Anemia is regarded as a major risk factor for unfavorable pregnancy outcomes, but there have been no previous studies describing the pattern of hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy in Tibet and the relationship between altitude and Hb concentration in the pregnant women living in Tibet still has not been clearly established. The main objectives of this study were to study the hemoglobin levels and prevalence of anemia among pregnant women living in the highlands of Tibet and to evaluate potential associations of hemoglobin and anemia with women's characteristics.
The hospital-based study was conducted in 380 pregnant women. Their blood samples were tested and related sociodemographic information was collected. Multiple linear regression model and multiple logistic regression model were used to assess the association of pregnant women's characteristics with hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Dirren et al. and Dallman et al. methods were used to adjust the hemoglobin measurements based on altitude for estimating the prevalence of anemia.
The mean hemoglobin concentration was 127.6 g/L (range: 55.0-190.0 g/L). Prevalence rate of anemia in this study was 70.0%, 77.9% and 41.3%, respectively for three altitude-correction methods for hemoglobin (CDC method, Dirren et al. method, and Dallman et al. method). Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were significantly associated with the hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia in the study population. Specially, the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women decreased with increase in gestational age.
The hemoglobin level was low and prevalence rate of anemia was high among pregnant women in Lhasa, Tibet. Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were found to be significantly associated with the hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia in the study population.
Background and aim: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common problem all over the world, which attacks mainly pregnant women, infants and children. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of IDA in children 12–24 months old in a specific area of Thessalia, located in the central part of Greece, and to identify the environmental risk factors associated with it.
Patients and Methods: In the first part of this cross–sectional and case–control study, the hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 938 children were estimated by a mobile photometer analyzer. In the second part of the study, children with Hb < 11 gr/dl were compared with matched random selected controls in hematological, anthropometric and environmental parameters. The estimated laboratory values were Hb, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, zinc protoporphyrin, serum iron, serum ferritin, transferring saturation, total iron binding capacity and Hb electrophoresis. Finally 75 children (34 boys, 41 girls, mean age 17.51±3.5 months), who were found with IDA, constituted the case group while 75 healthy children constituted the control group.
Results: The prevalence of IDA in the region was 7.99%. At the same time, a number of children with stigma of bthalassaemia (2.13%) was discovered, something that had escaped identification. There were no differences due to the method of determination (mobile or laboratory) in the values of Hb between the two groups. Significant differences were recorded (p<0.001) in all hematological and anthropometric parameters except for head circumference. Regarding environmental factors, significant differences were found in the following parameters: ratio rooms/number of family members (p=0.01), number of family members (p=0.01), number of children in the family (p<0.001), birth rate (p<0.001), education and profession of the parents (p<0.001), source of drinking water and sewage system (p<0.001), duration of breast feeding (p<0.001), milk consumption by the child during the period of the reported research (p<0.001), child's health status according to the mother (p<0.001), and frequency of seeking pediatric care (p=0.02).
Conclusions: Although the prevalence of IDA in this area of Greece is similar to the one observed in the rest of the developed world, it still consists a public health problem. The mobile method for Hb estimation should be introduced in Greece since its reliability to detect IDA has been, once more, confirmed. The application of simple questionnaires for the detection of the environmental IDA risk factors could help in the prognosis and prevention of anemia. Further improvement of the IDA status in Greece could be achieved through the dissemination of information about iron rich foods, the amelioration of environmental conditions and the application of reliable, easy to use and cheap methods for Hb estimation.
children; iron deficiency anemia; environment; questionnaire; Greece
Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem in developing countries and affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women.
Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted from June to August, 2011 on 374 pregnant women. Mothers who came for ANC during the study period and who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed and a capillary blood sample was taken. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis.
The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.05±1.5 g/dl and prevalence of anemia was 36.6%. Family sizes (COR=2.67, CI (1.65, 4.32), third trimester (COR=1.45, CI (1.11, 2.23), meat consumption <1x/wk (COR=3.47, CI (1.58, 7.64) and pica (COR=2.33, CI (1.52, 3.58) were significantly associated with anemia. Having five or more children (AOR=5.2, CI [1.29, 21.09]), intake of vegetables and fruits less than once per day (AOR= 6.7, CI [2.49, 17.89]), intake of tea always after meal (AOR = 12.83.CI [45-28.9]), and recurrence of illness during pregnancy (AOR=7.3, CI [2.12–25.39]) were factors associated with anemia.
