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1.  Mutations in Topoisomerase Genes of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonellae in Hong Kong 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(11):3567-3573.
A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 μg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was ≤0.06 μg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 μg of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57→Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 μg/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83→Phe, Ser83→Tyr, Asp87→Asn, Asp87→Tyr, or Asp87→Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57→Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80→Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 μg of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80→Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 μg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80→Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458→Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 μg/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80→Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83→Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83→Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57→Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57→Ser or Ser80→Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.11.3567-3573.2003
PMCID: PMC253778  PMID: 14576119
2.  Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Choleraesuis from Pigs to Humans, Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(1):60-68.
We evaluated the disk susceptibility data of 671 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates collected from different parts of Taiwan from March 2001 to August 2001 and 1,261 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1996 to 2001. Overall, ciprofloxacn resistance was found in 2.7% (18/671) of all nontyphoid Salmonella isolates, in 1.4% (5/347) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and in 7.5% (8/107) in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis nationwide. MICs of six newer fluoroquinolones were determined for the following isolates: 37 isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant (human) S. enterica Typhimurium (N = 26) and Choleraesuis (N = 11), 10 isolates of ciprofloxacin-susceptible (MIC <1 μg/mL) (human) isolates of these two serotypes, and 15 swine isolates from S. enterica Choleraesuis (N = 13) and Typhmurium (N = 2) with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.12 μg/mL). Sequence analysis of the gryA, gyrB, parC, parE, and acrR genes, ciprofloxacin accumulation; and genotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes (SpeI, XbaI, and BlnI) were performed. All 26 S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from humans and pigs belonged to genotype I. For S. enterica Choleraesuis isolates, 91% (10/11) of human isolates and 54% (7/13) of swine isolates belonged to genotype B. These two genotypes isolates from humans all exhibited a high-level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC 16–64 μg/mL). They had two-base substitutions in the gyrA gene at codons 83 (Ser83Phe) and 87 (Asp87Gly or Asp87Asn) and in the parC gene at codon 80 (Ser80Arg, Ser80Ile, or Ser84Lys). Our investigation documented that not only did these two S. enterica isolates have a high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance nationwide but also that some closely related ciprofloxacin-resistant strains are disseminated from pigs to humans.
doi:10.3201/eid1001.030171
PMCID: PMC3322755  PMID: 15078598
ciprofloxacin resistance; Salmonella enterica Typhimurium; Salmonella enterica Choleraesuis; Taiwan
3.  In Vitro Synergism of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime against Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B▿  
Paratyphoid fever is considered an emerging systemic intracellular infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. We performed in vitro time-kill studies on three clinical isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serotype Paratyphi (NARSP) with different concentrations of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime to identify combinations of antibiotics with synergistic activity against paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, we identify the frequency of mutations to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and rifampin resistance and also sequenced the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes to identify the cause of resistance in NARSP. When the activity of ciprofloxacin at 0.75× MIC (0.012 to 0.38 μg/ml) with cefotaxime at the MIC (0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml) against all three NARSP isolates was investigated, synergy was observed at 24 h, and the bacterial counts were reduced by >3 log10 CFU/ml. This synergy was elongated for up to 72 h in two out of three isolates. When ciprofloxacin at 0.75× MIC (0.012 to 0.38 μg/ml) was combined with cefotaxime at 2× MIC (0.25 to 0.50 μg/ml), synergy was prolonged for up to 72 h in all three isolates. Both Salmonella serotype Paratyphi A isolates carried single mutations in codon 83 of the gyrA gene and codon 84 of the parC gene that were responsible for their reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, while no mutations were found in the gyrB or parE gene. The ciprofloxacin-plus-cefotaxime regimen was very effective in reducing the bacterial counts at 24 h for all three isolates, and this combination therapy may be helpful in reducing the chance of the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants in patients with severe paratyphoid fever.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00988-09
PMCID: PMC2935016  PMID: 20566759
4.  Comparison of gyrA Mutations, Cyclohexane Resistance, and the Presence of Class I Integrons in Salmonella enterica from Farm Animals in England and Wales 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(4):1481-1486.
