lymphocytes. No such modulation of cytokine profile was observed for rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane cells. Elevation of intracellular cAMP, on the other hand, potently suppressed macrophage TNF-α production and modulated T-cell response by inhibiting TNF-α and IFN-γ. VIP's lack of effect on IL-10 and its slight effect on TNF-α results from cAMP being rapidly degraded as the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor, rolipram, rescues cAMP-dependent activation of cAMP response element binding protein. Interestingly, macrophages stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin displayed an augmented IL-10 response upon addition of dibutyryl cAMP, with corresponding downregulation in TNF-α, suggesting a complex interaction between protein kinase C and protein kinase A in cytokine regulation. In conclusion, VIP may represent an efficaceous anti-arthritic treatment modulating macrophage and T-cell cytokine profiles when used alongside a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
IL-10; macrophage; T cells; TNF-α; VIP
The potential role of RNA molecules as gene expression regulators has led to a new perspective on the intracellular control and genome organization. Because secondary structures are crucial for their regulatory role, we sought to investigate their robustness to mutations and environmental changes.
Here, we dissected the structural robustness landscape of the small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) encoded in the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli. We found that bacterial sncRNAs are not significantly robust to both mutational and environmental perturbations when compared against artificial, unbiased sequences. However, we found that, on average, bacterial sncRNAs tend to be significantly plastic, and that mutational and environmental robustness strongly correlate. We further found that, on average, epistasis in bacterial sncRNAs is significantly antagonistic, and positively correlates with plasticity. Moreover, the evolution of robustness is likely dependent upon the environmental stability of the cell, with more fluctuating environments leading to the emergence and fixation of more robust molecules. Mutational robustness also appears to be correlated with structural functionality and complexity.
Our study provides a deep characterization of the structural robustness landscape of bacterial sncRNAs, suggesting that evolvability could be evolved as a consequence of selection for more plastic molecules. It also supports that environmental fluctuations could promote mutational robustness. As a result, plasticity emerges to link robustness, functionality and evolvability.
Evolution; Evolvability; Plasticity; RNA structure; Robustness; Small RNA; Thermodynamics
We have previously obtained in rodents a considerable amount of data suggesting a major role for the brain renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and potentially in Parkinson’s disease. However, the presence of a local RAS has not been demonstrated in the monkey or the human substantia nigra compacta (SNc). The present study demonstrates the presence of major RAS components in dopaminergic neurons, astrocytes and microglia in both the monkey and the human SNc. Angiotensin type 1 and 2 and renin–prorenin receptors were located at the surface of dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, as expected for a tissular RAS. However, angiotensinogen and receptors for angiotensin and renin–prorenin were also observed at the cytoplasm and nuclear level, which suggests the presence of an intracrine or intracellular RAS in monkey and human SNc. Although astrocytes and microglia were labeled for angiotensin and prorenin receptors in the normal SNc, most glial cells appeared less immunoreactive than the dopaminergic neurons. However, our previous studies in rodent models of PD and studies in other animal models of brain diseases suggest that the RAS activity is significantly upregulated in glial cells in pathological conditions. The present results together with our previous findings in rodents suggest a major role for the nigral RAS in the normal functioning of the dopaminergic neurons, and in the progression of the dopaminergic degeneration.
Angiotensin; Dopamine; Basal ganglia; Parkinson; Intracrine; Neurodegeneration
Lymphocytes from the synovial fluid of eight out of eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients had elevated very late activation antigen-1 (VLA-1) expression (10-36% positive cells), whereas peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from RA patients and healthy controls had low VLA-1 expression (0-6% positive cells). During 1-2 wk of in vitro culture, VLA-1 increased on synovial fluid cells but remained low on PBL. In comparison, the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2 R) was less prominent than VLA-1 on fresh synovial fluid cells, did not increase on cultured synovial fluid T cells, but did increase greatly on cultured PBL. The mitogen PHA reversed or prevented the appearance of VLA-1+, IL-2 R- synovial fluid cells during in vitro culture, thus giving IL-2 R+, VLA-1- cells. These results emphasize that VLA-1+ SF cells are different from resting cells or IL-2 R+ activated PBL T cells, and VLA-1 on synovial fluid T cells may be incompatible with mitogen stimulation. In addition, the VLA-2 heterodimer (165,000/130,000 relative molecular mass [Mr]) was regulated opposite to the VLA-1 heterodimer (130,000/210,000 Mr) on synovial lymphocytes, and thus the VLA-1/VLA-2 ratio is another indicator of the stage of T cell activation.
