The increase in life expectancy has confronted cardiac surgery with a rapidly growing population of elderly patients requiring surgical myocardial revascularization. Recent advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques and improvements in postoperative care have made coronary artery bypass grafting an established therapeutic option for the treatment of coronary artery disease in this group of patients. However, conventional coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with significant risk and related morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In recent years off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has emerged as a safe and less invasive strategy for surgical myocardial revascularization. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting by avoiding the deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass can offer potential benefits to elderly patients requiring surgical myocardial revascularization. This review article provides an overview of the age-related cardiovascular changes, epidemiology of coronary artery disease in the elderly and focuses on outcomes of surgical myocardial revascularization with special emphasis on the impact of off-pump coro-nary artery bypass surgery in the elderly.
Cardiopulmonary bypass; coronary artery bypass grafting; elderly; octogenarians; off-pump coronary artery bypass.
Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the routine daily surgical procedures in the current era. Parallel to the increasing life expectancy, cardiac surgery is commonly performed in octogenarians. However, literature consists of only seldom reports of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients above 90 years of age. In this report, we present our management strategy in a 105-year-old patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution.
To decide whether the number of operations for coronary artery bypass grafting should be increased, maintained at the present levels, or decreased we need to know how cost effective they are relative to other claimants on the resources of the National Health Service. For this purpose effectiveness is taken to be the effect on life expectancy adjusted for the quality of life. In an assessment of the cost per quality adjusted life year gained coronary artery bypass grafting rates well for cases of severe angina and extensive coronary artery disease. The cost, however, rises sharply for less severe cases. Bypass grafting seems to compare favourably with valve replacement for aortic stenosis and implantation of pacemakers for heart block; it is distinctly better than heart transplantation and the treatment of end stage renal failure but is probably less cost effective than hip replacement. If the number of operations for coronary artery bypass grafting were to increase it would be a fairly strong claimant only if restricted to the most severe cases. The data on which these judgments are based are crude and in need of refinement. The methodology is powerful, far reaching, and open to comment.
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the commonest cause of death in Northern Ireland, but few data exist on the incidence of risk factors in young adult students and non-students. AIM: To gather data on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol in a population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students. METHOD: Subjects were patients are Mountsandel Surgery, Coleraine on 1 January 1989 and were 18-20 years of age inclusive on that date. Subjects were interviewed by a research nurse who recorded socio-demographic data, tobacco consumption and random serum total cholesterol. Smoking status validation was by serum thiocyanate and expired air carbonmonoxide estimations. RESULTS: Out of the 832 subjects surveyed, 570 were students and 262 were non-students. Cigarettes were smoked by 239 (28.7%) subjects, and a significantly greater proportion of non-students compared with students were smokers (36.6% and 25.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). The proportion of males compared with females who smoked cigarettes was not significantly different, but males smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than females (14 and 11 cigarettes, respectively; P = 0.005). The average age for commencing regular cigarette smoking was 15.3 years, and 49.9% of smokers had started regular smoking by the age of 16 years. A greater proportion of non-students (65.7%) compared with students (39.2%) had started smoking before the age of 16 years. Out of those sampled, 156 (19.2%) had random serum cholesterol levels above 5.2 mmol l-1. Mean total cholesterol for non-students was significantly higher than for students (4.61 and 4.45 mmol l-1, respectively; P = 0.01) and increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03). Three subjects recorded cholesterol levels above 7.8 mmol l-1. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol were prevalent among an apparently healthy population of students and non-students. These young adults may be significantly more at risk from subsequent coronary heart disease than was previously suspected.
Objective To assess whether revascularisation that is considered to be clinically appropriate is also cost effective.
Design Prospective observational study comparing cost effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, or medical management within groups of patients rated as appropriate for revascularisation.
Setting Three tertiary care centres in London.
Participants Consecutive, unselected patients rated as clinically appropriate (using a nine member Delphi panel) to receive coronary artery bypass grafting only (n=815); percutaneous coronary intervention only (n=385); or both revascularisation procedures (n=520).
Main outcome measure Cost per quality adjusted life year gained over six year follow-up, calculated with a National Health Service cost perspective and discounted at 3.5%/year.
