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1.  The hospital standardised mortality ratio: a powerful tool for Dutch hospitals to assess their quality of care? 
Aim of the study
To use the hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR), as a tool for Dutch hospitals to analyse their death rates by comparing their risk-adjusted mortality with the national average.
Method
The method uses routine administrative databases that are available nationally in The Netherlands—the National Medical Registration dataset for the years 2005–2007. Diagnostic groups that led to 80% of hospital deaths were included in the analysis. The method adjusts for a number of case-mix factors per diagnostic group determined through a logistic regression modelling process.
Results
In The Netherlands, the case-mix factors are primary diagnosis, age, sex, urgency of admission, length of stay, comorbidity (Charlson Index), social deprivation, source of referral and month of admission. The Dutch HSMR model performs well at predicting a patient's risk of death as measured by a c statistic of the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91. The ratio of the HSMR of the Dutch hospital with the highest value in 2005–2007 is 2.3 times the HSMR of the hospital with the lowest value.
Discussion
Overall hospital HSMRs and mortality at individual diagnostic group level can be monitored using statistical process control charts to give an early warning of possible problems with quality of care. The use of routine data in a standardised and robust model can be of value as a starting point for improvement of Dutch hospital outcomes. HSMRs have been calculated for several other countries.
doi:10.1136/qshc.2009.032953
PMCID: PMC2921266  PMID: 20172876
Healthcare quality improvement; quality of care; mortality; healthcare quality; control charts
2.  Nutritional parameters associated with prolonged hospital stay among ambulatory adult patients 
Background
Comprehensive evaluations of the nutritional parameters associated with length of hospital stay are lacking. We investigated the association between malnutrition and length of hospital stay in a cohort of ambulatory adult patients.
Methods
From September 2006 to June 2009, we systematically evaluated 1274 ambulatory adult patients admitted to hospital for medical or surgical treatment. We evaluated the associations between malnutrition and prolonged hospital stay (> 17 days [> 75th percentile of distribution]) using multivariable log-linear models adjusted for several potential nutritional and clinical confounders recorded at admission and collected during and at the end of the hospital stay.
Results
Nutritional factors associated with a prolonged hospital stay were a Nutritional Risk Index score of less than 97.5 (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–2.06) and an in-hospital weight loss of 5% or greater (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30–1.97). Sensitivity analysis of data for patients discharged alive and who had a length of stay of at least three days (n = 1073) produced similar findings (adjusted RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20–1.89, for Nutritional Risk Index score < 97.5). A significant association was also found with in-hospital starvation of three or more days (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28).
Interpretation
Nutritional risk at admission was strongly associated with a prolonged hospital stay among ambulatory adult patients. Another factor associated with length of stay was worsening nutritional status during the hospital stay, whose cause–effect relationship with length of stay should be clarified in intervention trials. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of malnutrition and of the potential role of worsening nutritional status in prolonging hospital stay.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.091977
PMCID: PMC2988532  PMID: 20940233
3.  Variation in length of stay as a measure of efficiency in Manitoba hospitals. 
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficiency of Manitoba hospitals by analysing variations in length of stay for patients with similar characteristics. DESIGN: Retrospective study. Multiple regression analyses were used to adjust for patient (case-mix) characteristics and to identify differences in length of stay attributable to the hospital of admission for 14 specific, frequently encountered diagnostic categories and for all acute admissions. SETTING: The eight major acute care hospitals in Manitoba. PARTICIPANTS: Manitoba residents admitted to any one of the eight hospitals during the fiscal year 1989-90, 1990-91 or 1991-92. Patients transferred to or from another institution, those with atypically long stays and those who died in hospital were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURE: Length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The length of stay was strongly influenced by hospital of admission, even after adjustment for key patient characteristics. Excluding the most seriously ill patients and those with the longest stays, approximately 186 beds could potentially have been saved if each hospital had discharged its patients as efficiently as the hospital with the shortest overall length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of days currently invested in treating acute care patients could be eliminated. At least some bed closures in Manitoba hospitals could be accommodated simply through more efficient treatment of patients in the remaining beds, without decreasing access to hospital care.
PMCID: PMC1337615  PMID: 7882230
4.  Including post-discharge mortality in calculation of hospital standardised mortality ratios: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics 
Objectives To assess the consequences of applying different mortality timeframes on standardised mortality ratios of individual hospitals and, secondarily, to evaluate the association between in-hospital standardised mortality ratios and early post-discharge mortality rate, length of hospital stay, and transfer rate.
Design Retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital data to compare observed deaths in 50 diagnostic categories with deaths predicted by a case mix adjustment method.
Setting 60 Dutch hospitals.
Participants 1 228 815 patients discharged in the period 2008 to 2010.
Main outcome measures In-hospital standardised mortality ratio, 30 days post-admission standardised mortality ratio, and 30 days post-discharge standardised mortality ratio.
