Accurate sequence alignment is required in many bioinformatics applications but, when sequence similarity is low, it is difficult to obtain accurate alignments based on sequence similarity alone. The accuracy improves when the structures are available, but current structure-based sequence alignment procedures still mis-align substantial numbers of residues. In order to correct such errors, we previously explored the possibility of replacing the residue-based dynamic programming algorithm in structure alignment procedures with the Seed Extension algorithm, which does not use a gap penalty. Here, we describe a new procedure called RSE (Refinement with Seed Extension) that iteratively refines a structure-based sequence alignment.
RSE uses SE (Seed Extension) in its core, which is an algorithm that we reported recently for obtaining a sequence alignment from two superimposed structures. The RSE procedure was evaluated by comparing the correctly aligned fractions of residues before and after the refinement of the structure-based sequence alignments produced by popular programs. CE, DaliLite, FAST, LOCK2, MATRAS, MATT, TM-align, SHEBA and VAST were included in this analysis and the NCBI's CDD root node set was used as the reference alignments. RSE improved the average accuracy of sequence alignments for all programs tested when no shift error was allowed. The amount of improvement varied depending on the program. The average improvements were small for DaliLite and MATRAS but about 5% for CE and VAST. More substantial improvements have been seen in many individual cases. The additional computation times required for the refinements were negligible compared to the times taken by the structure alignment programs.
RSE is a computationally inexpensive way of improving the accuracy of a structure-based sequence alignment. It can be used as a standalone procedure following a regular structure-based sequence alignment or to replace the traditional iterative refinement procedures based on residue-level dynamic programming algorithm in many structure alignment programs.
Predicting new non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of a family can be done by aligning the potential candidate with a member of the family with known sequence and secondary structure. Existing tools either only consider the sequence similarity or cannot handle local alignment with gaps.
In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the optimal local structural alignment between a query RNA sequence (with known secondary structure) and a target sequence (with unknown secondary structure) with the affine gap penalty model. We provide the algorithm to solve the problem.
Based on an experiment, we show that there are ncRNA families in which considering local structural alignment with gap penalty model can identify real hits more effectively than using global alignment or local alignment without gap penalty model.
The presence of gaps in an alignment of nucleotide or protein sequences is often an inconvenience for bioinformatical studies. In phylogenetic and other analyses, for instance, gapped columns are often discarded entirely from the alignment.
MaxAlign is a program that optimizes the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns – the alignment area – by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment.
MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical analyses as well as in other situations where this form of alignment improvement is useful. In this work we test MaxAlign's performance in these tasks and compare the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates including and excluding gapped columns from the analysis, with and without processing with MaxAlign. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies.
We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also show that it is not advisable to exclude gapped columns from phylogenetic analyses unless MaxAlign is used first. Finally, we find that the sequences removed by MaxAlign from an alignment tend to be those that would otherwise be associated with low phylogenetic accuracy, and that the presence of gaps in any given sequence does not seem to disturb the phylogenetic estimates of other sequences.
The MaxAlign web-server is freely available online at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/MaxAlign where supplementary information can also be found. The program is also freely available as a Perl stand-alone package.
The Smith–Waterman algorithm yields a single alignment, which, albeit optimal, can be strongly affected by the choice of the scoring matrix and the gap penalties. Additionally, the scores obtained are dependent upon the lengths of the aligned sequences, requiring a post-analysis conversion. To overcome some of these shortcomings, we developed a Bayesian algorithm for local sequence alignment (BALSA), that takes into account the uncertainty associated with all unknown variables by incorporating in its forward sums a series of scoring matrices, gap parameters and all possible alignments. The algorithm can return both the joint and the marginal optimal alignments, samples of alignments drawn from the posterior distribution and the posterior probabilities of gap penalties and scoring matrices. Furthermore, it automatically adjusts for variations in sequence lengths. BALSA was compared with SSEARCH, to date the best performing dynamic programming algorithm in the detection of structural neighbors. Using the SCOP databases PDB40D-B and PDB90D-B, BALSA detected 19.8 and 41.3% of remote homologs whereas SSEARCH detected 18.4 and 38% at an error rate of 1% errors per query over the databases, respectively.