Results Coronary artery bypass grafting cost £22 000 (€33 000; $43 000) per quality adjusted life year gained compared with percutaneous coronary intervention among patients appropriate for coronary artery bypass grafting only (59% probability of being cost effective at a cost effectiveness threshold of £30 000 per quality adjusted life year) and £19 000 per quality adjusted life year gained compared with medical management among those appropriate for both types of revascularisation (probability of being cost effective 63%). In none of the three appropriateness groups was percutaneous coronary intervention cost effective at a threshold of £30 000 per quality adjusted life year. Among patients rated appropriate for percutaneous coronary intervention only, the cost per quality adjusted life year gained for percutaneous coronary intervention compared with medical management was £47 000, exceeding usual cost effectiveness thresholds; in these patients, medical management was most likely to be cost effective (probability 54%).
Conclusions Among patients judged clinically appropriate for coronary revascularisation, coronary artery bypass grafting seemed cost effective but percutaneous coronary intervention did not. Cost effectiveness analysis based on observational data suggests that the clinical benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention may not be sufficient to justify its cost.
The extent to which clinical and non-clinical factors impact on the waiting-list prioritization preferences of patients in the queue is unknown. Using a series of hypothetical scenarios, the objective of this study was to examine the extent to which clinical and non-clinical factors impacted on how patients would prioritize others relative to themselves in the coronary artery bypass surgical queue.
Ninety-one consecutive eligible patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (median waiting-time duration prior to survey of 8 weeks) were given a self-administered survey consisting of nine scenarios in which clinical and non-clinical characteristic profiles of hypothetical patients (also awaiting coronary artery bypass surgery) were varied. For each scenario, patients were asked where in the queue such hypothetical patients should be placed relative to themselves.
The eligible response rate was 65% (59/91). Most respondents put themselves marginally ahead of a hypothetical patient with identical clinical and non-clinical characteristics as themselves. There was a strong tendency for respondents to place patients of higher clinical acuity ahead of themselves in the queue (P < 0.0001). Social independence among young individuals was a positively valued attribute (P < 0.0001), but neither age per se nor financial status, directly impacted on patients waiting-list priority preferences.
While patient perceptions generally reaffirmed a bypass surgical triage process based on principals of equity and clinical acuity, the valuation of social independence may justify further debate with regard to the inclusion of non-clinical factors in waiting-list prioritization management systems in Canada, as elsewhere.
A prospective randomized trial was used to study the incidence of cerebral dysfunction in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with heparin-bonded vs non-heparin-bonded circuits. Although the etiology of postoperative cerebral dysfunction is controversial, activation of the systemic inflammatory response may play a role.
After institutional approval and informed written consent, 39 elective coronary artery bypass (CABG) patients were studied. A battery of neuropsychometric tests (NPMTs) was performed preoperatively, and 5 days and 6 weeks postoperatively. Significant change in NPMT performance was defined as a 25% or greater decrease in postoperative performance, compared to baseline. The number of abnormal tests per patient was calculated. Analysis using the Mann-Whitney rank test was performed for the first follow-up.
Patients randomized to heparin-bonded circuits had fewer abnormal NPMTs (>1 abnormal test) on postoperative day 5 (58 vs 70%, n = 19 and 20) than patients randomized to non-heparin-bonded circuits. Patients exposed to heparin-bonded circuits had fewer abnormal tests (>1 abnormal test) at 6 weeks (36 vs 63%, n = 14 and 16).
Results suggested that the attenuation of systemic inflammation by heparin-bonded CPB circuits may lower the incidence of cerebral injury in cardiac surgical patients.
Objective To compare the clinical, angiographic, neurocognitive, and quality of life outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass.
Design Randomised controlled clinical trial.
Setting Tertiary cardiothoracic centre in Middlesex, England.
Participants 168 patients (27 women) requiring primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
Interventions Patients were randomised to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 84) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (n = 84), carried out by one surgeon. Angiographic examination was carried out at three months postoperatively. Neurocognitive tests were carried out at baseline and at six weeks and six months postoperatively.
Main outcome measures Clinical outcome, graft patency at three months, neurocognitive function at six weeks and six months, and health related quality of life.
Results Graft patency was evaluated by angiography in 151 (89.9%) patients and was similar between the cardiopulmonary bypass and off-pump groups (risk difference - 1%, 95% confidence interval - 5% to 4%), with the off-pump group considered the treatment group. Patients in the off-pump group required fewer blood transfusions (1.7 units v 1.0 unit, P = 0.02), shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (7.7 hours v 3.9 hours, P = 0.03), and shorter hospital stay (10.8 days v 8.9 days). Scores for neurocognitive function showed a significant difference in three memory subtests at six weeks and two memory subtests at six months in favour of the off-pump group.