Results Compared with the in-hospital standardised mortality ratio, 33% of the hospitals were categorised differently with the 30 days post-admission standardised mortality ratio and 22% were categorised differently with the 30 days post-discharge standardised mortality ratio. A positive association was found between in-hospital standardised mortality ratio and length of hospital stay (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.33; P=0.01), and an inverse association was found between in-hospital standardised mortality ratio and early post-discharge mortality (Pearson correlation coefficient −0.37; P=0.004).
Conclusions Applying different mortality timeframes resulted in differences in standardised mortality ratios and differences in judgment regarding the performance of individual hospitals. Furthermore, associations between in-hospital standardised mortality rates, length of stay, and early post-discharge mortality rates were found. Combining these findings suggests that standardised mortality ratios based on in-hospital mortality are subject to so-called “discharge bias.” Hence, early post-discharge mortality should be included in the calculation of standardised mortality ratios.
doi:10.1136/bmj.f5913
PMCID: PMC3805490  PMID: 24144869
5.  Variation in Length of Stay and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients Attributable to Hospitals and Hospitalists 
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND
There have been no prior population-based studies of variation in performance of hospitalists.
OBJECTIVE
To measure the variation in performance of hospitalists.
DESIGN
Retrospective research design of 100 % Texas Medicare data using multilevel, multivariable models.
SUBJECTS
131,710 hospitalized patients cared for by 1,099 hospitalists in 268 hospitals from 2006–2009.
MAIN MEASURES
We calculated, for each hospitalist, adjusted for patient and disease factors (case mix), their patients' average length of stay, rate of discharge home or to skilled nursing facility (SNF) and rate of 30-day mortality, readmissions and emergency room (ER) visits.
KEY RESULTS
In two-level models (admission and hospitalist), there was significant variation in average length of stay and discharge location among hospitalists, but very little variation in 30-day mortality, readmission or emergency room visit rates. There was stability over time (2008–2009 vs. 2006–2007) in hospitalist performance. In three-level models including admissions, hospitalists and hospitals, the variation among hospitalists was substantially reduced. For example, hospitals, hospitalists and case mix contributed 1.02 %, 0.75 % and 42.15 % of the total variance in 30-day mortality rates, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
There is significant variation among hospitalists in length of stay and discharge destination of their patients, but much of the variation is attributable to the hospitals where they practice. The very low variation among hospitalists in 30-day readmission rates suggests that hospitalists are not important contributors to variations in those rates among hospitals.
doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2255-6
PMCID: PMC3579964  PMID: 23129162
hospitalist; length of stay; hospitalization; Medicare
6.  Intelligent Information: A National System for Monitoring Clinical Performance 
Health Services Research  2008;43(1 Pt 1):10-31.
Objective
To use statistical process control charts to monitor in-hospital outcomes at the hospital level for a wide range of procedures and diagnoses.
Data Sources
Routine English hospital admissions data.
Study Design
Retrospective analysis using risk-adjusted log-likelihood cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts, comparing each hospital with the national average and its peers for in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and emergency readmission within 28 days.
Data Collection
Data were derived from the Department of Health administrative hospital admissions database, with monthly uploads from the clearing service.
Principal Findings
The tool is currently being used by nearly 100 hospitals and also a number of primary care trusts responsible for purchasing hospital care. It monitors around 80 percent of admissions and in-hospital deaths. Case-mix adjustment gives values for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.60 and 0.86 for mortality, but the values were poorer for readmission.
Conclusions
CUSUMs are a promising management tool for managers and clinicians for driving improvement in hospital performance for a range of outcomes, and interactive presentation via a web-based front end has been well received by users. Our methods act as a focus for intelligently directed clinical audit with the real potential to improve outcomes, but wider availability and prospective monitoring are required to fully assess the method's utility.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00742.x
PMCID: PMC2323144  PMID: 18300370
7.  Unexpectedly long hospital stays as an indicator of risk of unsafe care: an exploratory study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(6):e004773.
Objectives
We developed an outcome indicator based on the finding that complications often prolong the patient's hospital stay. A higher percentage of patients with an unexpectedly long length of stay (UL-LOS) compared to the national average may indicate shortcomings in patient safety. We explored the utility of the UL-LOS indicator.
Setting
We used data of 61 Dutch hospitals. In total these hospitals had 1 400 000 clinical discharges in 2011.
Participants
The indicator is based on the percentage of patients with a prolonged length of stay of more than 50% of the expected length of stay and calculated among survivors.
Interventions
No interventions were made.
Outcome measures
The outcome measures were the variability of the indicator across hospitals, the stability over time, the correlation between the UL-LOS and standardised mortality and the influence on the indicator of hospitals that did have problems discharging their patients to other health services such as nursing homes.