This study showed that anemia is a moderate public health problem. Less frequent meat and vegetable consumption, parity ≥5 are risk factors for anemia. Therefore, reducing parity, taking balanced diet and use of mosquito nets during pregnancy are recommended.
Hemoglobin; Anemia; Pregnancy; ANC
In Ethiopia, the existence of iron deficiency anemia is controversial despite the fact that Ethiopia is one of the least developed in Africa with a high burden of nutrient deficiencies.
The first large nutrition study of a representative sample of women in Ethiopia was conducted from June to July 2005 and a systematically selected sub-sample of 970 of these subjects, 15 to 49 years old, were used in this analysis of nutritional anemia. Hemoglobin was measured from capillary blood using a portable HemoCue photometer. For serum ferritin, venous blood from antecubital veins was measured by an automated Elecsys 1020 using commercial kits. Diets were assessed via simplified food frequency questionnaire. The association of anemia to demographic and health variables was tested by chi-square and a stepwise backward logistic regression model was applied to test the significant associations observed in chi square tests.
Mean hemoglobin ± SD was 11.5 ± 2.1 g/dL with a 29.4% prevalence of anemia. Mean serum ferritin was 58 ± 41.1 ug/L with a 32.1% prevalence of iron deficiency. The overall prevalence rate of iron deficiency anemia was 18.0%. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia was highest among those 31-49 years old (p < 0.05). Intake of vegetables less than once a day and meat less than once a week was common and was associated with increased anemia (p = 0.001). Although the prevalence of anemia was slightly higher among women with parasitic infestation the difference was not significant (p = 0.9). Nonetheless, anemia was significantly higher in women with history of illness and the association was retained even when the variable was adjusted for its confounding effect in the logistic regression models (AOR = 0.3; 95%CI = 0.17 to 0.5) signifying that the most probable causes of anemia is nutrition related and to some extent chronic illnesses.
Moderate nutritional anemia in the form of iron deficiency anemia is a problem in Ethiopia and therefore, the need for improved supplementation to vulnerable groups is warranted to achieve the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals. Chronic illnesses are another important cause of anemia.
Assessment of hemoglobin is one of the most reliable indicators for anemia, and is widely used to screen for anemia among pregnant women. The HemoCue® has been widely used for as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in health facilities. Previous studies showed contradictory results regarding the accuracy of HemoCue®.
This was a hospital-based cross sectional study carried- out among pregnant women at Khartoum hospital in Sudan to find out whether the measurement of hemoglobin concentration by HemoCue® using venous or capillary samples was comparable to that of the automated hematology analyzer as standard. Bland and Altman method was used to compare the measurements with an acceptable difference of ± 1.0 g/dl.
Among the 108 subjects in this study the mean (SD) level of hemoglobin level using HemoCue® venous sample, HemoCue® capillary sample and automated hematology analyzer were 12.70 (1.77), 12.87 (2.04) and 11.53 (1.63) g/dl, respectively. Although the correlations between the measurements were all significant there was no agreement between HemoCue® and automated hematology analyzer. The bias + SD (limits of agreement) for HemoCue® venous versus hematology analyzer was 1.17 ± 1.57 (-1.97, 4.31) g/dl, HemoCue® capillary versus hematology analyzer was 1.34 ± 1.85 (-2.36, 5.04) g/dl, and HemoCue® venous versus HemoCue® capillary samples was 017 ± 1.90 and (3.97-3.63) g/dl.
Hemoglobin concentration assessment by HemoCue® using either venous or capillary blood samples has shown unacceptable agreement with automated hematology analyzer.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8797022296725036
In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities.
EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin.
Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no significant difference in the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue compared to Cyanmethemoglobin (coef = -0.127, 95% CI: -0.379 - 0.634).
Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.
A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-μm impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated with diesel emissions. The calibration factor corrected correlation coefficient (R2) between the underground TC and photometer measurements was 0.93. The main issues holding back the use of a photometer for real-time estimation of DPM in an underground mine are the removal of non-DPM-associated particulate matter from the aerosol stream using devices, such as a cyclone and/or impactor and calibration of the photometer to mine-specific aerosol.
diesel exhaust; diesel particulate matter; direct-reading instruments; photometer; real-time measurement
This report is an assessment of clinical chemistry dry reagent methodology for veterinary use. A portable reflectance photometer and dry reagent strips were used to measure canine whole blood hemoglobin, and total bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine and urea in canine, bovine, equine and feline sera. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were assayed in canine, bovine and equine sera. The following aspects of performance are reported: within run variation determined on canine samples, between run variation using a commercial control, correlations between dry reagent and wet reagent methodology on clinical samples, and dry reagent method serum chemistry reference values for the cow, horse and dog. A brief description of some technical advantages and limitations is included.