Conclusions Patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery showed similar patency of grafts, better clinical outcome, shorter hospital stay, and better neurocognitive function than patients who underwent conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass.
Scars from conduit harvesting are common in coronary artery bypass patients. As an outward manifestation of surgery, the scar is important in patient perception of operative success and quality of care received. The aim of this study was to determine patient satisfaction with scars from radial artery and saphenous vein harvests at a tertiary cardiothoracic centre.
We surveyed 62 patients attending follow-up appointment using the Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire. This is a reliable and valid measure of a patient's perception of scarring. Data were analysed using ratings of scar attributes and features. We compared findings according to site and patient choice of scar site using the Mann–Whitney U test.
Analysis of both global and summative ratings showed no overall statistical differences between arm and leg scars (p<0.05). However, patients given a choice gave significantly higher ratings of scar appearance on global ratings versus those given no choice. Patients also reported greater satisfaction with appearance than those given no choice on summative ratings (p<0.05).
Patient choice of conduit site is an important determinant of the overall rating of scar appearance. Overall satisfaction is influenced by scar appearance. Clinicians should ensure, wherever possible, that they involve patients in conduit site selection.
Coronary artery bypass; Radial artery; Saphenous vein; Cicatrix; Personal satisfaction
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome with retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary-coronary bypass graft is a rare but severe complication of cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old man after coronary-artery bypass grafting using an internal mammary artery. He had been suffering from angina pectoris for the last several years before surgery. The patient was resuscitated at home by emergency medical service because of primary ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction 5 years after surgery. An occlusion of the left subclavian artery with the retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary coronary bypass was found. This could have been the cause of insufficiency in coronary blood flow and ischemia of the myocardial muscle. The subclavian artery occlusion was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and implantation of 2 stents. The patient remained free of any symptoms 2 years after this procedure.
A technique of limited access, direct vision surgery for performing coronary artery bypass grafting with the internal mammary artery is presented in this preliminary report. The procedure is performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. To gain access to the left (or right) coronary artery and the mammary artery, segments of the 3rd and 4th costal cartilages are removed. Before the pericardium is opened, the mammary artery is dissected distally under the 5th costal cartilage and proximally under the 3rd costal cartilage to the level of the 2nd costal cartilage. If the left anterior descending coronary artery is suitable for bypass, it is dissected and the bypass graft is placed. Limited access coronary bypass has been completed successfully in 8 of our first 9 patients. All 9 patients have had relief of anginal pain. This experience proves that coronary bypass operations can be performed in selected lesions without a quiet, bloodless field, thus avoiding the potential complications of cardiopulmonary bypass.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection and vertebral artery dissection are rare, life-threatening conditions. The pathophysiology of spontaneous coronary artery dissection during the peripartum period is poorly understood. We present a case of spontaneous multivessel dissection in a 32-year-old postpartum woman who presented with neck and chest pain. The patient's coronary and vertebral artery dissections were diagnosed with use of multiple imaging methods, and dissection of the internal mammary artery was discovered during surgery. The patient underwent successful coronary artery bypass grafting and remained asymptomatic 2 years later. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous coronary, vertebral, and internal mammary artery dissection in a postpartum woman. Early recognition and treatment is crucial, given the high mortality rate associated with spontaneous dissection.
Acute coronary syndrome/etiology; coronary artery bypass; postpartum period; pregnancy complications, cardiovascular/diagnosis; rupture, spontaneous/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; treatment outcome; vertebral artery dissection/epidemiology/surgery/ultrasonography
Neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction occurs frequently in the large number of increasingly elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery every year. Perioperative cognitive deficits have been shown to persist after discharge and up to several years after surgery. More importantly, perioperative cognitive decline is predictive of long-term cognitive dysfunction, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. The proposed mechanisms to explain the cognitive decline associated with cardiac surgery include the neurotoxic accumulation of β-amyloid. This study will be the first to provide molecular imaging to assess the relationship between neocortical β-amyloid deposition and postoperative cognitive dysfunction.
Methods and analysis
40 patients providing informed consent for participation in this Institutional Review Board-approved study and undergoing cardiac (coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valve or CABG+valve) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass will be enrolled based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. At 6 weeks after surgery, participants will undergo 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging to assess neocortical β-amyloid burden along with a standard neurocognitive battery and blood testing for apolipoprotein E ε-4 genotype.