This paper presents a new information theoretic framework for aligning sequences in bioinformatics. A transmitter compresses a set of sequences by constructing a regular expression that describes the regions of similarity in the sequences. To retrieve the original set of sequences, a receiver generates all strings that match the expression. An alignment algorithm uses minimum description length to encode and explore alternative expressions; the expression with the shortest encoding provides the best overall alignment. When two substrings contain letters that are similar according to a substitution matrix, a code length function based on conditional probabilities defined by the matrix will encode the substrings with fewer bits. In one experiment, alignments produced with this new method were found to be comparable to alignments from . A second experiment measured the accuracy of the new method on pairwise alignments of sequences from the BAliBASE alignment benchmark.
An algorithm is presented that returns the optimal pairwise gapped alignment of two sets of signed numerical sequence values. One distinguishing feature of this algorithm is a flexible comparison engine (based on both relative shape and absolute similarity measures) that does not rely on explicit gap penalties. Additionally, an empirical probability model is developed to estimate the significance of the returned alignment with respect to randomized data. The algorithm's utility for biological hypothesis formulation is demonstrated with test cases including database search and pairwise alignment of protein hydropathy. However, the algorithm and probability model could possibly be extended to accommodate other diverse types of protein or nucleic acid data, including positional thermodynamic stability and mRNA translation efficiency. The algorithm requires only numerical values as input and will readily compare data other than protein hydropathy. The tool is therefore expected to complement, rather than replace, existing sequence and structure based tools and may inform medical discovery, as exemplified by proposed similarity between a chlamydial ORFan protein and bacterial colicin pore-forming domain. The source code, documentation, and a basic web-server application are available.
Trend discovery is an important way to generate understanding from large amounts of data. We have developed a novel tool that discovers significantly similar trends shared between two numerical data sets. Since the tool's algorithmic method compares both the relative shapes of the “peaks” and “valleys” in the data, as well as the absolute magnitudes of the numerical values, we believe the tool is tolerant of imperfections and could be applicable to a wide range of scientific, engineering, social, or economic problems. In short, if measurements can be converted to a series of numbers, our tool may potentially be useful for trend discovery. Since we are a protein biophysics group, we are most naturally interested in discovering new similarities between proteins, and we have discovered a particularly interesting, statistically significant similarity between a protein unique to Chlamydia and a bacterial pore-forming protein, colicin. This previously unreported similarity may have medical relevance, and we are currently experimentally testing the properties of the chlamydial protein in the laboratory. In a second example, we demonstrate the tool's ability to easily recover a known, but difficult to detect, relationship between two other GPCR proteins.
Most sequence alignment tools can successfully align protein sequences with higher levels of sequence identity. The accuracy of corresponding structure alignment, however, decreases rapidly when considering distantly related sequences (<20% identity). In this range of identity, alignments optimized so as to maximize sequence similarity are often inaccurate from a structural point of view. Over the last two decades, most multiple protein aligners have been optimized for their capacity to reproduce structure-based alignments while using sequence information. Methods currently available differ essentially in the similarity measurement between aligned residues using substitution matrices, Fourier transform, sophisticated profile-profile functions, or consistency-based approaches, more recently.
In this paper, we present a flexible similarity measure for residue pairs to improve the quality of protein sequence alignment. Our approach, called SymAlign, relies on the identification of conserved words found across a sizeable fraction of the considered dataset, and supported by evolutionary analysis. These words are then used to define a position specific substitution matrix that better reflects the biological significance of local similarity. The experiment results show that the SymAlign scoring scheme can be incorporated within T-Coffee to improve sequence alignment accuracy. We also demonstrate that SymAlign is less sensitive to the presence of structurally non-similar proteins. In the analysis of the relationship between sequence identity and structure similarity, SymAlign can better differentiate structurally similar proteins from non- similar proteins.
We show that protein sequence alignments can be significantly improved using a similarity estimation based on weighted n-grams. In our analysis of the alignments thus produced, sequence conservation becomes a better indicator of structural similarity. SymAlign also provides alignment visualization that can display sub-optimal alignments on dot-matrices. The visualization makes it easy to identify well-supported alternative alignments that may not have been identified by dynamic programming. SymAlign is available at http://bio-cluster.iis.sinica.edu.tw/SymAlign/.
This paper introduces the novel method of contact-based protein sequence alignment, where structural information in the form of contact mutation probabilities is incorporated into an alignment routine using contact-mutation matrices (CAO: Contact Accepted mutatiOn). The contact-based alignment routine optimizes the score of matched contacts, which involves four (two per contact) instead of two residues per match in pairwise alignments. The first contact refers to a real side-chain contact in a template sequence with known structure, and the second contact is the equivalent putative contact of a homologous query sequence with unknown structure. An algorithm has been devised to perform a pairwise sequence alignment based on contact information. The contact scores were combined with PAM-type (Point Accepted Mutation) substitution scores after parameterization of gap penalties and score weights by means of a genetic algorithm. We show that owing to the structural information contained in the CAO matrices, significantly improved alignments of distantly related sequences can be obtained. This has allowed us to annotate eight putative Drosophila IGF sequences. Contact-based sequence alignment should therefore prove useful in comparative modelling and fold recognition.