This study is focused on real-time detection of gyrA mutations and of the presence of class I integrons in a panel of 100 veterinary isolates of Salmonella enterica from farm animals. The isolates were selected on the basis of resistance to nalidixic acid, representing a variety of the most prevalent serotypes in England and Wales. In addition, organic solvent (cyclohexane) resistance in these isolates was investigated in an attempt to elucidate the presence of efflux pump mechanisms. The most prevalent mutation among the isolates studied was Asp87-Asn (n = 42), followed by Ser83-Phe (n = 38), Ser83-Tyr (n = 12), Asp87-Tyr (n = 4), and Asp87-Gly (n = 3). Two distinct subpopulations were identified, separated at the 1-mg/liter breakpoint for ciprofloxacin: 86% of isolates with mutations in codon 83 showed MICs of ≥1 mg/liter, while 89.8% of isolates with mutations in codon 87 presented MICs of ≤0.5 mg/liter. Cyclohexane resistance was more prevalent among Ser83 mutants than among Asp87 mutants (34.7 and 4%, respectively), and in 79% of isolates that presented both gyrA mutations and cyclohexane resistance, the level of ciprofloxacin resistance was ≥2.0 mg/liter. Thirty-four isolates contained class I integrons, with 71% of the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates and 6.9% of isolates belonging to other serotypes containing such elements. The methods used represent sensitive ways of investigating the presence of gyrA mutations and of detecting class-I integrons in Salmonella isolates. The results can be obtained in less than 1 h from single colonies without the need for purifying DNA.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.4.1481-1486.2002
PMCID: PMC140356  PMID: 11923377
5.  Characterization of Multiple-Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Diseased Chickens and Swine in China 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(8):3483-3489.
Escherichia coli isolates from diseased piglets (n = 89) and chickens (n = 71) in China were characterized for O serogroups, virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. O78 was the most common serogroup identified (63%) among the chicken E. coli isolates. Most isolates were PCR positive for the increased serum survival gene (iss; 97%) and the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin gene (tsh; 93%). The O serogroups of swine E. coli were not those typically associated with pathogenic strains, nor did they posses common characteristic virulence factors. Twenty-three serogroups were identified among the swine isolates; however, 38% were O nontypeable. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to nalidixic acid (100%), tetracycline (98%), sulfamethoxazole (84%), ampicillin (79%), streptomycin (77%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (76%). Among the fluoroquinolones, resistance ranged between 64% to levofloxacin, 79% to ciprofloxacin, and 95% to difloxacin. DNA sequencing of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions of 39 nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli isolates revealed that a single gyrA mutation was found in all of the isolates; mutations in parC together with double gyrA mutations conferred high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Class 1 integrons were identified in 17 (19%) isolates from swine and 42 (47%) from chickens. The majority of integrons possessed genes conferring resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim. These findings suggest that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, including fluoroquinolone-resistant variants, are commonly present among diseased swine and chickens in China, and they also suggest the need for the introduction of surveillance programs in China to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria that can be potentially transmitted to humans from food animals.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.8.3483-3489.2004
PMCID: PMC497637  PMID: 15297487
6.  Mechanisms of Resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Strains Exhibiting a Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype▿  
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains with a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype were isolated from patients returning from Thailand or Malaysia to Finland. A total of 10 isolates of seven serovars were studied in detail, all of which had reduced susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/ml) to ciprofloxacin but were either susceptible or showed only low-level resistance (MIC ≤ 32 μg/ml) to nalidixic acid. Phenotypic characterization included susceptibility testing by the agar dilution method and investigation of efflux activity. Genotypic characterization included the screening of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and the amplification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and qepA by PCR. PMQR was confirmed by plasmid analysis, Southern hybridization, and plasmid transfer. No mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE were detected with the exception of a Thr57-Ser substitution within ParC seen in all but the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. The qnrA and qnrS genes were the only PMQR determinants detected. Plasmids carrying qnr alleles were transferable in vitro, and the resistance phenotype was reproducible in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. These data demonstrate the emergence of a highly mobile qnr genotype that, in the absence of mutation within topoisomerase genes, confers the nontypical quinolone resistance phenotype in S. enterica isolates. The qnr resistance mechanism enables bacteria to survive elevated quinolone concentrations, and therefore, strains carrying qnr alleles may be able to expand during fluoroquinolone treatment. This is of concern since nonclassical quinolone resistance is plasmid mediated and therefore mobilizable.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00121-09
PMCID: PMC2737843  PMID: 19596880
7.  Induction of resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi under ciprofloxacin selective pressure 
Background & objectives:
Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (hereafter S. Typhi) is an important public health problem in India. There has been an increase in the number of reported clinical failures to ciprofloxacin treatment but the data on possible mechanism of failure are limited. One mechanism that has been widely reported and found associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, is the mutations in target genes in QRDR (quinolone resistance determining region). It is hypothesized that mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV result in therapeutic failure under selective pressure of antibiotic while the patient is on treatment. We undertook in vitro sequential selection studies to expose the clinical isolates of S. Typhi to different concentration of ciprofloxacin to study the role of antibiotic selective pressure in the development of mutations in QRDR.
Methods:
Total 26 clinical isolates were divided in to two parts: part I included six isolates obtained from three patients with relapse of enteric fever and part II included 20 isolates with different ciprofloxacin MIC levels. For in vitro induction of mutation experiment, five S. Typhi isolates were selected which included three NAS (nalidixic acid sensitive) and 2 NAR (nalidixic acid resistant) S. Typhi. These isolates were grown under increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin and mutations acquired in QRDR of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) were investigated by sequencing.