Technical requirements were minimal while reproducibility and accuracy compared well with the wet reagent method. The dry reagent method was found to be suitable for determination of canine, bovine, equine and feline serum variables as listed above.
Dry reagent clinical chemistry; cow; horse; dog; cat
Objective. To determine changes in hemoglobin concentration at second measurements after a normal hemoglobin concentration was detected at first booking during pregnancy at low and at high altitudes. Methods. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System in Peru which includes 379,816 pregnant women and their babies from 43 maternity units in Peru. Results. Most women remained with normal hemoglobin values at second measurement (75.1%). However, 21.4% of women became anemic at the second measurement. In all, 2.8% resulted with moderate/severe anemia and 3.5% with erythrocytosis (Hb>14.5 g/dL). In all cases Hb was higher as altitude increased. Risk for moderate/severe anemia increased associated with higher gestational age at second measurement of hemoglobin, BMI <19.9 kg/m2, living without partner, <5 antenatal care visits, first parity, multiparity, and preeclampsia. Lower risk for moderate/severe anemia was observed with normal high Hb level at first booking living at moderate and high altitude, and high BMI. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia increases as pregnancy progress, and that a normal value at first booking may not be considered sufficient as Hb values should be observed throughout pregnancy. BMI was a risk for anemia in a second measurement.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron with oral iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia of pregnancy.
A randomized experimental study was conducted at K. J. Somaiya Hospital involving 200 pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia. In the intravenous group iron dose was calculated from: Total iron dose required (mg) = 2.4 × weight kg × target hemoglobin − actual hemoglobin) g/dl + 500.
Target hemoglobin was set at 12 g/dl. In the oral group patients received 200 mg oral ferrous ascorbate daily. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were reviewed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Paired and independent t test was applied.
The change in hemoglobin and ferritin levels from baseline was significantly higher in the intravenous group than the oral group at each measurement (P = 0.000).
Intravenous iron elevates hemoglobin and restores iron stores faster than oral iron, with no severe adverse reactions.
Iron deficiency anemia; Hemoglobin; Serum ferritin; Iron sucrose; Oral ferrous ascorbate
Iron-deficiency anemia is often under-diagnosed in developing countries,
specifically in pregnant populations in regions of high altitude. Hemoglobin
levels are not consistently adjusted for elevation, and therefore many anemic patients
are left undiagnosed. The purpose of this study was to incorporate current
parameters for diagnosing anemia in pregnancy at high altitudes, and to evaluate
the effects of appropriately adjusted hemoglobin concentrations on pregnancy outcome.
A few studies have examined the effect of elevation on hemoglobin status,
and other studies have considered the effects of anemia of pregnancy; however,
there is a lack of data demonstrating that altitude-adjusted hemoglobin levels accurately
predict pregnancy outcome. Using the Student t-Test, multiple linear regression,
and ANOVA statistical analyses, various factors of pregnancy outcome
were compared between anemic and non-anemic groups, as defined by hemoglobin
cut-off levels adjusted for trimester of pregnancy and altitude. When appropriate
adjustments were used, maternal anemia was associated with lower infant Apgar
scores at both one minute and five minutes after birth, as well as complication of
labor, lower gestational age at birth, and higher parity. This study demonstrates the
importance of altitude and trimester specific adjustments to maternal hemoglobin
levels in order to accurately diagnose anemia in pregnancy. In addition, a clear correlation
is seen between maternal hemoglobin level and pregnancy outcome.
Iron-Deficiency Anemia; Pregnancy; Bolivia; Elevation; Altitude; Hemoglobin
Reports that patients with heart failure and anemia incur greater costs and medical resource use have relied largely on data with limited clinical detail.
HF-ACTION, a large trial of exercise training in heart failure, recorded hemoglobin at baseline. Medical resource use and hospital bills for inpatient and emergency department visits were collected throughout the study. We analyzed hemoglobin as a continuous variable to evaluate relationships with medical resource use and costs over 1 year.
Among 1,763 patients with baseline hemoglobin levels, those with lower hemoglobin levels tended to be older, African American, and women and to have more severe heart failure. Lower hemoglobin was significantly associated with more hospital admissions, inpatient days, outpatient visits, and urgent care or emergency department visits (all P < .005, unadjusted). Although cost outliers influenced estimates, these observations were distributed across hemoglobin levels. Mean 1-year costs across hemoglobin levels defined as ≤11, >11–12, >12–13, >13–14, >14–15, and >15 g/dL were $21,106, $20,189, $16,249, $17,989, $13,216, and $12,492, respectively (P < .001, unadjusted). Significant associations remained after multivariable adjustment.
