Dysuria is a common presenting complaint of women and urinalysis is a valuable tool in the initial evaluation of this
presentation. Clinicians need to be aware that pyuria is the best determinate of bacteriuria requiring therapy and
that values significant for infection differ depending on the method of analysis. A hemocytometer yields a value of
≥ 10 WBC/ mm3
significant for bacteriuria, while manual microscopy studies show ≥ 8 WBC/high-power field
reliably predicts a positive urine culture. In cases of uncomplicated symptomatic urinary tract infection, a positive
value for nitrites and leukocyte esterase by urine dipstick can be treated without the need for a urine culture. Automated
urinalysis used widely in large volume laboratories provides more sensitive detection of leukocytes and
bacteria in the urine.With automated microscopy, a value of > 2 WBC/hpf is significant pyuria indicative of inflammation
of the urinary tract. In complicated cases such as pregnancy, recurrent infection or renal involvement,
further evaluation is necessary including manual microscopy and urine culture with sensitivities.
Many studies have evaluated the accuracy of dipstick tests as rapid detectors of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTI). The lack of an adequate explanation for the heterogeneity of the dipstick accuracy stimulates an ongoing debate. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to summarise the available evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of the urine dipstick test, taking into account various pre-defined potential sources of heterogeneity.
Literature from 1990 through 1999 was searched in Medline and Embase, and by reference tracking. Selected publications should be concerned with the diagnosis of bacteriuria or urinary tract infections, investigate the use of dipstick tests for nitrites and/or leukocyte esterase, and present empirical data. A checklist was used to assess methodological quality.
70 publications were included. Accuracy of nitrites was high in pregnant women (Diagnostic Odds Ratio = 165) and elderly people (DOR = 108). Positive predictive values were ≥80% in elderly and in family medicine. Accuracy of leukocyte-esterase was high in studies in urology patients (DOR = 276). Sensitivities were highest in family medicine (86%). Negative predictive values were high in both tests in all patient groups and settings, except for in family medicine. The combination of both test results showed an important increase in sensitivity. Accuracy was high in studies in urology patients (DOR = 52), in children (DOR = 46), and if clinical information was present (DOR = 28). Sensitivity was highest in studies carried out in family medicine (90%). Predictive values of combinations of positive test results were low in all other situations.
Overall, this review demonstrates that the urine dipstick test alone seems to be useful in all populations to exclude the presence of infection if the results of both nitrites and leukocyte-esterase are negative. Sensitivities of the combination of both tests vary between 68 and 88% in different patient groups, but positive test results have to be confirmed. Although the combination of positive test results is very sensitive in family practice, the usefulness of the dipstick test alone to rule in infection remains doubtful, even with high pre-test probabilities.
The high prevalence of bacteriuria in elderly individuals makes it difficult to know if a new symptom is related to bacteria in the urine. There are different views concerning this relationship and bacteriuria often leads to antibiotic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacteria in the urine and new or increased restlessness, fatigue, confusion, aggressiveness, not being herself/himself, dysuria, urgency and fever in individuals at nursing homes for elderly when statistically considering the high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this population.
In this cross-sectional study symptoms were registered and voided urine specimens were collected for urinary cultures from 651 elderly individuals. Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the statistical correlation between bacteriuria and presence of a symptom at group level. To estimate the clinical relevance of statistical correlations at group level positive and negative etiological predictive values (EPV) were calculated.
Logistic regression indicated some correlations at group level. Aside from Escherichia coli in the urine and not being herself/himself existing at least one month, but less than three months, EPV indicated no clinically useful correlation between any symptoms in this study and findings of bacteriuria.
Urinary cultures provide little or no useful information when evaluating diffuse symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes. Either common urinary tract pathogens are irrelevant, or urine culture is an inappropriate test.
Urinary Tract Infections; Homes for the Aged; Nursing Homes; Bacteriuria; Predictive Value of Tests
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection. Currently, diagnosis is primarily based on microbiologic culture, which is time- and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of urinalysis results from UriSed (77 Electronica, Budapest, Hungary), an automated microscopic image-based sediment analyzer, in predicting positive urine cultures.