Results:
For the isolates included in the part I of the study, it was found that the MIC to ciprofloxacin increased in the isolates obtained during the relapse of enteric fever as compare to the first isolate. All isolates had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 without additional mutation in the second isolate. In the second part of the study, the nine isolates with varying MICs to ciprofloxacin also had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 and another six had triple mutations, two mutations in gyrA gene (at S83 and D87) and one mutation in parC gene (at S80). In in vitro induction of mutation experiment, all mutated isolates showed triple mutation (two mutation in gyrA and one in parC gene) while no mutations were found in wild isolates.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Upon exposure to the step-wise increased concentration of ciprofloxacin, isolates become more tolerant to the ciprofloxacin and showed 2-4 fold higher MICs without new mutation after 8 μg/ml. So the accumulation of mutations under continuous ciprofloxacin pressure and tolerance of the mutant isolates led to the clinical failure. These results also suggested that there could be another mechanism responsible for resistance.
PMCID: PMC4140040  PMID: 25027085
fluoroquionolones; in vitro induction; Mutants; Quinolone resistance determining region; S. Typhi
8.  Characterization of the quinolone resistant determining regions in clinical isolates of pneumococci collected in Canada 
Background
The objective of this study was to examine Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from a longitudinal surveillance program in order to determine their susceptibility to currently used fluoroquinolones and of the frequency and type of mutations in the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of their parC and gyrA genes.
Methods
The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network has been collecting clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae from across Canada since 1988. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The QRDRs of the parC and gyrA genes were sequenced for all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 mg/L, and a large representative sample of isolates (N = 4,243) with MIC ≤ 2 mg/L.
Results
A total of 4,798 out of 30,111 isolates collected from 1988, and 1993 to 2007 were studied. Of those isolates that were successfully sequenced, 184 out of 1,032 with mutations in parC only, 11 out of 30 with mutations in gyrA only, and 292 out of 298 with mutations in parC and gyrA were considered resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L). The most common substitutions in the parC were at positions 137 (n = 722), 79 (n = 209), and 83 (n = 56), of which substitutions at positions 79 and 83 were associated with 4-fold increase in MIC to ciprofloxacin, whereas substitutions at position 137 had minimal effect on the ciprofloxacin MIC. A total of 400 out of 622 isolates with Lys-137 parC mutation belonged to serotypes 1, 12, 31, 7A, 9V, 9N and 9L, whereas only 49 out of 3064 isolates with no mutations belonged to these serotypes. Twenty-one out of 30 isolates with substitutions at position 81 of the gyrA gene had an increased MIC to ciprofloxacin. Finally, we found that isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were significantly associated with increased MIC to fluoroquinolones.
Conclusions
Not all mutations, most frequently Lys-137, found in the QRDRs of the parC gene of S. pneumoniae is associated with an increased MIC to fluoroquinolones. The high prevalence of Lys-137 appears to be due to its frequent occurrence in common serotypes.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-9-3
PMCID: PMC2823643  PMID: 20082699
9.  Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance and molecular identification 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:371.
Background
Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates, that are also resistant to other classes of antibiotics, is a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. In Central Greece a significant increase of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli has occurred during 2011, indicating the need for further analysis.
Methods
A total of 106 ciprofloxacin-resistant out of 505 E. coli isolates consecutively collected during an eight months period in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were assessed, whereas selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing and β-lactamase content.
Results
Sequence analysis of the quinolone-resistance determining region of the gyrA and parC genes has revealed that 63% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli harbored a distinct amino acid substitution pattern (GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V), while 34% and 3% carried the patterns GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I and GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84G respectively. The aac (6’)-1b-cr plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant was also detected; none of the isolates was found to carry the qnrA, qnrB and qnrS.