Patients with lower baseline hemoglobin levels experienced progressively greater resource use and higher costs.
Anemia; health care costs; heart failure
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.
Patients and Methods:
Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women.
Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely.
The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.
Pregnancy; HIV; anemia; rural community; Nigeria
There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings.
This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin A (<0.7 μmol/l), vitamin D (<80 nmol/l) and vitamin E (<9.7 μmol/l) status. Binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Approximately 35, 39 and 51% of the women had low levels of vitamins A, D and E, respectively. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <85 g/l; P<0.01), plasma vitamin E (P=0.02), selenium (P=0.01) and vitamin D (P=0.02) concentrations were significant correlates of low vitamin A status in multivariate models. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was independently related to low vitamin A status in a nonlinear manner (P=0.01). The correlates of low vitamin D status were CD8 cell count (P=0.01), high ESR (ESR >81 mm/h; P<0.01), gestational age at enrollment (nonlinear; P=0.03) and plasma vitamins A (P=0.02) and E (P=0.01). For low vitamin E status, the correlates were money spent on food per household per day (P<0.01), plasma vitamin A concentration (nonlinear; P<0.01) and a gestational age <16 weeks at enrollment (P<0.01).
Low concentrations of lipid-soluble vitamins are widely prevalent among HIV-infected women in Tanzania and are correlated with other nutritional insufficiencies. Identifying HIV-infected persons at greater risk of poor nutritional status and infections may help inform design and implementation of appropriate interventions.
HIV; AIDS; pregnancy; Africa; vitamins
Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures.
Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-701 pedometer for four consecutive days. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were determined between pedometer step counts and various accelerometer measures of PA. Total agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step counts was evaluated by determining the 95% limits of agreement estimated using a regression-based method. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants as active or inactive was assessed by determining Kappa.
Pedometer step counts correlated moderately (r = 0.36 to 0.54) with most accelerometer measures of PA. Overall step counts recorded by the pedometer and the accelerometer were not significantly different (medians 5961 vs. 5687 steps/day, p = 0.37). However, the 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2690 to 2656 steps/day for the mean step count value (6026 steps/day) and changed substantially over the range of values. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants to active and inactive varied from moderate to good depending on the criteria adopted.
Despite statistically significant correlations and similar median step counts, the overall agreement between pedometer and accelerometer step counts was poor and varied with activity level. Pedometer and accelerometer steps cannot be used interchangeably in overweight and obese pregnant women.
The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity.
From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women).
Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least <0.01) starting at 27 weeks gestation and proceeding until term. There was no significant difference in the mean PLT counts between Caucasian and non-Caucasian pregnant women at any point during gestation.
There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.
Anemia; Complete blood count; Hemoglobin; Pregnancy; Reference Ranges
HIV-associated anemia is common and associated with poor prognosis. However, its response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly understood.
HIV-infected adults (≥15 years) who enrolled in HIV care at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in northern Tanzania were included in the study. The effect of ART (zidovudine/stavudine + lamivudine + efavirenz/nevirapine) on HIV-associated anemia was studied in a subset of patients who were anemic at the time they started ART and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement 12 months later. Pregnant women were excluded from the study, as were women who had given birth within the past 6 weeks. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. We applied paired sample T-tests to compare hemoglobin levels before and one year after ART initiation, and logistic regression models to identify predictors of persistent anemia.
At enrollment, mean hemoglobin was 10.3 g/dL, and 649 of 838 patients (77.4%) were anemic. Of the anemic patients, 254 (39.1%) had microcytosis and hypochromia. Among 102 patients who were anemic at ART initiation and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement after 12 months, the mean hemoglobin increased by 2.5 g/dL (P < 0.001); however, 39 patients (38.2%) were still anemic after 12 months of ART. Independent predictors of persistent anemia were mean cell volume in the lower quartile (<76.0 fL; Odds Ratio [OR] 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-15.5) and a zidovudine-containing initial regimen (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.03-8.19).