The results will be compared to those of 40 elderly controls and 40 elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment who have previously completed 18F-florbetapir imaging.
Ethics and dissemination
This study has been approved by the Duke University Institutional Review Board. The results will provide novel mechanistic insights into postoperative cognitive dysfunction that will inform future studies into potential treatments or preventative therapies of long-term cognitive decline after cardiac surgery.
Amyloid; Cardiopulomonary Bypass; Cognition
The population-based results of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) in a public health care system have not been reported.
The study objective was to compare the one-year outcomes of OPCAB with those of the standard on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (ONCAB) in the province of Ontario.
The present study was a retrospective, population-based study (n=15,172, with 1660 OPCAB patients) undertaken in fiscal years 2000 and 2001 using clinical and administrative data. Multivariate regression modelling for risk adjustment and propensity matching were used to compare OPCAB with ONCAB for one-year outcomes, including death, repeat revascularization and cardiac readmission.
The rate of OPCAB was 11%, with institutional rates ranging from 3% to 51%. OPCAB patients were more likely to be female and older than 79 years of age, with peripheral vascular disease and higher socioeconomic status. OPCAB patients were less likely to have surgically significant coronary disease, poor left ventricular function, an urgent status, congestive heart failure and diabetes. The risk-adjusted one-year composite outcome was higher for OPCAB (11.8%, 95% CI 10.40% to 13.29%) than ONCAB (10.8%, 95% CI 10.23% to 11.27%); however, this difference was eliminated with propensity matching. OPCAB patients had shorter hospital lengths of stay and lower blood product transfusion rates than ONCAB patients.
Despite the minimal use of OPCAB in Canada’s public health care system, outcome rates are similar to those of ONCAB. The benefits of OPCAB observed in randomized trials, including shorter hospital lengths of stay and lower transfusion rates, remained true in the investigators’ real-world experience. The results OPCAB were at least equivalent to those of ONCAB.
Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery; Outcomes; Public health care; Utilization
Perioperative optic neuropathy is a disease which can lead to serious, irreversible damage of vision. This complication could be the result of non-ocular surgery, for example, cardiac or spinal procedures.
We present a case of anterior ischemic neuropathy (AION) which occurred following a conventional coronary artery bypass graft procedure.
A 57-year-old man, 4 days after Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery as result of multi-vessel stabile coronary artery disease and history of anterolateral wall myocardial infarction, was admitted to the Eye Clinic due to significant loss of vision in his right eye. The patient had hypertension and was a heavy smoker. On admission, the slit lamp examination revealed a relative afferent pupillary defect in the right eye. The fundus examination showed optic disc edema with the presence of flame hemorrhages. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.02. The results of eye examination and fluorescein angiography confirmed the diagnosis of AION. Anti-aggregation and antithrombotic treatment was continued with steroids and vasodilators. After 7 days of this treatment we noticed the improvement of BCVA to 0.2. At 6-month follow-up, the vision was stable, and fundus examination revealed optic disc atrophy.
After cardiac surgical operations, such as coronary artery bypass graft procedures, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy may occur. In those cases, close cooperation between the various specialists is necessary.
coronary artery bypass graft; off-pump coronary artery bypass; perioperative ischemic neuropathy; anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Right Coronary Artery (RCA) originating from left anterior descending artery is a very rare congenital coronary artery anomaly. A 66-year-old man presented with hypertension and complaints of exertional chest pain. The angiography was performed. Aortic root angiography showed no coronary ostium orginating from the right sinus of valsalva. Right coronary artery was vizualized as anomalously originating from the midportion of left anterior descending artery. Severe stenosis were seen in ostium of anomalous right coronary artery, in midportion of left anterior descending and in midportion of circumflex artery. The patient was referred for coronary artery bypass grafting. The patient underwent coronary artery bypass surgery for three vessels. He was discharged home on postoperative day 7 without any complication. His echocardiogram on follow-up visit revealed good biventricular function.
Surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery confers several advantages over conventional bypass surgery: unrestricted forward flow is provided to the entire coronary bed and graft material is spared. The literature contains many reports of surgical angioplasty of atherosclerotic stenoses. The technique is described in five patients with non-atherosclerotic disease of the left main coronary artery: three children (a 7 year old girl who had undergone an arterial switch operation shortly after birth; a 9 year old boy with congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis; and a 10 year old girl with Kawasaki's disease) and two adults (a 51 year old woman with post-radiation stenosis; a 53 year old man with acute dissection). All patients had an uneventful recovery and are free from symptoms with a widely open left main trunk. Although technical difficulties are increased in these patients, excellent results can be achieved with this approach.