Genotyping of a subset of 35 selected ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli by multilocus sequence typing has revealed the presence of nine sequence types; ST131 and ST410 were the most prevalent and were exclusively correlated with hospital and health care associated infections, while strains belonging to STs 393, 361 and 162 were associated with community acquired infections. The GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V substitution pattern was found exclusively among ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates produced CTX-M-type enzymes; eight the CTX-M-15 and one the CTX-M-3 variant. CTX-M-1 like and KPC-2 enzymes were detected in five and four ST410 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates, respectively.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that, ST131 and ST410 predominate in the ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-371
PMCID: PMC3548683  PMID: 23259844
Escherichia coli; Quinolones,MLST; Beta lactamases
10.  Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in United States since 1994-1995 
The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin against a large collection of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4,650) obtained over a 5-year period, 1994-1995 through 1999-2000, were assessed as part of a longitudinal multicenter U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance. Three sampling periods were used during this investigation, the winter seasons of 1994-1995, 1997-1998, and 1999-2000; and 1,523, 1,596 and 1,531 isolates were collected during these three periods, respectively. The overall rank order of activity of the four fluoroquinolones examined in this study was moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin, in which moxifloxacin (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 μg/ml; modal MIC, 0.12 μg/ml) was twofold more active than gatifloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; modal MIC, 0.25 μg/ml), which in turn was fourfold more active than either levofloxacin (MIC90, 1 μg/ml; modal MIC, 1 μg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/ml; modal MIC, 1 μg/ml). Changes in the in vitro activities of fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae strains in the United States over the 5-year period of the survey were assessed by comparing the MIC frequency distributions of the study drugs against the isolates obtained during the three sampling periods encompassing this investigation. These comparisons revealed no evidence of changes in the in vitro activities of the fluoroquinolones. In addition, the percentages of isolates in the three sampling periods for which MICs were above the resistance breakpoints were compared. Low percentages of resistant strains were detected, and there was no evidence of resistance rate changes over time. For example, by use of a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥4 μg/ml to define resistance, the proportions of isolates from the three sampling periods for which MICs were at or above this breakpoint were 1.2, 1.6, and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 164 unique isolates (n = 58 from 1994-1995, 65 from 1997-1998, and 42 from 1999-2000) were examined for evidence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and the gyrA genes. Forty-nine isolates harbored at least one mutation in the QRDRs of one or both genes (1994-1995, n = 15; 1997-1998, n = 19; 1999-2000, n = 15). Among the 4,650 isolates of S. pneumoniae examined in the study, we estimated that 0.3% had mutations in both the parC and gyrA loci. The majority of mutations (67.3% of the mutations in 49 isolates with mutations) were amino acid substitutions in the parC locus only. Four isolates had a mutation in the gyrA locus only, and 12 isolates had mutations in both genes (8.2 and 24.5% of isolates with mutations, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of isolates with parC and/or gyrA mutations detected during each study period. Finally, because of the magnitude of the study, we had reasonably large numbers of pneumococcal isolates with genotypically defined mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance and were thus able to determine the effects of specific resistance mutations on the activities of different fluoroquinolones. In general, isolates with mutations in parC only were resistant to ciprofloxacin but remained susceptible to levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, whereas isolates with mutations in gyrA only and isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were resistant to all four fluoroquinolones tested.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.3.680-688.2002
PMCID: PMC127509  PMID: 11850248
11.  Increasing Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance in Human Nontyphoid Salmonella enterica Isolates Obtained in Spain from 1981 to 2003 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3789-3793.
From January 1981 to December 2003, susceptibility to nalidixic acid was tested in 10,504 nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates from patients with acute enteric disease in Gipuzkoa, Spain. The prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance steadily increased from less than 0.5% before 1991 to 38.5% in 2003, mainly due to the increase in resistance among isolates of the most prevalent serovar, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. For nalidixic acid-resistant isolates, the ciprofloxacin MIC was eightfold higher than that for susceptible isolates, and the nalidixic acid-resistant isolates contained a single point mutation in the gyrA gene (at codons for Ser83 or Asp87). The same mutations were found in a sample of nalidixic acid-resistant nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated between 1999 and 2003 from retail food for human consumption. In 2003, we identified five S. enterica serovar Typhimurium clinical isolates with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance (ciprofloxacin MIC, 16 μg/ml) with two point mutations in the gyrA gene (coding for Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Asn) and one point mutation in the parC gene (coding for Ser80→Arg). Strict sanitary controls are needed to avoid the spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant serovar Typhimurium isolates, and a more efficient veterinary policy must be adopted to decrease the large burden of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis infections in humans in our region.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.10.3789-3793.2004
PMCID: PMC521902  PMID: 15388435
12.  Genetic Diversity of Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi and Paratyphi in Shenzhen, China from 2002 through 2007 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:32.
Background
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in China. The objective of this investigation was to determine the molecular features of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) from blood isolates in Shenzhen, China.
Results
Twenty-five S. typhi and 66 S. paratyphi were isolated from 91 bacteriemic patients between 2002 and 2007 at a hospital in Shenzhen, Southern China. Fifty-two percent (13/25) of S. typhi and 95.3% (61/64) of S. paratyphi A were resistant to nalidixic acid. Sixty-seven isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (NARS) showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 0.125-1 μg/mL). All 75 NARS isolates had a single substitution in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA (Ser83→Phe/Pro/Tyr, or Asp87→Gly/Asn), and 90.7% of these isolates carried the substitution Ser83Phe in GyrA. No mutation was found in the QRDR of gyrB, parC, or parE. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes including qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected in any isolate. Twenty-two distinct pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed among S. typhi. Sixty-four isolates of S. paratyphi A belonged to one clone. Eighty-seven investigated inpatients were infected in the community. Six patients infected by S. paratyphi A had a travel history before infection.
Conclusions
Nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and S. paratyphi A blood isolates were highly prevalent in Shenzhen, China. PFGE showed the variable genetic diversity of nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and limited genetic diversity of nalidixic acid -resistant S. paratyphi A.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-32
PMCID: PMC2824697  PMID: 20113512
13.  Characterization of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from foodstuff and related sources 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(2):685-692.