Results
In order to compare hospitals properly the expected length of stay was computed based on comparison with benchmark populations. The standardisation was based on patients’ age, primary diagnosis and main procedure. The UL-LOS indicator showed considerable variability between the Dutch hospitals: from 8.6% to 20.1% in 2011. The outcomes had relatively small CIs since they were based on large numbers of patients. The stability of the indicator over time was quite high. The indicator had a significant positive correlation with the standardised mortality (r=0.44 (p<0.001)), and no significant correlation with the percentage of patients that was discharged to other facilities than other hospitals and home (r=−0.15 (p>0.05)).
Conclusions
The UL-LOS indicator is a useful addition to other patient safety indicators by revealing variation between hospitals and areas of possible patient safety improvement.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004773
PMCID: PMC4054630  PMID: 24902727
8.  Length of hospitalisation for people with severe mental illness 
Background
In high income countries, over the last three decades, the length of hospital stays for people with serious mental illness has reduced drastically. Some argue that this reduction has led to revolving door admissions and worsening mental health outcomes despite apparent cost savings, whilst others suggest longer stays may be more harmful by institutionalising people to hospital care.
Objectives
To determine the clinical and service outcomes of planned short stay admission policies versus a long or standard stay for people with serious mental illnesses.
Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials (July 2007).
Selection criteria
We included all randomised trials comparing planned short with long/standard hospital stays for people with serious mental illnesses.
Data collection and analysis
We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a fixed effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated fixed effects weighted mean differences (WMD).
Main results
We included six relevant trials. We found no significant difference in hospital readmissions between planned short stays and standard care at one year (n=651, 4 RCTs, RR 1.26 CI 1.0 to 1.6). Short hospital stay did not confer any benefit in terms of ’loss to follow up compared with standard care (n=453, 3 RCTs, RR 0.87 CI 0.7 to 1.1). There were no significant differences for the outcome of ’leaving hospital prematurely’ (n=229, 2 RCTs, RR 0.77 CI 0.3 to 1.8). More post-discharge day care was given to participants in the short stay group (n=247, 1 RCT, RR 4.52 CI 2.7 to 7.5, NNH 3 CI 2 to 6) and people from the short stay groups were more likely to be employed at two years (n=330, 2 RCTs, RR 0.61 CI 0.5 to 0.8, NNT 5 CI 4 to 8). Economic data were few but, once discharged, costs may be more for those allocated to an initial short stay.
Authors’ conclusions
The effects of hospital care and the length of stay is important for mental health policy. We found limited data, although outcomes do suggest that a planned short stay policy does not encourage a ’revolving door’ pattern of admission and disjointed care for people with serious mental illness. More large, well-designed and reported trials are justified.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000384.pub2
PMCID: PMC4040414  PMID: 18253975
9.  Does day case surgery generate extra workload for primary and community health service staff? 
We have audited the effects of day surgery on the workload of primary and community care teams in Portsmouth. A modified version of the Audit Commission's 'Patients' Experiences of Surgery' questionnaire was given to all patients admitted for an elective surgical procedure from 16 general practices to the two local hospitals between February and November 1996; 487 completed replies were received. In all, 50% patients consulted primary or community health care staff within 21 days of discharge from hospital. The average total patient contact rate with these staff increased with length of hospital stay from 0.39 contacts/patient for day case to 1.83 contacts/patient for longer stay admissions. Contacts with most members of the primary and community health teams increased with length of hospital stay. The postoperative visit rate by general practitioners and district nurses to day case patients was very low. We conclude that day case surgery at its present level in Portsmouth appears to create less workload for primary and community health services than inpatient surgery.
PMCID: PMC2503024  PMID: 9682645
10.  Direct medical costs of adverse events in Dutch hospitals 
Background
Up to now, costs attributable to adverse events (AEs) and preventable AEs in the Netherlands were unknown. We assessed the total direct medical costs associated with AEs and preventable AEs in Dutch hospitals to gain insight in opportunities for cost savings.
Methods
Trained nurses and physicians retrospectively reviewed 7926 patient records in 21 hospitals. Additional patient information of 7889 patients was received from the Dutch registration of hospital information. Direct medical costs attributable to AEs were assessed by measuring excess length of stay and additional medical procedures after an AE occurred. Costs were valued using Dutch standardized cost prices.
Results
The annual direct medical costs in Dutch hospitals were estimated at a total of euro 355 million for all AEs and euro 161 million for preventable AEs in 2004. The total number of hospital admissions in which a preventable AE occurred was 30,000 (2.3% of all admissions) and more than 300,000 (over 3% of all bed days) bed days were attributable to preventable AEs in 2004. Multilevel analysis showed that variance in direct medical costs was not determined by differences between hospitals or hospital departments.
Conclusion
The estimates of the total preventable direct medical costs of AEs indicate that they form a substantial part (1%) of the expenses of the national health care budget and are of importance to hospital management. The cost driver of the direct medical costs is the excess length of stay (including readmissions) in a hospital. Insight in which determinants are associated with high preventable costs will offer useful information for policymakers and hospital management to determine starting points for interventions to reduce the costs of preventable AEs.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-27
PMCID: PMC2645386  PMID: 19203365
11.  Trends of adverse drug reactions related-hospitalizations in Spain (2001-2006) 
Background
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a substantial cause of hospital admissions. We conducted a nationwide study to estimate the burden of hospital admissions for ADRs in Spain during a six-year period (2001-2006) along with the associated total health cost.