In this article, we introduce PicXAA-Web, a web-based platform for accurate probabilistic alignment of multiple biological sequences. The core of PicXAA-Web consists of PicXAA, a multiple protein/DNA sequence alignment algorithm, and PicXAA-R, an extension of PicXAA for structural alignment of RNA sequences. Both PicXAA and PicXAA-R are probabilistic non-progressive alignment algorithms that aim to find the optimal alignment of multiple biological sequences by maximizing the expected accuracy. PicXAA and PicXAA-R greedily build up the alignment from sequence regions with high local similarity, thereby yielding an accurate global alignment that effectively captures local similarities among sequences. PicXAA-Web integrates these two algorithms in a user-friendly web platform for accurate alignment and analysis of multiple protein, DNA and RNA sequences. PicXAA-Web can be freely accessed at http://gsp.tamu.edu/picxaa/.
Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches.
We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments.
STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.
The statistical behavior of the similarity score for unrelated DNA sequences calculated as letter-by-letter comparison or from various forms of optimal alignment was studied. It was found that natural DNA-sequences from a data base and true random sequences show the same statistical behavior in terms of such scores. This makes it possible to adopt a simple criterion for the rejection of fortuitous similarity. It is based on the mean and standard deviation of chance scores whose expected values, depending on chain length, gap penalty and probability of letter coincidence, may be calculated from formulae given in the paper.
DIAL (dihedral alignment) is a web server that provides public access to a new dynamic programming algorithm for pairwise 3D structural alignment of RNA. DIAL achieves quadratic time by performing an alignment that accounts for (i) pseudo-dihedral and/or dihedral angle similarity, (ii) nucleotide sequence similarity and (iii) nucleotide base-pairing similarity.
DIAL provides access to three alignment algorithms: global (Needleman–Wunsch), local (Smith–Waterman) and semiglobal (modified to yield motif search). Suboptimal alignments are optionally returned, and also Boltzmann pair probabilities Pr(ai,bj) for aligned positions ai , bj from the optimal alignment. If a non-zero suboptimal alignment score ratio is entered, then the semiglobal alignment algorithm may be used to detect structurally similar occurrences of a user-specified 3D motif. The query motif may be contiguous in the linear chain or fragmented in a number of noncontiguous regions.
The DIAL web server provides graphical output which allows the user to view, rotate and enlarge the 3D superposition for the optimal (and suboptimal) alignment of query to target. Although graphical output is available for all three algorithms, the semiglobal motif search may be of most interest in attempts to identify RNA motifs. DIAL is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/DIAL.
Multiple sequence alignment, which is of fundamental importance for comparative genomics, is a difficult problem and error-prone. Therefore, it is essential to measure the reliability of the alignments and incorporate it into downstream analyses. We propose a new probabilistic sampling-based alignment reliability (PSAR) score. Instead of relying on heuristic assumptions, such as the correlation between alignment quality and guide tree uncertainty in progressive alignment methods, we directly generate suboptimal alignments from an input multiple sequence alignment by a probabilistic sampling method, and compute the agreement of the input alignment with the suboptimal alignments as the alignment reliability score. We construct the suboptimal alignments by an approximate method that is based on pairwise comparisons between each single sequence and the sub-alignment of the input alignment where the chosen sequence is left out. By using simulation-based benchmarks, we find that our approach is superior to existing ones, supporting that the suboptimal alignments are highly informative source for assessing alignment reliability. We apply the PSAR method to the alignments in the UCSC Genome Browser to measure the reliability of alignments in different types of regions, such as coding exons and conserved non-coding regions, and use it to guide cross-species conservation study.
Computational prediction of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is an important task in the post-genomic era. One common approach is to utilize the profile information contained in alignment data rather than single sequences. However, this strategy involves the possibility that the quality of input alignments can influence the performance of prediction methods. Therefore, the evaluation of the robustness against alignment errors is necessary as well as the development of accurate prediction methods.