Materials and methods:
We examined a total of 384 urine specimens from hospitalized patients and outpatients attending our hospital on the same day for urinalysis, dipstick tests and semi-quantitative urine culture. The urinalysis results were compared with those of conventional semi-quantitative urine culture.
Of 384 urinary specimens, 68 were positive for bacteriuria by culture, and were thus considered true positives. Comparison of these results with those obtained from the UriSed analyzer indicated that the analyzer had a specificity of 91.1%, a sensitivity of 47.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 53.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.8–65.3), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.8% (95% Cl = 85.0–91.8%). The accuracy was 83.3% when the urine leukocyte parameter was used, 76.8% when bacteriuria analysis of urinary sediment was used, and 85.1% when the bacteriuria and leukocyturia parameters were combined. The presence of nitrite was the best indicator of culture positivity (99.3% specificity) but had a negative likelihood ratio of 0.7, indicating that it was not a reliable clinical test.
Although the specificity of the UriSed analyzer was within acceptable limits, the sensitivity value was low. Thus, UriSed urinalysis results do not accurately predict the outcome of culture.
urinalysis; bacteriuria; sensitivity; specificity; urinary tract infection
It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD.
This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd) of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB) or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB).
Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266). Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3%) of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0). The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p < 0.005) but serum creatinine, uric acid and haematology values were not different in patients with confirmed ASB compared with those with sterile urine. There was no association with history of gram negative sepsis.
ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in SCD.
Dipsticks are one of the most commonly used near-patient tests in primary care, but few clinical or dipstick algorithms have been rigorously developed.
To confirm whether previously documented clinical and dipstick variables and algorithms predict laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Design of study
A total of 434 adult females with suspected lower UTI had bacteriuria assessed using the European Urinalysis Guidelines.
Sixty-six per cent of patients had confirmed UTI. The predictive values of nitrite, leucocyte esterase (+ or greater), and blood (haemolysed trace or greater) were confirmed (independent multivariate odds ratios = 5.6, 3.5, and 2.1 respectively). The previously developed dipstick rule — based on presence of nitrite, or both leucocytes and blood — was moderately sensitive (75%) but less specific (66%; positive predictive value [PPV] 81%, negative predictive value [NPV] 57%). Predictive values were improved by varying the cut-off point: NPV was 76% for all three dipstick results being negative; the PPV was 92% for having nitrite and either blood or leucocyte esterase. Urine offensive smell was not found to be predictive in this sample; for a clinical score using the remaining three predictive clinical features (urine cloudiness, dysuria, and nocturia), NPV was 67% for none of the features, and PPV was 82% for three features.
A clinical score is of limited value in increasing diagnostic precision. Dipstick results can modestly improve diagnostic precision but poorly rule out infection. Clinicians need strategies to take account of poor NPVs.
algorithms, clinical scoring; diagnosis, urinary tract infection; primary care; urinalysis
The performance of two commercially available urine dipstick tests was evaluated to exclude significant bacteriuria in midstream urine samples from patients attending a renal transplant outpatient clinic. The use of dipsticks to reduce the necessity for routine microscopy and culture was also assessed. Consecutive urine samples (n = 497) from 121 patients were examined for leucocytes, nitrite, and blood with Multistix* 10SG (Ames) and Nephur test (Boehring) dipsticks. All urine samples also underwent routine microscopy and culture. The sensitivities of the Nephur test and Multistix were 83% and 82%, respectively; the specificities were 28% and 40%, respectively; the negative predictive values were 85% and 88%, respectively; and the positive predictive values were 24% and 29%, respectively. Underlying conditions and treatments in renal patients may have led to relatively low sensitivity and positive predictive values. Traditional microscopy and culture methods are more reliable for renal transplant recipients.
A positive dipstick urinalysis (i.e., leukocyte esterase test and/or nitrite test) did not reliably detect significant bacteriuria in 479 ambulatory women with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection; 18.9% of the urine samples that demonstrated significant bacteriuria would have been rejected by the laboratory based on a negative urinalysis screen.