Methods
Data were obtained from the national surveillance system for hospital data (Minimum Basic Data Set) maintained by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs, and covering more than 95% of Spanish hospitals. From these admissions we selected all hospitalization that were code as drug-related (ICD-9-CM codes E), but intended forms of overdoses, errors in administration and therapeutics failure were excluded. The average number of hospitalizations per year, annual incidence of hospital admissions, average length of stay in the hospital, and case-fatality rate, were calculated.
Results
During the 2001-2006 periods, the total number of hospitalized patients with ADR diagnosis was 350,835 subjects, 1.69% of all acute hospital admissions in Spain. The estimated incidence of admissions due to ADR decreased during the period 2001-2006 (p < 0.05). More than five percent of patients (n = 19,734) died during an ADR-related hospitalization. The drugs most commonly associated with ADR-related hospitalization were antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs (n = 75,760), adrenal cortical steroids (n = 47,539), anticoagulants (n = 26,546) and antibiotics (n = 22,144). The costs generated by patients in our study increased by 19.05% between 2001 and 2006.
Conclusions
Approximately 1.69% of all acute hospital admissions were associated with ADRs. The rates were much higher for elderly patients. The total cost of ADR-related hospitalization to the Spanish health system is high and has increased between 2001 and 2006. ADRs are an important cause of admission, resulting in considerable use of national health system beds and a significant number of deaths.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-287
PMCID: PMC2966456  PMID: 20942906
ADR-related hospitalizations; Minimum Basic Data Set; Costs.
12.  Ethnic variations in unplanned readmissions and excess length of hospital stay: a nationwide record-linked cohort study 
Background: Studies in the USA have shown ethnic inequalities in quality of hospital care, but in Europe, this has never been analysed. We explored variations in indicators of quality of hospital care by ethnicity in the Netherlands. Methods: We analysed unplanned readmissions and excess length of stay (LOS) across ethnic groups in a large population of hospitalized patients over an 11-year period by linking information from the national hospital discharge register, the Dutch population register and socio-economic data. Data were analysed with stepwise logistic regression. Results: Ethnic differences were most pronounced in older patients: all non-Western ethnic groups > 45 years had an increased risk for excess LOS compared with ethnic Dutch patients, with odds ratios (ORs) (adjusted for case mix) varying from 1.05 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.02–1.08] for other non-Western patients to 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.22) for Moroccan patients. The risk for unplanned readmission in patients >45 years was increased for Turkish (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.18–1.30) and Surinamese patients (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.16). These differences were explained partially, although not substantially, by differences in socio-economic status. Conclusion: We found significant ethnic variations in unplanned readmissions and excess LOS. These differences may be interpretable as shortcomings in the quality of hospital care delivered to ethnic minority patients, but exclusion of alternative explanations (such as differences in patient- and community-level factors, which are outside hospitals’ control) requires further research. To quantify potential ethnic inequities in hospital care in Europe, we need empirical prospective cohort studies with solid quality outcomes such as adverse event rates.
doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckt005
PMCID: PMC3840803  PMID: 23388242
13.  Conditions accounting for substantial time spent in hospital in children aged 1-14 years. 
To identify the clinical conditions associated with substantial time spent in hospital by children aged 1-14 years, records of children admitted to hospital in 1975, 1979, and 1984 were studied. Analysis was by linkage of abstracts of routine records of hospital inpatient care in six districts in southern England covered by the Oxford record linkage study. The total time spend in hospital in the acute specialties each year was calculated by summing the lengths of stay of all episodes of care for each child in each year. First, admissions with long median times in hospital per child admitted were identified. These included, notably, fracture of femur and, in the later years, leukaemia, other malignant neoplasms, and congenital disorders of metabolism. Second conditions were identified which accounted for large numbers of children with lengths of stay of five days or more. These included, in particular, congenital anomalies, asthma, and appendicitis. Third, conditions were identified which accounted for the largest numbers of bed days used. These included congenital anomalies, hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids, asthma, otitis media, appendicitis, and head injury. Median time spent in hospital per child admitted declined for most conditions but increased for leukaemia, other malignant neoplasms, and congenital disorders of metabolism. Admission rates for children who spent five days or more in hospital each year declined for all common conditions except asthma which increased. Total numbers of beds used increased for asthma and otitis media but declined for all other common conditions.
PMCID: PMC1793565  PMID: 1739344
14.  Impact of Hospitalists on Length of Stay in the Medicare Population: Variation by Hospital and Patient Characteristics 
Objectives
To assess how reductions in length of stay associated with hospitalist care vary by patient and hospital characteristics and explore whether these reductions in length of stay changed over time in the Medicare population.