We describe a new method, called Profile BPLA kernel, which predicts ncRNAs from alignment data in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). Profile BPLA kernel is an extension of base-pairing profile local alignment (BPLA) kernel which we previously developed for the prediction from single sequences. By utilizing the profile information of alignment data, the proposed kernel can achieve better accuracy than the original BPLA kernel. We show that Profile BPLA kernel outperforms the existing prediction methods which also utilize the profile information using the high-quality structural alignment dataset. In addition to these standard benchmark tests, we extensively evaluate the robustness of Profile BPLA kernel against errors in input alignments. We consider two different types of error: first, that all sequences in an alignment are actually ncRNAs but are aligned ignoring their secondary structures; second, that an alignment contains unrelated sequences which are not ncRNAs but still aligned. In both cases, the effects on the performance of Profile BPLA kernel are surprisingly small. Especially for the latter case, we demonstrate that Profile BPLA kernel is more robust compared to the existing prediction methods.
Profile BPLA kernel provides a promising way for identifying ncRNAs from alignment data. It is more accurate than the existing prediction methods, and can keep its performance under the practical situations in which the quality of input alignments is not necessarily high.
BCL::Align is a multiple sequence alignment tool that utilizes the dynamic programming method in combination with a customizable scoring function for sequence alignment and fold recognition. The scoring function is a weighted sum of the traditional PAM and BLOSUM scoring matrices, position specific scoring matrices output by PSI-BLAST, secondary structure predicted by a variety of methods, chemical properties, and gap penalties. By adjusting the weights, the method can be tailored for fold recognition or sequence alignment tasks at different levels of sequence identity. A Monte Carlo algorithm was used to determine optimized weight sets for sequence alignment and fold recognition that most accurately reproduced the SABmark reference alignment test set. In an evaluation of sequence alignment performance, BCL::Align ranked best in alignment accuracy (Cline score of 22.90 for sequences in the Twilight Zone) when compared with Align-m, ClustalW, T-Coffee, and MUSCLE. ROC curve analysis indicates BCL::Align’s ability to correctly recognize protein folds with over 80% accuracy. The flexibility of the program allows it to be optimized for specific classes of proteins (e.g. membrane proteins) or fold families (e.g. TIM-barrel proteins). BCL::Align is free for academic use and available online at http://www.meilerlab.org/.
dynamic programming; fold recognition; multiple sequence alignment; Needleman-Wunsch algorithm; parametric sequence alignment
Sequencing errors in combination with repeated regions cause major problems in shotgun sequencing, mainly due to the failure of assembly programs to distinguish single base differences between repeat copies from erroneous base calls. In this paper, a new strategy designed to correct errors in shotgun sequence data using defined nucleotide positions, DNPs, is presented. The method distinguishes single base differences from sequencing errors by analyzing multiple alignments consisting of a read and all its overlaps with other reads. The construction of multiple alignments is performed using a novel pattern matching algorithm, which takes advantage of the symmetry between indices that can be computed for similar words of the same length. This allows for rapid construction of multiple alignments, with no previous pair-wise matching of sequence reads required. Results from a C++ implementation of this method show that up to 99% of sequencing errors can be corrected, while up to 87% of the single base differences remain and up to 80% of the corrected reads contain at most one error. The results also show that the method outperforms the error correction method used in the EULER assembler. The prototype software, MisEd, is freely available from the authors for academic use.
The standard approach to phylogeny estimation uses two phases, in which the first phase produces an alignment on a set of homologous sequences, and the second phase estimates a tree on the multiple sequence alignment. POY, a method which seeks a tree/alignment pair minimizing the total treelength, is the most widely used alternative to this two-phase approach. The topological accuracy of trees computed under treelength optimization is, however, controversial. In particular, one study showed that treelength optimization using simple gap penalties produced poor trees and alignments, and suggested the possibility that if POY were used with an affine gap penalty, it might be able to be competitive with the best two-phase methods. In this paper we report on a study addressing this possibility. We present a new heuristic for treelength, called BeeTLe (Better Treelength), that is guaranteed to produce trees at least as short as POY. We then use this heuristic to analyze a large number of simulated and biological datasets, and compare the resultant trees and alignments to those produced using POY and also maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees computed on a number of alignments. In general, we find that trees produced by BeeTLe are shorter and more topologically accurate than POY trees, but that neither POY nor BeeTLe produces trees as topologically accurate as ML trees produced on standard alignments. These findings, taken as a whole, suggest that treelength optimization is not as good an approach to phylogenetic tree estimation as maximum likelihood based upon good alignment methods.