Simplified urine microscopy, nitrite testing, and dipstick culture were compared with urine loop streak culture colony counts in 219 random voided specimens to determine the accuracy of the three rapid screening techniques. Nitrite testing resulted in 65% false negative results, which could not be significantly improved by incubation at 37 degrees C but which could be improved by adding nitrate substrate before incubation. Dipstick culture could not be quantitated until after 18 h of incubation. A new, simplified microscopy technique, using unspun, unstained urine, resulted in 4% false negative results and 4% false positive results in specimens containing over 10(5) organisms per ml and was the best method Centrifuges, Gram staining reagents, and counting chambers are not necessary for accurate microscopic screening of random urine specimens for the presence of bacteriuria by this technique, and the results are immediately available.
To identify, among non-catheterized nursing home residents with clinically suspected UTI, clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria.
Prospective, observational cohort study from 2005 to 2007.
Five New Haven, CT area nursing homes.
551 nursing home residents each followed for one year for the development of clinically suspected UTI.
The combined outcome of bacteriuria (>100,000 colony forming units on urine culture) plus pyuria (>10 white blood cells on urinalysis).
After 178,914 person-days of follow-up, 228 participants had 399 episodes of clinically suspected UTI with a urinalysis and urine culture performed; 147 episodes (37%) had bacteriuria plus pyuria. The clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria were dysuria (relative risk [RR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 2.03), change in character of urine (RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.07, 1.79), and change in mental status (RR=1.38, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74).
Dysuria, change in character of urine, and change in mental status were significantly associated with the combined outcome of bacteriuria plus pyuria. Absence of these clinical features identified residents at low risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (25%), while presence of dysuria plus one or both of the other clinical features identified residents at high risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (63%). Diagnostic uncertainty still remains for the vast majority of residents who meet only one clinical feature. If validated in future cohorts, these clinical features with bacteriuria plus pyuria may serve as an evidence-based clinical definition of UTI to assist in management decisions.
UTI; nursing home; long-term care; definition; infection control
Objective To compare the performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
Data sources Medline, citation tracking, January 1986 to December 2004.
Selection criteria Original studies evaluating the direct agglutination test or the rK39 dipstick with clinical visceral leishmaniasis as target condition; adequate reference classification; and absolute numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative observations available or derivable from the data presented.
Results 30 studies evaluating the direct agglutination test and 13 studies evaluating the rK39 dipstick met the inclusion criteria. The combined sensitivity estimates of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick were 94.8% (95% confidence interval 92.7% to 96.4%) and 93.9% (87.7% to 97.1%), respectively. Sensitivity seemed higher and more homogenous in the studies carried out in South Asia. Specificity estimates were influenced by the type of controls. In phase III studies carried out on patients with clinically suspected disease, the estimated specificity of the direct agglutination test was 85.9% (72.3% to 93.4%) and of the rK39 dipstick was 90.6% (66.8% to 97.9%).
Conclusion The diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis is good to excellent and seem comparable.
Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations.
Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter.
The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations.
Chronic kidney disease; Dipstick; Urinary screening; Can Gio; Vietnam
Aim: The University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust microbiology laboratory receives 150 000 urine samples each year, approximately 80% of which prove to be culture negative. The aim of this study was to reduce the proportion of culture negative urines arriving in the laboratory, by producing local evidence based guidelines for the use of urine dipstick testing at point of care within the trust’s three acute hospitals.
Methods: One thousand and seventy six unborated urine samples were dipstick tested at the point of care using an automatic strip reader. Quantitative results for the four infection associated markers—leucocyte esterase, nitrite, blood, and protein—were compared with the results of conventional laboratory microscopy and culture.
Results: The performance of different marker combinations was calculated against the routine laboratory methods. One hundred and seventy five (16.3%) samples were negative for all four markers. Of these dipstick negative samples, only three (1.7% of all true positives) were positive by culture. The absence of all four infection associated markers was found to have a greater than 98% negative predictive value and a sensitivity and specificity of 98.3% and 19.2%, respectively.