Design
Retrospective cohort study using data from a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries.
Setting
Hospital.
Participants
To examine temporal trends, 1,981,654 Medicare admissions in 2001 to 2006 at 5036 U.S. hospitals were used. To examine the influence of patient and hospital characteristics, 314,590 admissions in 2006 were used.
Measurements
Hospital length of stay.
Results
In multivariable analyses controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, the reductions in length of stay associated with hospitalist care increased from 0.02 days in 2001-02 to 0.22 days in 2003-04, and 0.35 days in 2005-06. For 2006 admissions, reductions in length of stay were greater in older patients and patients with a higher DRG weight. The reductions were three times greater for medical than for surgical DRGs, with greater reductions in length of stay at non-profit vs. for profit hospitals, and at community vs. teaching hospitals.
Conclusion
The reductions in length of stay associated with hospitalist care would appear to be greatest in older, complicated, non-surgical patients cared for at community hospitals.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03007.x
PMCID: PMC2946246  PMID: 20863324
Hospitalist; Length of Stay; Medicare
15.  Defining the appropriate use of community hospital beds. 
BACKGROUND: Patients of GPs who have access to community hospitals (CHs) as well as district general hospitals (DGHs) tend to spend on average more days in hospital each year. Increasing attention is being paid to the efficient management of medical admissions; however, there has been no previous prospective study investigating the appropriateness of CH admissions. AIM: To develop a protocol to assess the clinical appropriateness of admission and length of stay of patients in CHs and to simultaneously compare the appropriateness of admissions to all DGHs and CHs in the county. DESIGN OF STUDY: A protocol named Community Hospital Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (CHAEP) was developed to assess CH admissions through a process of consultation and a series of pilot studies. The appropriateness evaluation protocol (AEP) was also reviewed and used to assess DGH admissions. SETTING: A prospective cohort of 440 DGH admissions from five DGH sites and 440 CH admissions from nine CHs. METHODS: The admissions were assessed and followed for 28 days. If an admission failed to satisfy any of the criteria then the researcher interviewed the clinician to decide whether it was justified to override the protocol and still classify the admission as appropriate. To assess validity, a proportion of these 'clinical overrides' and the researcher's classifications were reviewed retrospectively by a clinical panel. The kappa statistic was used to assess the level of agreement. RESULTS: Applying the CHAEP, 82% of CH admissions satisfied a criterion for admission and a further 3% were given clinical overrides. A lower intensity of care was required for the majority of the remainder while three admissions required DGH care according to AEP criteria. Sixty-eight per cent of bed days satisfied day-of-care criteria within CHAEP and only a further 2% were given clinical override. These results were similar to those found with the AEP at the DGHs where 75% of admissions (plus 16% given clinical override) and 55% of days-of-care (plus 20% given clinical override) satisfied the AEP criteria. The review panel generally did not agree with the clinician's use of the clinical override at the CHs. Agreement between research nurse and review panel was better for the AEP and DGH (kappa = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.0) than for the CHAEP and CH (kappa = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The CHAEP could be used to audit the appropriateness of admission and length of stay in CHs. Other health communities would need to review the CHAEP before it could be applied within their context.
PMCID: PMC1313942  PMID: 11217640
16.  Evaluation of the impact of Medicare and Medicaid prospective payment on utilization of Philadelphia area hospitals. 
Health Services Research  1986;21(4):529-546.
The article evaluates the impact of Medicare and Medicaid DRG prospective payment on utilization in Philadelphia area hospitals. These hospitals began a combined Medicare-Medicaid DRG prospective payment at the same time after a common cost-based reimbursement history. Particular attention is paid to the hospital-driven as opposed to physician-driven explanations of declining inpatient utilization. The evaluation of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) and Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) interventions uses an ARIMA model that removes both seasonal and autoregressive effects. Both TEFRA and the DRG payment system produced significant reductions in average length of stay, total hospital days, and hospital occupancy rates. Neither, however, had a significant effect on admissions. Hospitals with a higher proportion of Medicare and Medicaid discharges reduced their average length of stay more than other facilities. Hospitals with a higher proportion of outpatient visits to inpatient admissions also reduced inpatient length of stay more. Hospitals with higher than expected overall admissions after the introduction of the DRG program tended to have lower than expected average lengths of stay. The results lend support to the "hospital-driven" interpretation of declines in average length of stay. They fail to support the contention that the DRG system will produce automatic counteracting increases in admissions in the system as a whole.
PMCID: PMC1068970  PMID: 3095267
17.  Use of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (Insulin Pump) Therapy in the Hospital: A Review of One Institution's Experience 
Background
This article reviews the performance of our hospital's inpatient insulin pump policy.
Methods
Twenty-five hospital admissions of 21 unique patients receiving outpatient insulin pump therapy were reviewed.