Existing sequence alignment algorithms assume that similarities between DNA or amino acid sequences are linearly ordered. That is, stretches of similar nucleotides or amino acids are in the same order in both sequences. Recombination perturbs this order. An algorithm that can reconstruct sequence similarity despite rearrangement would be helpful for reconstructing the evolutionary history of recombined sequences.
We propose a graph-based algorithm for combining multiple local alignments to a query sequence into the single combination of alignments that either covers the maximal portion of the query or results in the single highest alignment score to the query. This algorithm can help study the process of genome rearrangement, improve functional gene annotation, and reconstruct the evolutionary history of recombined proteins. The algorithm takes O(n2) time, where n is the number of local alignments considered.
We discuss two example applications of the algorithm. The algorithm is able to provide useful reconstructions of the metazoan mitochondrial genome. It is also able to increase the percentage of a query sequence's amino acid residues for which similar stretches of amino acids can be found in sequence databases.
local alignment; alignment combination
High throughput pyrosequencing (454 sequencing) is the major sequencing platform for producing long read high throughput data. While most other sequencing techniques produce reading errors mainly comparable with substitutions, pyrosequencing produce errors mainly comparable with gaps. These errors are less efficiently detected by most conventional alignment programs and may produce inaccurate alignments.
We suggest a novel algorithm for calculating the optimal local alignment which utilises flowpeak information in order to improve alignment accuracy. Flowpeak information can be retained from a 454 sequencing run through interpretation of the binary SFF-file format. This novel algorithm has been implemented in a program named FAAST (Flow-space Assisted Alignment Search Tool).
We present and discuss the results of simulations that show that FAAST, through the use of the novel algorithm, can gain several percentage points of accuracy compared to Smith-Waterman-Gotoh alignments, depending on the 454 data quality. Furthermore, through an efficient multi-thread aware implementation, FAAST is able to perform these high quality alignments at high speed.
The tool is available at http://www.ifm.liu.se/bioinfo/
Summary: Dynamic programming (DP) is a general optimization strategy that is successfully used across various disciplines of science. In bioinformatics, it is widely applied in calculating the optimal alignment between pairs of protein or DNA sequences. These alignments form the basis of new, verifiable biological hypothesis. Despite its importance, there are no interactive tools available for training and education on understanding the DP algorithm. Here, we introduce an interactive computer application with a graphical interface, for the purpose of educating students about DP. The program displays the DP scoring matrix and the resulting optimal alignment(s), while allowing the user to modify key parameters such as the values in the similarity matrix, the sequence alignment algorithm version and the gap opening/extension penalties.
We hope that this software will be useful to teachers and students of bioinformatics courses, as well as researchers who implement the DP algorithm for diverse applications.
Availability and Implementation: The software is freely available at: http:/melolab.org/sat. The software is written in the Java computer language, thus it runs on all major platforms and operating systems including Windows, Mac OS X and LINUX.
Contact: All inquiries or comments about this software should be directed to Francisco Melo at email@example.com
DNA sequence comparison is a well-studied problem, in which two DNA sequences are compared using a weighted edit distance. Recent DNA sequencing technologies however observe an encoded form of the sequence, rather than each DNA base individually. The encoded DNA sequence may contain technical errors, and therefore encoded sequencing errors must be incorporated when comparing an encoded DNA sequence to a reference DNA sequence.
Although two-base encoding is currently used in practice, many other encoding schemes are possible, whereby two ore more bases are encoded at a time. A generalized k-base encoding scheme is presented, whereby feasible higher order encodings are better able to differentiate errors in the encoded sequence from true DNA sequence variants. A generalized version of the previous two-base encoding DNA sequence comparison algorithm is used to compare a k-base encoded sequence to a DNA reference sequence. Finally, simulations are performed to evaluate the power, the false positive and false negative SNP discovery rates, and the performance time of k-base encoding compared to previous methods as well as to the standard DNA sequence comparison algorithm.
The novel generalized k-base encoding scheme and resulting local alignment algorithm permits the development of higher fidelity ligation-based next generation sequencing technology. This bioinformatic solution affords greater robustness to errors, as well as lower false SNP discovery rates, only at the cost of computational time.
While multiple alignment is the first step of usual classification schemes for biological sequences, alignment-free methods are being increasingly used as alternatives when multiple alignments fail. Subword-based combinatorial methods are popular for their low algorithmic complexity (suffix trees ...) or exhaustivity (motif search), in general with fixed length word and/or number of mismatches. We developed previously a method to detect local similarities (the N-local decoding) based on the occurrences of repeated subwords of fixed length, which does not impose a fixed number of mismatches. The resulting similarities are, for some "good" values of N, sufficiently relevant to form the basis of a reliable alignment-free classification. The aim of this paper is to develop a method that uses the similarities detected by N-local decoding while not imposing a fixed value of N. We present a procedure that selects for every position in the sequences an adaptive value of N, and we implement it as the MS4 classification tool.