Conclusions: A urinary dipstick testing algorithm for infection associated markers was derived for use in hospital patients to screen out negative urines. Two years after distributing the algorithm and promoting access to reagent strips and strip readers, a reduction in the urine workload has been seen against an otherwise increasing laboratory specimen load.
algorithm; infection associated markers; urinary tract infection; urine dipstick testing; workload
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence and relevance of dipstick haematuria in a group of men in the community. DESIGN--Prospective study of elderly men invited to attend a health centre for urine screening as part of a health check. SETTING--An inner city health centre in Leeds. SUBJECTS--578 Of 855 men aged 60-85 responding to an invitation to participate. INTERVENTIONS--The subjects had their urine tested with a dipstick (Multistix) for the presence of blood and then tested their urine once a week for the next 10 weeks. Those with one or more positive test results were offered full urological investigation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The prevalence of urological disease in those subjects with dipstick haematuria. RESULTS--78 Men (13%) had dipstick haematuria on a single test and a further 54 (9%) had evidence of dipstick haematuria when testing their urine once a week during a subsequent 10 week period. Investigation of 87 men disclosed urological disease in 45, including four with a bladder tumour and seven with epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSION--Dipstick haematuria is a common incidental finding in men over 60 and is associated with appreciable urological disease. The introduction of less invasive methods of investigation, particularly flexible cystoscopy and ultrasonography, has made investigation of these patients simple and safe and makes screening for bladder cancer in the community more feasible.
Mass urinary screening is a useful tool to identify children with asymptomatic progressive renal diseases. A dipstick urinalysis screening was conducted to detect such prevalence and to set up a more effective screening program for children.
Patients and Methods:
A cross sectional study was carried out in seven nurseries and primary schools in different regions of Lebanon (Beirut, North Lebanon, and Valley of Bekaa) between February 2010 and March 2010. Eight hundred seventy asymptomatic children were enrolled in this study. First morning mid steam urine samples were obtained from students and were tested by dipstick method. Children with abnormal findings were re-tested after fifteen days.
Twenty five (2.9%) children had urinary abnormalities at the first screening; Eighteen (72%) of them still had abnormal results at the second screening. Among all the students, hematuria was the most common abnormality found with a prevalence of 1.5%, followed by nitrituria (0.45%), combined hematuria and nitrituria (0.45%) and proteinuria (0.1%). Urinary abnormalities were more common in females than in males. With respect to age, most positive results were detected at 6 years of age. Hematuria and proteinuria were mainly present in the North of Lebanon.
Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities might be detected by urine screening program at school age. Further work-up should be offered to define the exact etiology of any abnormal finding and to determine whether early detection of renal disorders in childhood will lead to effective interventions and reduction in the number of individuals who develop end-stage renal disease.
Dipstick urine analysis; renal failure in school aged children; urine analysis screening
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture.
We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age.
The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful.
Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.
In women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI), a non-contaminated voided specimen is considered important for valid urinalysis and culture results. We assess whether midstream parted-labia catch (MSPC) instructions were provided by nurses, understood, and performed correctly, according to the patient.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking female patients submitting voided urine samples for urinalysis for suspected UTI. The survey was conducted in a public teaching hospital emergency department (ED) from June to December 2010, beginning 2 months after development and dissemination of a nursing MSPC instructions protocol. Research assistants administered the survey within 2 hours of urine collection. Nurses were unaware of the study purpose.
Of 129 patients approached, 74 (57%) consented and were included in the analysis. Median age was 35; 44% were Latino. Regarding instructions from nurses, patients reported the following: 45 (61%; 95% CI 50–72%) received any instructions; of whom 37 (82%; 95% CI 71–93%) understood them completely. Sixteen (36%; 95% CI 22–51%) were instructed to collect midstream; and 7 (16%; 95% CI 6–29%) to part the labia. Regardless of receiving or understanding instructions, 33 (45%; 95% CI 33–57%) reported actually collecting midstream, and 11 (15%, 95% CI 8–25%) parting the labia.