Results
Between November 1, 2005, and November 30, 2006, there were 25 hospital admissions involving 21 patients receiving outpatient insulin pump therapy. The average age and duration of diabetes among these 21 patients was 50 and 29 years, respectively; 67% were women, 90% had type 1 diabetes, and all were white. The mean length of hospital stay was 4 days, and the average reported length of insulin pump therapy was 4 years. Patients in 16 of the admissions were identified as candidates for continued use of the insulin pump during the hospital stay. Over 90% of patients remaining on the insulin pump had documentation by nursing of the presence of the pump at the time of admission; 100% of the patients had an admission glucose recorded; 88% had a record of signed patient consent; 81% had evidence of completed preprinted insulin pump orders; 75% received a required endocrine consultation; and 75% of cases had documentation of completed bedside flow sheet. A high frequency of both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events occurred in the patients; however, no adverse events were related directly to the insulin pump.
Conclusions
Insulin pump therapy can be safely continued in the hospital setting. While staff compliance with required procedures was high, there was still room for improvement. More data are needed, however, on whether this method of insulin delivery is effective for controlling hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients.
PMCID: PMC2769830  PMID: 19885284
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; diabetes mellitus; hospitalizations; insulin infusion; insulin pumps
18.  Postoperative management after loop ileostomy closure: are we keeping patients in hospital too long? 
INTRODUCTION
Recent studies have shown that closure of loop ileostomy can be performed in the day-case setting, reducing the length and cost of hospitalisation. By analysing our patients who have undergone reversal, we aimed to determine the length of hospital stay and potential factors behind stays beyond 24 h.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A database of patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy at one colorectal unit was examined. The times taken to discharge, morbidity and re-admission rates were recorded.
RESULTS
Eighty patients underwent reversal of ileostomy between January 2001 and January 2006. Median age was 63 years (range, 22–81 years). The median length of stay was 4 days (range, 2–32 days). The median length of stay in patients without complications was 4 days. Many appeared able to be discharged earlier. Seventy-two patients (90%) were able to tolerate a solid diet within 48 h and 54 (67.5%) had bowel function within 3 days. Six patients went home before bowel function; none of these were re-admitted. Twenty patients (25%) developed complications, which included wound infection (8%), small bowel obstruction/ileus (6%), enterocutaneous fistula (1%), anastomotic leak (1%), and late abdominal wall abscess (1%). Of the patients, 16% stayed longer than 5 days despite having no postoperative complications.
CONCLUSIONS
The majority of patients undergoing loop ileostomy reversal at our institution can be discharged earlier than they are at present. Support in the community and the implementation of modified UK day-case surgery protocols are suggested to help shorten patients' length of stay.
doi:10.1308/003588410X12518836439209
PMCID: PMC3024618  PMID: 20056062
Loop ileostomy reversal; Day-case surgery; Length of stay
19.  Cost analysis of acute burn patients treated in a burn centre: the Gulhane experience 
Summary
Even if calculating the exact cost of burn treatment is a very hard task, the study of cost analysis provides financial perspective. We performed a cost analysis study in our burn centre to respond to questions about total patient treatment cost and the length of hospital stay. We reviewed all patients admitted to the Gulhane Military Medical Academy Burn Centre in Ankara, Turkey, between March 2005 and August 2008. Forty-three patients with major burns were identified on the basis of the study criteria. The data regarding total treatment cost and the length of hospital stay for each type of burn (flame, scald, electric) were collected at the end of the study. The average total body surface area burned was 36 ± 7%.. The average duration of hospital stay was 73 ± 33 days. Patients with electrical burns stayed longer in hospital than patients with other types of burn injuries. Each one per cent of burn corresponded to a mean hospital stay of two days. The overall mean total cost was $US 15,250. The mean total cost of electrical burns was the highest, with $US 22,501 ± 24,039. Even if the costs associated with burn injury are higher than some other well-known health-related problems, they have not been much studied. Reports have produced different results, but it should be kept in mind that although the results of cost analysis studies may vary they must be performed in all newly established burn centres in order to form a financial overview.
PMCID: PMC3187939  PMID: 21991233
BURN; COST ANALYSIS; HEALTH ECONOMICS
20.  Professional Language Interpretation and Inpatient Length of Stay and Readmission Rates 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2012;27(10):1294-1299.
Background
The population of persons seeking medical care is linguistically diverse in the United States. Language barriers can adversely affect a patient’s ability to explain their symptoms. Among hospitalized patients, these barriers may lead to higher readmission rates and longer hospitalizations. Trained interpreters help overcome communication barriers; however, interpreter usage among patients is suboptimal.
Objective
To investigate differences among patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) in their length of stay (LOS) and 30-day readmission rate associated with their receiving professional interpretation at admission or discharge.
Design
We analyzed the rates of interpretation at admission and discharge of all LEP patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital over a three-year period. We calculated length of stay in days and as log of LOS. We also examined 30-day readmission. Using multivariable regression models, we explored differences among patients who received interpretation at admission, discharge, or both, controlling for patient characteristics, including age, illness severity, language, and gender.