Most patients had anemia at enrollment, of whom nearly 40% had microcytosis and hypochromia suggestive of iron deficiency. The mean hemoglobin increased significantly in patients who received ART, but one third were still anemic 12 months after ART initiation indicating that additional interventions to treat HIV-associated anemia in rural Africa might be warranted, particularly in patients with microcytosis and those treated with zidovudine.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate inter- and intra-observer variability in sonographic measurements of the cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord and the diameters of its vessels in low-risk pregnancies of 12 to 40 weeks of gestation.
A prospective cross sectional study was performed in 221 pregnant women at different gestational ages. Measurements were carried out also by a second observer to evaluate inter-observer variability and repeated once again by the first observer to assess intra-observer variability. The linear correlation between the measurements (Spearman's coefficient of correlation) and their reliability through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the limits of agreement proposed by Bland and Altman were evaluated.
The results showed that inter-observer and intra-observer variability did not show any significant difference between examiners. A good linear correlation between the measurements and reliability was obtained, with values of R, ICC and Cronbach's alpha all above the standard limits.
It is possible to conclude that inter- and intra-observer variability in the measurements of the umbilical cord and its vessels was small; their reliability and agreement were good.
The aim of our study was to do an agreement analysis of two different laboratory methods used to measure electrolytes i.e., between the ISE based Beckman Coulter Synchron CX9 PRO Biochemistry analyzer and RAL's Ion3 Flame Photometer (Técnica para el Laboratorio, Barcelona, Spain), in serum samples.
Materials and Methods:
This cross sectional study was done over a period of three months from September’09 through December’09 on routine biochemistry samples. A total of 6492 samples were received for routine biochemistry analysis from those 630 blood samples were randomly processed for this study. Two ml of sample was taken in a plain gel tube (LABTECH Disposables, Ahmedabad, India), centrifuged and further processed using both systems within one hour of the sampling to obtain the Na and K concentrations in the samples. The bias and variability of differences in measured values were analyzed according to Bland and Altman method.
Flame photometry method has drawbacks such as low throughput, requires manual operation, is a time consuming procedure. Ion selective electrodes technique is a more universal method for the high throughput determination of electrolytes in physiological samples; Beckman Coulter Synchron CX9 PRO is an example of such a system. The mean difference between the two methods (standard minus test) and 95% limits of agreement for sodium in serum was -7.8±17.3 (-42.2 to 26.6) and in urine was -22±41 (-104 to 60). Similarly, the mean difference between the two methods for potassium values in serum was found to be -0.25±0.75 (-1.75 to 1.25) and in urine was -5.3±38.9 (-83.1 to 72.5). With 95% confidence interval, the value of sodium and potassium as determined by both the methods lie between the upper and lower limit showing 95% limits of agreement.
Good degree of agreement was seen on comparing the two methods for measuring the electrolytes; the use of Synchron CX9 in place of Flame photometer for electrolyte analysis in serum and urine is justified or use the two interchangeably.
Electrolyte measurement; flame photometry; ion selective electrodes method
Introduction. It was reported that 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was independently associated with anemia in chronic kidney diseases, but the relation between vitamin D and anemia in diabetes mellitus is not still certain. We analyzed the relation between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and hemoglobin concentration.
Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in male patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. Correlation coefficients and standardized partial regression coefficient for the hemoglobin concentration were evaluated.
Results. Hemoglobin concentration was positively correlated with body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, cholinesterase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and negatively correlated with age, duration of diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin creatinine ratio. Multiple regression analysis revealed the independent relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to hemoglobin concentration.
Conclusions. Plasma circulating form of vitamin D is significantly associated with hemoglobin concentration in diabetes mellitus independent of the clinical markers for kidney function or nutrition.
In developing countries, under nutrition is common, and this plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of malaria and anemia. Indeed it has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Unfortunately, published evidence concerning the situation is lacking.
To evaluate some nutritional function indices of pregnant women in a rural Nigerian community.
Subjects and Methods:
This is a cross sectional study involving of 171 pregnant women from a rural area in South-eastern Nigeria. They included 72 and 99 women in their second and third trimesters respectively. The control group was of 60 women, matched in age, parity and socioeconomic conditions, non-pregnant, non-menstruating and non lactating apparently healthy women. The parameters measured by standard methods included serum iron, total proteins, albumin, globulin, packed cell volume and hemoglobin.