In recent years, an increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica has been observed in several countries, which is worrisome because S. enterica is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance genotypes in Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from foodstuff and related sources. Nineteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica isolates were recovered. Higher resistance rates to tetracycline (90%), streptomycin (80%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (80%), ampicillin (60%) and nalidixic acid (70%) were related to the presence of the tetA, aadA, sul1/sul2, blaTEM-1 genes, and a codon mutation at position 83 of the gyrA gene, respectively. Class 1 integrons harboring aadA, blaTEM-1, sul1 or dhfr1 genes were detected in nine (45%) Salmonella enterica strains belonging to serotypes Brandenburg, Panama, Agona, Mbandaka and Alachua. Finally, clonal dissemination of S. Panama, S. Derby and S. Mbandaka was confirmed by PFGE. Detection of clonally related MDR Salmonella enterica suggests that endemic serotypes can be supported by class 1 integron-borne gene cassettes and/or mutations in drug targets. Emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica can have a major public health impact in an environment where large-scale suppliers ship their products.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110002000033
PMCID: PMC3769850  PMID: 24031680
Salmonella; multidrug-resistant; class 1 integrons; foodstuff; Brazil
14.  Multidrug Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium from Humans in France (1993 to 2003) 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(3):700-708.
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (R types), the phage types and XbaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, the genes coding for resistance to β-lactams and to quinolones, and the class 1 integrons among a representative sample of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates collected from humans in 2002 through the French National Reference Center for Salmonella (NRC-Salm) network. The trends in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance of serotype Typhimurium were reviewed by using NRC-Salm data from 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2003. In 2002, 3,998 isolates of serotype Typhimurium were registered at the NRC-Salm among 11,775 serotyped S. enterica isolates (34%). The most common multiple antibiotic resistance pattern was resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and spectinomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSpSuTe R type), with 156 isolates (48.8%). One isolate resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins due to the production of TEM-52 extended-spectrum β-lactamase was detected (0.3%), and one multidrug-resistant isolate was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC > 32 mg/liter). We found that 57.2% of the isolates tested belonged to the DT104 clone. The main resistance pattern of DT104 isolates was R type ACSSpSuTe (83.2%). However, evolutionary changes have occurred within DT104, involving both loss (variants of Salmonella genomic island 1) and acquisition of genes for drug resistance to trimethoprim or to quinolones. PFGE profile X1 was the most prevalent (74.5%) among DT104 isolates, indicating the need to use a more discriminatory subtyping method for such isolates. Global data from the NRC-Salm suggested that DT104 was the main cause of multidrug resistance in serotype Typhimurium from humans from at least 1997 to 2003, with a roughly stable prevalence during this period.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.3.700-708.2006
PMCID: PMC1393144  PMID: 16517842
15.  Molecular Analysis of Ciprofloxacin Resistance Mechanisms in Malaysian ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates and Development of Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assays (MAMA) for Rapid Detection of gyrA and parC Mutations 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:601630.
Ninety-three Malaysian extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were investigated for ciprofloxacin resistance. Two mismatch amplification mutation (MAMA) assays were developed and used to facilitate rapid detection of gyrA and parC mutations. The isolates were also screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes including aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qepA, and qnr. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs 4– ≥ 32 μg/mL) was noted in 34 (37%) isolates, of which 33 isolates had multiple mutations either in gyrA alone (n = 1) or in both gyrA and parC regions (n = 32). aac(6′)-Ib-cr was the most common PMQR gene detected in this study (n = 61), followed by qnrB and qnrS (n = 55 and 1, resp.). Low-level ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs 1-2 μg/mL) was noted in 40 (43%) isolates carrying qnrB accompanied by either aac(6′)-Ib-cr (n = 34) or a single gyrA 83 mutation (n = 6). Ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with the presence of multiple mutations in gyrA and parC regions. While the isolates harbouring gyrA and/or parC alteration were distributed into 11 PFGE clusters, no specific clusters were associated with isolates carrying PMQR genes. The high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance amongst the Malaysian ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates suggests the need for more effective infection control measures to limit the spread of these resistant organisms in the hospital.