Participants
All LEP patients admitted between May 1, 2004 and April 30, 2007.
Main Measures
Length of hospital stay as related to use of professional interpreters; readmission to the hospital within 30 days.
Key Results
Of the 3071 patients included in the study, 39 % received language interpretation on both admission and discharge date. Patients who did not receive professional interpretation at admission or both admission/discharge had an increase in their LOS of between 0.75 and 1.47 days, compared to patients who had an interpreter on both day of admission and discharge (P < 0.02). Patients receiving interpretation at admission and/or discharge were less likely than patients receiving no interpretation to be readmitted with 30 days.
Conclusions
The length of a hospital stay for LEP patients was significantly longer when professional interpreters were not used at admission or both admission/discharge.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2041-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2041-5
PMCID: PMC3445680  PMID: 22528618
low English proficient (LEP); interpreters; length of stay (LOS)
21.  The Effect of State Policies on Nursing Home Resident Outcomes 
OBJECTIVES
To test the effect of changes in Medicaid reimbursement on clinical outcomes of long-stay nursing home (NH) residents.
DESIGN
Longitudinal, retrospective study of NHs, merging aggregated resident-level quality measures with facility characteristics and state policy survey data.
SETTING
All free-standing NHs in urban counties with at least 20 long-stay residents per quarter (length of stay >90 days) in the continental United States between 1999 and 2005.
PARTICIPANTS
Long-stay NH residents
INTERVENTIONS
Annual state Medicaid average per diem reimbursement and the presence of case-mix reimbursement in each year.
MEASUREMENTS
Quarterly facility-aggregated, risk-adjusted quality-of-care measures surpassing a threshold for functional (activity of daily living) decline, physical restraint use, pressure ulcer incidence or worsening, and persistent pain.
RESULTS
All outcomes showed an improvement trend over the study period, particularly physical restraint use. Facility fixed-effect regressions revealed that a $10 increase in Medicaid payment increased the likelihood of a NH meeting quality thresholds by 9% for functional decline, 5% for pain control, and 2% for pressure ulcers but not reduced use of physical restraints. Facilities in states that increased Medicaid payment most showed the greatest improvement in outcomes. The introduction of case-mix reimbursement was unrelated to quality improvement.
CONCLUSION
Improvements in the clinical quality of NH care have been achieved, particularly where Medicaid payment has increased, generally from a lower baseline. Although this is a positive finding, challenges to implementing efficient reimbursement policies remain.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03230.x
PMCID: PMC3731756  PMID: 21198463
nursing homes; Medicaid; outcomes; policy; evaluation
22.  Impact of admission blood glucose level on outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia in older adults 
Background
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for pneumonia, the clinical impact of blood glucose level at the time of admission is not clear. Our goal was to examine the association between admission hyperglycemia and subsequent mortality, length of stay, and readmission outcomes in older adults with CAP.
Methods
A retrospective observational study was conducted using hospital data for community-acquired pneumonia admissions in 857 persons from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. We examined the effects of admission glucose level on mortality, length of stay, and 30 day readmission, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity.
Results
The mean age of the sample was 64 years, and 51% of the subjects were female. Inpatient mortality occurred in 4.6% and the median length of stay was 5 days (interquartile range 3–9 days). Readmission within 30 days occurred in 17%. We found little impact of first glucose measures on in-hospital mortality (P = 0.94), length of stay (P = 0.95), and 30-day readmission (P = 0.56). Subjects 65 years and older trended towards higher in-hospital mortality. Older age, cancer, heart failure, and cirrhosis were associated with adverse outcomes.
Conclusion
Glucose level upon admission for community-acquired pneumonia was not associated with adverse outcomes within 30 days in older adults.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S42854
PMCID: PMC3656812  PMID: 23690696
community-acquired pneumonia; hyperglycemia; readmission rates; hospital mortality
23.  Differences among hospitals in Medicare patient mortality. 
Health Services Research  1989;24(1):1-31.
Using hospital discharge abstract data for fiscal year 1984 for all acute care hospitals treating Medicare patients (age greater than or equal to 65), we measured four mortality rates: inpatient deaths, deaths within 30 days after discharge, and deaths within two fixed periods following admission (30 days, and the 95th percentile length of stay for each condition). The metric of interest was the probability that a hospital would have as many deaths as it did (taking age, race, and sex into account). Differences among hospitals in inpatient death rates were large and significant (p less than .05) for 22 of 48 specific conditions studied and for all conditions together; among these 22 "high-variation" conditions, medical conditions accounted for far more deaths than did surgical conditions. We compared pairs of conditions in terms of hospital rankings by probability of observed numbers of inpatient deaths; we found relatively low correlations (Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.3 or lower) for most comparisons except between a few surgical conditions. When we compared different pairs of the four death measures on their rankings of hospitals by probabilities of the observed numbers of deaths, the correlations were moderate to high (Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.54 to 0.99). Hospitals with low probabilities of the number of observed deaths were not distributed randomly geographically; a small number of states had significantly more than their share of these hospitals (p less than .01). Information from hospital discharge abstract data is insufficient to determine the extent to which differences in severity of illness or quality of care account for this marked variability, so data on hospital death rates cannot now be used to draw inferences about quality of care. The magnitude of variability in death rates and the geographic clustering of facilities with low probabilities, however, both argue for further study of hospital death rates. These data may prove most useful as a screening mechanism to identify patterns of potentially poor quality of care. Careful choice of the mortality measure used is needed, however, to maximize the probability of identifying those hospitals, and only those hospitals, warranting more in-depth review.