In this ED, instructions for MSPC urine collection frequently were not given, despite a nursing protocol, and patients rarely performed the essential steps. An evidence-based approach to urine testing in the ED that considers urine collection technique, is needed.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES--The objective of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of a dipstick test for leukocyte esterase (LE), (Chemstrip 2LN, Boehringer Mannheim) in predicting the presence of urethritis and urethral pathogens in men presenting to a busy sexually transmitted disease clinic and to street outreach facilities. METHODS--Urethral swabs for polymorphonuclear (pmn) cell count, gonorrhoea culture and chlamydia enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as well as 15 ml of first voided urine (FVU) were collected from 737 symptomatic and 726 asymptomatic men. Gonorrhoea cultures and pmn counts were processed according to standard methods. Either Abbott Chlamydiazyme EIA (confirmed) or Syva Microtrak EIA (confirmed) test was employed to detect C trachomatis. The LE test was immediately dipped in FVU, read after 60-120 seconds by the clinician and considered positive if trace, 1+ or 2+. RESULTS--Microscopic evidence of urethritis (> or = = 4 pmn cells per 1000 x field) was found on urethral smear of 782 (53.5%) patients. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea or both were present in 104 (7.1%) patients. Performance characteristics of the LE test were as follows: (table below) CONCLUSION--The LE test did not have adequate sensitivity to be considered a reliable rapid diagnostic test for urethritis or urethral pathogens, particularly in the asymptomatic portion of this STD clinic population.
Suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common presentations in primary care. Systematic reviews have not documented any adequately powered studies in primary care that assess independent predictors of laboratory diagnosis.
To estimate independent clinical and dipstick predictors of infection and to develop clinical decision rules.
Design of study
Validation study of clinical and dipstick findings compared with laboratory testing.
General practices in the south of England.
Laboratory diagnosis of 427 women with suspected UTI was assessed using European urinalysis guidelines. Independent clinical and dipstick predictors of diagnosis were estimated.
UTI was confirmed in 62.5% of women with suspected UTI. Only nitrite, leucocyte esterase (+ or greater), and blood (haemolysed trace or greater) independently predicted diagnosis (adjusted odds ratios 6.36, 4.52, 2.23 respectively). A dipstick decision rule, based on having nitrite, or both leucocytes and blood, was moderately sensitive (77%) and specific (70%); positive predictive value (PPV) was 81% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 65%. Predictive values were improved by varying the cut-off point: NPV was 73% for all three dipstick results being negative, and PPV was 92% for having nitrite and either blood or leucocyte esterase. A clinical decision rule, based on having two of the following: urine cloudiness, offensive smell, and dysuria and/or nocturia of moderate severity, was less sensitive (65%) (specificity 69%; PPV 77%, NPV 54%). NPV was 71% for none of the four clinical features, and the PPV was 84% for three or more features.
Simple decision rules could improve targeting of investigation and treatment. Strategies to use such rules need to take into account limited negative predictive value, which is lower than expected from previous research.
clinical scoring algorithms; diagnosis, urinary tract infection; dipsticks
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES--The leukocyte esterase (LE) strip is a useful tool for the screening of men with urethritis. In developing countries, where laboratory facilities are limited, and sexually transmitted diseases endemic, simple and inexpensive diagnostic tests which perform well, would be of great value. METHODS--Men presenting with urethritis to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya participated in this cohort analytical study. First-void urine was collected for LE dipstick testing as part of the diagnostic work-up. The results of the dipstick measurement were compared with the laboratory detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. RESULTS--Of 200 men with symptoms of urethritis, 33 (17%) had a pathogen detected from the urethra or the urine. Chlamydia was detected in urine by PCR in 22 (11%), and gonorrhoea was cultured from the urethra in 11 (6%). Esterase activity (trace or greater) had a sensitivity of 76%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 42% and a negative predictive value of 94% for the presence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS--The use of the LE dipstick for the screening of men with symptomatic urethritis can improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the amount of empiric antimicrobial therapy. The low detection rate of chlamydia in these men with a clinical diagnosis of nongonococcal urethritis needs further study.
Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive “renal biopsy”. The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure.
Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005.
A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000.
The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.
Sickle cell nephropathy; children; haematuria; dipstick urinalysis; urine sediment microscopy
Societal pressures against smoking during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in disclosure of smoking status. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of smoking at prenatal intake by self-report with anonymous biochemical validation.