Among the equivalence classes produced by the N-local decodings for all N, we select a (relatively) small number of "relevant" classes corresponding to variable length subwords that carry enough information to perform the classification. The parameter N, for which correct values are data-dependent and thus hard to guess, is here replaced by the average repetitivity κ of the sequences. We show that our approach yields classifications of several sets of HIV/SIV sequences that agree with the accepted taxonomy, even on usually discarded repetitive regions (like the non-coding part of LTR).
The method MS4 satisfactorily classifies a set of sequences that are notoriously hard to align. This suggests that our approach forms the basis of a reliable alignment-free classification tool. The only parameter κ of MS4 seems to give reasonable results even for its default value, which can be a great advantage for sequence sets for which little information is available.
In shotgun sequencing, statistical reconstruction of a consensus from alignment requires a model of measurement error. Churchill and Waterman proposed one such model and an expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate sequencing error rates for each assembly matrix. Ewing and Green defined Phred quality scores for base-calling from sequencing traces by training a model on a large amount of data. However, sample preparations and sequencing machines may work under different conditions in practice and therefore quality scores need to be adjusted. Moreover, the information given by quality scores is incomplete in the sense that they do not describe error patterns. We observe that each nucleotide base has its specific error pattern that varies across the range of quality values. We develop models of measurement error for shotgun sequencing by combining the two perspectives above. We propose a logistic model taking quality scores as covariates. The model is trained by a procedure combining an EM algorithm and model selection techniques. The training results in calibration of quality values and leads to a more accurate construction of consensus. Besides Phred scores obtained from ABI sequencers, we apply the same technique to calibrate quality values that come along with Beckman sequencers.
Traditional genome alignment methods consider sequence alignment as a variation of the string edit distance problem, and perform alignment by matching characters of the two sequences. They are often computationally expensive and unable to deal with low information regions. Furthermore, they lack a well-principled objective function to measure the performance of sets of parameters. Since genomic sequences carry genetic information, this article proposes that the information content of each nucleotide in a position should be considered in sequence alignment. An information-theoretic approach for pairwise genome local alignment, namely XMAligner, is presented. Instead of comparing sequences at the character level, XMAligner considers a pair of nucleotides from two sequences to be related if their mutual information in context is significant. The information content of nucleotides in sequences is measured by a lossless compression technique.
Experiments on both simulated data and real data show that XMAligner is superior to conventional methods especially on distantly related sequences and statistically biased data. XMAligner can align sequences of eukaryote genome size with only a modest hardware requirement. Importantly, the method has an objective function which can obviate the need to choose parameter values for high quality alignment. The alignment results from XMAligner can be integrated into a visualisation tool for viewing purpose.
The information-theoretic approach for sequence alignment is shown to overcome the mentioned problems of conventional character matching alignment methods. The article shows that, as genomic sequences are meant to carry information, considering the information content of nucleotides is helpful for genomic sequence alignment.
Downloadable binaries, documentation and data can be found at ftp://ftp.infotech.monash.edu.au/software/DNAcompress-XM/XMAligner/.
There is a need for faster and more sensitive algorithms for
sequence similarity searching in view of the rapidly increasing
amounts of genomic sequence data available. Parallel processing
capabilities in the form of the single instruction, multiple data
(SIMD) technology are now available in common microprocessors and
enable a single microprocessor to perform many operations in parallel.
The ParAlign algorithm has been specifically designed to take advantage
of this technology. The new algorithm initially exploits parallelism
to perform a very rapid computation of the exact optimal ungapped
alignment score for all diagonals in the alignment matrix. Then,
a novel heuristic is employed to compute an approximate score of
a gapped alignment by combining the scores of several diagonals.
This approximate score is used to select the most interesting database
sequences for a subsequent Smith–Waterman alignment, which
is also parallelised. The resulting method represents a substantial improvement
compared to existing heuristics. The sensitivity and specificity
of ParAlign was found to be as good as Smith–Waterman implementations when
the same method for computing the statistical significance of the
matches was used. In terms of speed, only the significantly less
sensitive NCBI BLAST 2 program was found to outperform the new approach.
Online searches are available at http://dna.uio.no/search/