doi:10.1155/2014/601630
PMCID: PMC4000930  PMID: 24860827
16.  Comparative Studies of Mutations in Animal Isolates and Experimental In Vitro- and In Vivo-Selected Mutants of Salmonella spp. Suggest a Counterselection of Highly Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strains in the Field 
The occurrence of mutations in the genes coding for gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parE and parC) of Salmonella typhimurium experimental mutants selected in vitro and in vivo and of 138 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella field isolates was investigated. The sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of these genes in highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants (MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml) revealed the presence of gyrA mutations at codons corresponding to Gly-81 or Ser-83, some of which were associated with a mutation at Asp-87. No mutations were found in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes. An assay combining allele-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed to rapidly screen mutations at codons 81, 83, and 87 of gyrA. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for the field isolates reached only 2 μg/ml, versus 16 μg/ml for some in vitro-selected mutants. The field isolates, like the mutants selected in vivo, had only a single gyrA mutation at codon 83 or 87. Single gyrA mutations were also found in highly resistant in vitro-selected mutants (MIC of ciprofloxacin, 8 μg/ml), which indicates that mechanisms other than the unique modification of the intracellular targets could participate in fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. A comparison of experimental mutants selected in vitro, field strains, and mutants selected in vivo suggests that highly fluoroquinolone-resistant strains are counterselected in field conditions in the absence of selective pressure.
PMCID: PMC89435  PMID: 10471553
17.  Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Asia and Molecular Mechanism of Reduced Susceptibility to the Fluoroquinolones▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2007;51(12):4315-4323.
This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar Typhi strains collected in southern Vietnam, the proportion of multidrug resistance has remained high since 1993 (50% in 2004) and there was a dramatic increase in nalidixic acid resistance between 1993 (4%) and 2005 (97%). In a cross-sectional sample of 381 serovar Typhi strains from 8 Asian countries, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, and central Vietnam, collected in 2002 to 2004, various rates of multidrug resistance (16 to 37%) and nalidixic acid resistance (5 to 51%) were found. The eight Asian countries involved in this study are home to approximately 80% of the world's typhoid fever cases. These results document the scale of drug resistance across Asia. The Ser83→Phe substitution in GyrA was the predominant alteration in serovar Typhi strains from Vietnam (117/127 isolates; 92.1%). No mutations in gyrB, parC, or parE were detected in 55 of these strains. In vitro time-kill experiments showed a reduction in the efficacy of ofloxacin against strains harboring a single-amino-acid substitution at codon 83 or 87 of GyrA; this effect was more marked against a strain with a double substitution. The 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin showed rapid killing of serovar Typhi harboring both the single- and double-amino-acid substitutions.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00294-07
PMCID: PMC2167998  PMID: 17908946
18.  Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Brazil 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2012;43(4):1309-1314.
Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) in chromosomal gyrA and parC genes and fluoroquinolone susceptibility profiles were investigated in quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from community and hospitalized patients in the Brazilian Southeast region. A total of 112 nalidixic acid-resistant enterobacterial isolates collected from 2000 to 2005 were investigated for mutations in the topoisomerases genes gyrA and parC by amplifying and sequencing the QRDR regions. Susceptibility to fluoroquinolones was tested by the agar dilution method. Amongst the 112 enterobacterial isolates, 81 (72.3%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 5 (4.5%) showed reduced susceptibility. Twenty-six (23.2%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Several alterations were detected in gyrA and parC genes. Escherichia coli isolates (47.7%) showed double mutations in the gyrA gene and a single one in the parC gene. Two unusual aminoacid substitutions are reported, an Asp87-Asn in a Citrobacter freundii isolate with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and a Glu84-Ala in one E. coli isolate. Only a parC gene mutation was found in fluoroquinolone-susceptible Enterobacter aerogenes. None of the isolates susceptible to ciprofloxacin presented mutations in topoisomerase genes. This comprehensive analysis of QRDRs in gyrA and parC genes, covering commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil is the largest reported up to now.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220120004000010
PMCID: PMC3769005  PMID: 24031957
quinolone resistance-determining region; mutations; gyrA; parC; Enterobacteriaceae
19.  Antimicrobial resistance profile and presence of class I integrongs among Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from human clinical specimens in Tehran, Iran  
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2011;3(3):112-117.
Background and objectives
Salmonella is one of the leading causes of food-borne diseases. Increasing occurrence of antimicrobial resistance, especially multidrug-resistance, in Salmonella serovars is a major public health problem worldwide. This study was carried out to detect class I integrons and antibiotic resistance profiles in clinical isolates of Salmonella serovars collected from seven hospitals in Tehran during November 2009 to June 2010.
Materials and Methods
Antibiotic susceptibility profile of 19 antibiotics against 58 Salmonella isolates commonly used in humans was determined using disk diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration against ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was studied. PCR assays were used to detect class I integrons.
Results
Among 58 Salmonella isolates, 72.4% were Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 8.7% were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and 18.9% were other serovars. Of the total 58 Salmonella serovars, 43 (74.1%) were multidrug-resistant and showed resistance to three or more antibiotic families. Class I integrons were identified in 38 (88.3%) MDR Salmonella isolates. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 0.125-2 g/ml for four isolates and other four isolates exhibited resistance to ceftriaxone (MIC 64-256 g /ml).
Conclusion
The high prevalence of class I integrons was seen in our MDR Salmonella isolates and class I integrons might play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants.