PMCID: PMC1065550  PMID: 2654083
24.  Prevalence and incidence of severe sepsis in Dutch intensive care units 
Critical Care  2004;8(4):R153-R162.
Introduction
Severe sepsis is a dreaded consequence of infection and necessitates intensive care treatment. Severe sepsis has a profound impact on mortality and on hospital costs, but recent incidence data from The Netherlands are not available. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of severe sepsis occurring during the first 24 hours of admission in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs).
Methods
Forty-seven ICUs in The Netherlands participated in a point prevalence survey and included patients with infection at the time of ICU admission. Clinical symptoms of severe sepsis during the first 24 hours of each patient's ICU stay were recorded and the prevalence of severe sepsis was calculated. Then, the annual incidence of severe sepsis in The Netherlands was estimated, based on the prevalence, the estimated length of stay, and the capacity of the participating ICUs relative to the national intensive care capacity.
Results
The participating ICUs had 442 beds available for admissions, which was estimated to be 42% of the national ICU capacity. At the time of the survey, 455 patients were currently admitted and 151 were included in the analysis; 134 (29.5%) patients met criteria for severe sepsis. The most common failing organ system was the respiratory system (90%), and most patients were admitted following surgery (37%) and were admitted because of acute infection (62%). The most prevalent source of infection was the lung (47%). The estimated duration of ICU stay for severe sepsis patients was 13.3 ± 1.1 days.
Conclusion
The annual number of admissions for severe sepsis in Dutch ICUs was calculated at 8643 ± 929 cases/year, which is 0.054% of the population, 0.61% of hospital admissions and 11% of ICU admissions.
doi:10.1186/cc2858
PMCID: PMC522831  PMID: 15312213
incidence; intensive care; point prevalence survey; prevalence; severe sepsis
25.  Comparing hospital mortality – how to count does matter for patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture 
Background
Mortality is a widely used, but often criticised, quality indicator for hospitals. In many countries, mortality is calculated from in-hospital deaths, due to limited access to follow-up data on patients transferred between hospitals and on discharged patients. The objectives were to: i) summarize time, place and cause of death for first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture, ii) compare case-mix adjusted 30-day mortality measures based on in-hospital deaths and in-and-out-of hospital deaths, with and without patients transferred to other hospitals.
Methods
Norwegian hospital data within a 5-year period were merged with information from official registers. Mortality based on in-and-out-of-hospital deaths, weighted according to length of stay at each hospital for transferred patients (W30D), was compared to a) mortality based on in-and-out-of-hospital deaths excluding patients treated at two or more hospitals (S30D), and b) mortality based on in-hospital deaths (IH30D). Adjusted mortalities were estimated by logistic regression which, in addition to hospital, included age, sex and stage of disease. The hospitals were assigned outlier status according to the Z-values for hospitals in the models; low mortality: Z-values below the 5-percentile, high mortality: Z-values above the 95-percentile, medium mortality: remaining hospitals.
Results
The data included 48 048 AMI patients, 47 854 stroke patients and 40 142 hip fracture patients from 55, 59 and 58 hospitals, respectively. The overall relative frequencies of deaths within 30 days were 19.1% (AMI), 17.6% (stroke) and 7.8% (hip fracture). The cause of death diagnoses included the referral diagnosis for 73.8-89.6% of the deaths within 30 days. When comparing S30D versus W30D outlier status changed for 14.6% (AMI), 15.3% (stroke) and 36.2% (hip fracture) of the hospitals. For IH30D compared to W30D outlier status changed for 18.2% (AMI), 25.4% (stroke) and 27.6% (hip fracture) of the hospitals.
Conclusions
Mortality measures based on in-hospital deaths alone, or measures excluding admissions for transferred patients, can be misleading as indicators of hospital performance. We propose to attribute the outcome to all hospitals by fraction of time spent in each hospital for patients transferred between hospitals to reduce bias due to double counting or exclusion of hospital stays.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-364
PMCID: PMC3526398  PMID: 23088745
Mortality; Quality indicator; Transferred patients; AMI; Stroke; Hip fracture; Cause of death; Hospital comparison; Episode of care

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