Fusion of post-Golgi secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane in yeast requires the function of a Rab protein, Sec4p, and a set of v- and t-SNAREs, the Snc, Sso, and Sec9 proteins. We have tested the hypothesis that a selective interaction between Sec4p and the exocytic SNAREs is responsible for ensuring that secretory vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane but not with intracellular organelles. Assembly of Sncp and Ssop into a SNARE complex is defective in a sec4-8 mutant strain. However, Snc2p binds in vivo to many other syntaxin-like t-SNAREs, and binding of Sncp to the endosomal/Golgi t-SNARE Tlg2p is also reduced in sec4-8 cells. In addition, binding of Sncp to Ssop is reduced by mutations in two other Rab genes and four non-Rab genes that block the secretory pathway before the formation of secretory vesicles. In an alternate approach to look for selective Rab–SNARE interactions, we report that the nucleotide-free form of Sec4p coimmunoprecipitates with Ssop. However, Rab–SNARE binding is nonselective, because the nucleotide-free forms of six Rab proteins bind with similar low efficiency to three SNARE proteins, Ssop, Pep12p, and Sncp. We conclude that Rabs and SNAREs do not cooperate to specify the target membrane.
Leukocyte infiltration into inflammatory sites is regulated by the expression of adhesion and activation proteins, yet the role of these proteins in shear-dependent transmigration is poorly understood. We examined eosinophil recruitment on cytokine-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under laminar flow conditions. Eosinophils rapidly transmigrated on interleukin (IL)-4–, but not TNF-stimulated HUVECs. Transmigration was shear dependent, with up to 90% of eosinophils transmigrating in the presence of shear and less than 25% of cells transmigrating under static conditions. Eosinophils express CC chemokine receptor CCR3 and are responsive to various CC chemokines. The effects of chemokines are mediated primarily through Gαi, which is pertussis toxin sensitive. Greater than 65% of shear-dependent eosinophil transmigration on IL-4–stimulated HUVECs was blocked by either pertussis toxin or by an anti-CCR3 monoclonal antibody. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blots, we found that IL-4–stimulated HUVECs produce both mRNA and protein for eotaxin-3. Eotaxin-3 was both released by HUVECs and expressed on the endothelial cell surface. Pretreatment of HUVECs with an anti–eotaxin-3 antibody blocked eosinophil transmigration to the same extent as an anti-CCR3 antibody. These results indicate that IL-4–stimulated HUVECs support shear-dependent eosinophil transmigration by upregulating eotaxin-3, and that surface association is critical for the role of eotaxin-3 in transmigration.
chemokines; cell adhesion; cytokines; trafficking; leukocytes
Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) transepithelial migration during inflammatory episodes involves a complex series of adhesive interactions and signaling events. Previous studies have shown that key adhesive interactions between leukocyte CD11b/CD18 and basally expressed fucosylated glycoproteins followed by binding to desmosomal-associated JAM-C are key elements of the transmigration response. Here we provide the first evidence that PMN-expressed junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) regulates transmigration via binding interactions with epithelial coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Experiments with a JAML fusion protein revealed specific binding of JAML to epithelial CAR expressed at tight junctions in T84 cell monolayers and normal human colonic mucosa. Furthermore, JAML-CAR binding is mediated via the membrane distal immunoglobulin (Ig) loop of CAR and the membrane proximal Ig loop of JAML. PMN bound to immobilized CAR but not JAML in a divalent cation-independent manner. Lastly, in assays of PMN transepithelial migration, JAML/CAR fusion proteins and their antibodies significantly inhibited transmigration in a specific manner. Taken together, these results indicate that JAML and CAR are a novel pair of adhesion molecules that play an important role in modulating PMN migration cross epithelial tight junctions. These findings add a new element to a multistep model of PMN transepithelial migration and may provide new targets for anti-inflammatory therapies.