PMCID: PMC3279819  PMID: 22347592
Antibiotic resistance; class 1; integrons; Salmonella; serovars
20.  Genetic Analyses of Mutations Contributing to Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(12):3517-3523.
Twenty-one clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to fluoroquinolones were characterized by serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic analyses of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. Five strains were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents. In susceptibility profiles for gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin, 14 isolates had intermediate- or high-level resistance to all fluoroquinolones tested except gemifloxacin (no breakpoints assigned). Fluoroquinolone resistance was not associated with serotype or with resistance to other antimicrobial agents. Mutations in the QRDRs of these isolates were more heterogeneous than those previously reported for mutants selected in vitro. Eight isolates had amino acid changes at sites other than ParC/S79 and GyrA/S81; several strains contained mutations in gyrB, parE, or both loci. Contributions to fluoroquinolone resistance by individual amino acid changes, including GyrB/E474K, ParE/E474K, and ParC/A63T, were confirmed by genetic transformation of S. pneumoniae R6. Mutations in gyrB were important for resistance to gatifloxacin but not moxifloxacin, and mutation of gyrA was associated with resistance to moxifloxacin but not gatifloxacin, suggesting differences in the drug-target interactions of the two 8-methoxyquinolones. The positions of amino acid changes within the four genes affected resistance more than did the total number of QRDR mutations. However, the effect of a specific mutation varied significantly depending on the agent tested. These data suggest that the heterogeneity of mutations will likely increase as pneumococci are exposed to novel fluoroquinolone structures, complicating the prediction of cross-resistance within this class of antimicrobial agents.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.12.3517-3523.2001
PMCID: PMC90862  PMID: 11709333
21.  Mutant Prevention Concentrations for Single-Step Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutants of Wild-Type, Efflux-Positive, or ParC or GyrA Mutation-Containing Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3954-3958.
Three fluoroquinolone-susceptible and five fluoroquinolone-resistant (two with ParC Ser79Phe mutations, one with a GyrA Ser81Phe mutation, and two that were efflux positive) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were exposed to one, two, four, eight, and sixteen times the MICs of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Mutational frequencies were calculated at each multiple of the MIC for which growth was observed. Mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) and the multiple of the MIC at the MPC (MPMIC) were evaluated. All resulting mutants were sequenced for quinolone resistance-determining region changes in GyrA and ParC and were evaluated for reserpine-sensitive efflux. The MPC order was generally ciprofloxacin > levofloxacin > gatifloxacin > moxifloxacin > gemifloxacin. The MPMIC order varied depending on the genetic constitution of the original isolates from which the mutants were generated. For those mutants created from fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (those that had wild-type ParC and GyrA and were efflux negative), the MPMIC order was ciprofloxacin = moxifloxacin > gemifloxacin > levofloxacin > gatifloxacin. The MPMICs of each fluoroquinolone for mutants created from isolates with a ParC mutation (with wild-type GyrA and efflux negative) were similar. A similar occurrence was observed with the mutants created from the efflux-positive isolates (with wild-type ParC and GyrA). The MPMIC order for the mutants created from the isolate with a GyrA mutation (with wild-type ParC and efflux negative) was ciprofloxacin = gemifloxacin > levofloxacin = moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin may be intrinsically more able to prevent the development of resistance by fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates, isolates that are efflux positive, or isolates that carry a GyrA mutation. However, once a ParC mutation is present, the MPC increases dramatically for all fluoroquinolones.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.10.3954-3958.2004
PMCID: PMC521923  PMID: 15388458
22.  Involvement of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase as ciprofloxacin targets in Streptococcus pneumoniae. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(10):2321-2326.
Ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 were generated by stepwise selection at increasing drug concentrations. Sequence analysis of PCR products from the strains was used to examine the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the GyrA and GyrB proteins of DNA gyrase and the analogous regions of the ParC and ParE subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV. First-step mutants exhibiting low-level resistance had no detectable changes in their topoisomerase quinolone resistance-determining regions, suggesting altered permeation or another novel resistance mechanism. Nine of 10 second-step mutants exhibited an alteration in ParC at Ser-79 to Tyr or Phe or at Ala-84 to Thr. Third- and fourth-step mutants displaying high-level ciprofloxacin resistance were found to have, in addition to the ParC alteration, a change in GyrA at residues equivalent to Escherichia coli GyrA resistance hot spots Ser-83 and Asp-87 or in GyrB at Asp-435 to Asn, equivalent to E. coli Asp-426, part of a highly conserved EGDSA motif in GyrB. No ParE changes were observed. Complementary analysis of two S. pneumoniae clinical isolates displaying low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin revealed a ParC change at Ser-79 to Phe or Arg-95 to Cys but no changes in GyrA, GyrB, or ParE. A highly resistant isolate, in addition to a ParC mutation, had a GyrA alteration at the residue equivalent to E. coli Asp-87. Thus, in both laboratory strains and clinical isolates, ParC mutations preceded those in GyrA, suggesting that topoisomerase IV is a primary topoisomerase target and gyrase is a secondary target for ciprofloxacin in S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC163528  PMID: 8891138
23.  Salmonella Typhi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Fluoroquinolone Decreased Susceptibility on the Rise 
Background
Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) has rarely been reported in Central Africa.