Women receiving care at the Duke Obstetrics Clinic from February 2005 through January 2006 were eligible for evaluation. Self-reported smoking and urine samples were obtained anonymously at prenatal intake. The NicCheck™ I semi-quantitative dipstick was used to detect urinary nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. The difference, with 95% confidence interval, between the proportions of smokers by self-report and urine testing was calculated for (1) high-positive vs. low-positive and negative results combined and (2) any positive vs. negative results.
Among 297 subjects, self-reported smoking was 18.2 vs. 14.8% for low-positive and negative results combined with an absolute difference of 3.4%, [−2.9%, 9.6%]. When comparing self-report with any positive result (43.1%), the absolute difference was 24.9%, [17.4%, 32.1%].
Our findings suggest that most pregnant women disclose their smoking and many nonsmokers may have significant second-hand exposure. Universal urinary cotinine screening of pregnant women could aid in appropriately counseling women about second-hand exposure as well as monitoring women at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Tobacco; pregnancy; self-report
Early detection of cholera outbreaks is crucial for the implementation of the most appropriate control strategies.
The performance of an immunochromatographic dipstick test (Institute Pasteur, Paris, France) specific for Vibrio cholerae O1 was evaluated in a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique, during the 2004 cholera season (January-May). Fecal specimens were collected from 391 patients with acute watery nonbloody diarrhea and tested by dipstick and conventional culture.
The overall sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to culture were 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91%–99%) and 89% (95% CI: 86%–93%), respectively. After stratification by type of sample (rectal swab/bulk stool) and severity of diarrhea, the sensitivity ranged between 85% and 98% and specificity between 77% and 97%.
This one-step dipstick test performed well in the diagnosis of V. cholerae O1 in a setting with seasonal outbreaks where rapid tests are most urgently needed.
In an ongoing national study of women to identify risk factors for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), dysuria was identified at onset of IC/PBS in a small majority and evidence for urinary tract infection (UTI) was evaluated.
In women with IC/PBS of ≤12 months duration, symptoms and pertinent laboratory tests at onset were assessed by telephone interview and medical record review.
Of 138 cases, 75 (54%) reported that they started to experience burning or pain on urination at onset of IC/PBS. Of those with urines cultured, 12/35 (34%) with dysuria vs. 1/21 (5%) without dysuria yielded a uropathogen (p=.01). Similarly, microscopic WBC and dipstick nitrites and leukocyte esterase were each significantly more common in urines of those with dysuria than those without. Additionally, 7/75 of those with dysuria vs. 1/62 without dysuria reported chills or fever at onset of IC/PBS. Using various definitions, the prevalence of UTI at onset of IC/PBS, at a minimum, was 16 – 33 % of those with dysuria vs. < 2% of those without dysuria (p ≤ .003).
A slight majority of women with IC/PBS reported dysuria at onset of their IC/PBS symptoms. Available laboratory data suggest dysuria may be a sensitive indicator of UTI at onset of IC/PBS; its specificity is as yet undetermined.
interstitial cystitis; painful bladder syndrome; dysuria; burning on urination; bacteriuria; urinary tract infection
Torsion amongst the elderly population is rarely described. This case presents the oldest surgically confirmed case of testicular torsion, in a 67-year-old male, within the UK. Presenting to the emergency department with a 10-day history of left-sided testicular pain, initially treated with antibiotics. There was no pyrexia or urinary symptoms and negative urine dipstick.
In adults above the age of 40, likely diagnoses include epididymo-orchitis, epididymitis, neoplasm or hydrocele. Clinical differentiation with epididymo-orchitis can be difficult in any age range. Clinical signs such as fever, elevated C-reactive protein and positive urine dipstick test are suggestive of epididymo-orchitis/orchitis.
This case study demonstrates that testicular torsion can occur at any age, and clinical suspicion should always be high in patients presenting with testicular pain and a negative urine dipstick, regardless of age. Although risk in this subgroup is low, the identification of a potentially reversible testicular abnormality should be of high priority.