The results obtained from control group, second and third trimesters, recorded as Mean (SEM) were 134.60(3.12) μg/L, 101.20(4.48) μg/L and 91.87(3.42) μg/L respectively for iron; 69.12(0.80) g/L, 63.60(0.71) g/L and 57.74(0.75) g/L for total proteins; 42.95(0.92) g/L, 35.74(1.00) g/L and 35.26(0.64) g/L for albumin; 26.77(1.00) g/L, 27.78(1.07) g/L and 22.93(0.88) g/L for globulin; 32.80(0.36%), 27.92(0.37%) and 27.73(0.34%) for packed cell volume, and 11.25(0.11) g/L, 9.59(0.13) g/L and 9.57(0.14) g/L for hemoglobin respectively. These results showed that all the parameters decreased significantly in pregnancy (P<0.001) except globulin that did not show immediate, significant decrease.
There is a general decrease in the nutrition parameters studied among the pregnant women from our study area, indicating under-nutrition. Urgent measures should be taken to improve the nutritional status of rural dwellers especially the antioxidant micronutrients.
Nutritional status; Pregnancy outcome; Rural area
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity in pregnant Ghanaian women.
We surveyed 1,500 pregnant women in Eastern region of Ghana. Direct interviews were performed by trained nurses using standardized questionnaires. Pregnant women were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B infections, hemoglobin levels and sickle cell anemia as part of the antenatal check-up.
The overall HBsAg positive rate was 10.6%, which varied among districts (13.8% for Kwahu West, 12.4% for Upper Manya, and 2.2% for Yilo Krobo). HBsAg positivity was significantly higher in women with depression (odds ratio [OR], 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13 to 6.57) and HIV (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.89). Age, education, and gravidity were not related to HBsAg positivity. Anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin for newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers is not provided at birth in public health facilities in Ghana. However, hepatitis B vaccination is provided as part of a routine vaccination schedule starting at 6 weeks of age.
To prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B, screening tests for HBsAg in pregnant women and hepatitis B vaccination of newborns immediately after birth need to be performed in this region.
Hepatitis B; Ghana; Pregnant women; Risk factors; Prevalence
Glutathione S-transferase gene deletions are known detoxification agents and cause oxidative damage. Due to the different pathophysiology of anemia in thalassemia and sickle cell disease, there are significant differences in the pathophysiology of iron overload and iron-related complications in these disorders.
The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in sickle cell disease patients and their effect on iron status.
Forty sickle cell anemia and sixty sickle ß-thalassemia patients and 100 controls were evaluated to determine the frequency of GST gene deletions. Complete blood counts were performed by an automated cell analyzer. Hemoglobin F, hemoglobin A, hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin S were measured and diagnosis of patients was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography with DNA extraction by the phenol-chloroform method. The GST null genotype was determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and serum ferritin was measured using an ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was by EpiInfo and GraphPad statistics software.
An increased frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype (p-value = 0.05) was seen in the patients. The mean serum ferritin level was higher in patients with the GST genotypes than in controls; this was statistically significant for all genotypes except GSTM1, however the higher levels of serum ferritin were due to blood transfusions in patients.
GST deletions do not play a direct role in iron overload of sickle cell patients.
Glutathione transferase; Anemia; Sickle cell; Hemoglobinopathies; Polymerase chain reaction
The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women.
In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) and iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus mean corpuscular volume <80 fL), and recovery from anemia and iron deficiency anemia through 18 months postpartum at antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2001 and 2005. A total of 2364 non-anemic pregnant women and 4884 anemic women were enrolled between 12 and 27 weeks of gestation.
In total, 292 women developed anemia during the postpartum period and 165 developed iron deficiency anemia, whereas 2982 recovered from baseline anemia and 2044 from iron deficiency anemia. Risk factors for postpartum anemia were delivery complications (RR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.22) and low postpartum CD4 cell count (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.96, 3.17). Iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy had a protective relationship with the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Absence of delivery complications, education status and iron/folate supplementation were positively associated with time to recovery from iron deficiency.
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, prenatal iron/folate supplementation, perinatal care, and prevention and management of infections, such as malaria, are modifiable risk factors for the occurrence of, and recovery from, anemia.
anemia; postpartum; iron deficiency; pregnancy
The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women.
The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet daily, second group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet three times a week, and the third group (n = 50) received two 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablets (100 mg) weekly, respectively for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were measured before and after the supplementation. Paired t and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated.
There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin levels with iron supplementation in the three group (P = 0.518, P = 0.276, respectively). The mean serum iron level before and after treatment with iron supplementation in the three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.962, P = 0.970, respectively). Although the mean serum ferritin level before and after treatment with iron supplementation was statistically significant in the three groups, no significant differences were found comparing the three groups (P = 0.827, P = 0.635 respectively).
This results suggested, three times a week or weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for healthy pregnant women without anemia.