Methodology/Principal Findings
As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5–19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87.
Conclusions/Significance
Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines.
Author Summary
Typhoid fever, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi), is an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Multidrug resistance of Salmonella Typhi to the first line antibiotics is spreading and treatment of typhoid fever increasingly relies on fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin. Increased use of fluoroquinolones is however associated with spread of resistance as well. In sub-Saharan Africa, microbiological cultures to detect invasive bacterial diseases are frequently absent and the extent of the problem is poorly known. In the present study, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected between 2007 and 2011 in DR Congo, mainly from children and young adults. For the first time, widespread Salmonella Typhi multidrug resistance (30.3%) and decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (15.4%) is described in Central Africa. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was associated with point mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene. Resistance to azithromycin, an alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in the case of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, was still rare (1.0%). Our findings demonstrate emergence of multidrug resistance and fluoroquinolone decreased susceptibility in DR Congo, and highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001921
PMCID: PMC3499407  PMID: 23166855
24.  DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Are Dual Targets of Clinafloxacin Action in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):2810-2816.
We examined the response of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 to clinafloxacin, a novel C-8-substituted fluoroquinolone which is being developed as an antipneumococcal agent. Clinafloxacin was highly active against S. pneumoniae 7785 (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml), and neither gyrA nor parC quinolone resistance mutations alone had much effect on this activity. A combination of both mutations was needed to register resistance, suggesting that both gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinafloxacin targets in vivo. The sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs for the parC-gyrA mutants were 16 to 32 and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively, but the clinafloxacin MIC was 1 μg/ml, i.e., within clinafloxacin levels achievable in human serum. S. pneumoniae 7785 mutants could be selected stepwise with clinafloxacin at a low frequency, yielding first-, second-, third-, and fourth-step mutants for which clinafloxacin MICs were 0.25, 1, 6, and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively. Thus, high-level resistance to clinafloxacin required four steps. Characterization of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes by PCR, HinfI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequence analysis revealed an invariant resistance pathway involving sequential mutations in gyrA or gyrB, in parC, in gyrA, and finally in parC or parE. No evidence was found for other resistance mechanisms. The gyrA mutations in first- and third-step mutants altered GyrA hot spots Ser-83 to Phe or Tyr (Escherichia coli coordinates) and Glu-87 to Gln or Lys; second- and fourth-step parC mutations changed equivalent hot spots Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr and Asp-83 to Ala. gyrB and parE changes produced novel alterations of GyrB Glu-474 to Lys and of Pro-454 to Ser in the ParE PLRGK motif. Difficulty in selecting first-step gyrase mutants (isolated with 0.125 [but not 0.25] μg of clinafloxacin per ml at a frequency of 5.0 × 10−10 to 8.5 × 10−10) accompanied by the small (twofold) MIC increase suggested only a modest drug preference for gyrase. Given the susceptibility of defined gyrA or parC mutants, the results suggested that clinafloxacin displays comparable if unequal targeting of gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Dual targeting and the intrinsic potency of clinafloxacin against S. pneumoniae and its first- and second-step mutants are desirable features in limiting the emergence of bacterial resistance.
PMCID: PMC105948  PMID: 9797208
25.  Molecular Typing and Resistance Analysis of Travel-Associated Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(8):2631-2638.
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human pathogen causing 12 to 30% mortality and requiring antibiotic therapy to control the severity of the infection. Typhoid fever in United States is often associated with foreign travel to areas of endemicity. Increasing resistance to multiple drugs, including quinolones, is associated with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (DCS). We investigated 31 clinical strains isolated in Florida from 2007 to 2010, associated with travel to six countries, to examine the clonal distribution of the organism and apparent nalidixic acid (NAL) resistance. The strains were isolated from blood or stool of patients aged 2 to 68 years. The isolates were subtyped by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobials were determined, and the isolates were screened for integrons and gyrase A gene mutations. Both typing techniques effectively segregated the strains. Identical clones were associated with different countries, while diverse types coexisted in the same geographic location. Fifty-one percent of the strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and five were resistant to three or more drugs (multidrug resistant [MDR]). All 12 isolates from the Indian subcontinent were resistant to at least one drug, and 83% of those were resistant to NAL. Three of the MDR strains harbored a 750-bp integron containing the dfr7 gene. Ninety-three percent of the resistant strains showed a DCS profile. All the NAL-resistant strains contained point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. This study affirms the global clonal distribution, concomitant genetic heterogeneity, and increased NAL resistance of S. enterica serovar Typhi.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00593-12
PMCID: PMC3421513  PMID: 22649021

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