Keywords: surgical angioplasty; paediatric cardiology; non-atherosclerotic lesions; congenital heart defects
Acute dissection of the aorta can be life-threatening. As a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection, neurologic complications such as paraplegia are rare.
Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and ischemia of the legs, with no chest or back pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting. Physical examination revealed pulseless lower extremities, and computed tomography showed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the common iliac arteries bilaterally. A lumbar catheter was inserted for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and axillary arterial cannulation was established. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic dissection was corrected, and the previous coronary artery grafts were reattached. The surgery restored spinal and lower-extremity perfusion, and the patient walked unaided from the hospital upon his discharge 5 days later.
Although acute aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia is rare, it should be considered in patients who have pulseless femoral arteries bilaterally and sudden-onset paraplegia, despite no pain in the chest or back. Prompt diagnosis and intervention can prevent morbidity and death.
Aneurysm, dissecting/complications/diagnosis/surgery; aortic aneurysm/complications/diagnosis/surgery; diagnosis, differential; extremities/blood supply; ischemia/complications; pain/physiopathology; paraplegia/etiology/physiopathology; spinal cord ischemia/etiology/surgery; treatment outcome
Background: For all the reports on the association between seasons and coronary artery disease, there is a paucity of information on the possible effects of seasonal variations on the outcome of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to assess the short-term outcome of post-CABG patients in the four different seasons to find any correlation between seasonal variations and the outcome of such patients.
Methods: Data on patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. In-hospital mortality, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay in the four different seasons were considered as outcome measures. The EuroSCORE was calculated for all the patients, and the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Student t, and chi square tests were used as appropriate.
Results: Of a total of 402 patients, who underwent CABG during the mentioned period, 292 patients were male (M/F ratio=2.65). There were no differences in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and mean EuroSCORE of the patients between the seasons. The mean length of ICU stay was significantly more in the spring than that of the other seasons (P<0.001), while the difference between the four seasons regarding the mean length of hospital stay did not constitute statistical significance (P=0.22). No effect of seasonal variations was found for the lengths of ICU and hospital stay in the presence of the EuroSCORE after multiple logistic regression analysis (P=0.278, 0.431).
Conclusion: Psychological mood changes caused by regional cultural differences rather than environmental factors should be considered in the optimal management of patients after CABG.
Coronary artery bypass graft; Seasonal variations; Iran
This analysis attempts to utilize natural history controls to answer the question as to whether coronary surgery prolongs life in comparison to medical management. Selected natural history studies are compared and contrasted in an effort to obtain an average survival curve for patients with coronary artery disease comparable to those presently being operated. The Duke University Medical Center series of concurrent operated and non-operated patients is reviewed to demonstrate the difference of prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease and the complexities involved in answering the question. It is concluded that, on average, coronary surgery does not prolong life in comparison to medical management over the span of 2-5 years. There may be certain higher risk patients whose lives may be prolonged by aortocoronary bypass surgery but more patients and more prolonged follow-up are needed fully to answer the question.
The radial artery (RA), as an alternative to the saphenous vein or the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting, has gained considerable interest over the years. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to assess the suitability of the radial artery as a conduit.
The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes (RAPCO) trial is a double-armed randomized controlled trial comparing the RA with the free RITA in a younger cohort of patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, and the RA with the saphenous vein in an older group. The trial conduit was grafted to the most important coronary target after the left anterior descending artery, which received the gold standard left internal thoracic artery. Clinical outcomes and angiographic patency up to 10 years was recorded during careful follow up, with annual clinical review and a program of randomly assigned, staggered angiography. The final trial results will be available in 2014.
Mid-trial results have shown equivalent survival and event-free survival and graft patency in both arms at median follow up of approximately 6 years. The demographic and clinical data, pre- and postoperative angiographic findings of the trial database have led to a number of substudies focusing on the role of lipid exposure in patency and disease progression, the fate of moderate lesions when grafted or left alone, patterns of disease regression, and patient satisfaction with graft harvest sites.
While the final analysis of the primary trial end points is eagerly awaited, the additional insight into the natural history of grafted coronary artery disease with modern secondary prevention will be of considerable interest.
Randomized controlled trial; radial artery (RA); internal thoracic artery (ITA); saphenous vein (SV)
Many complications have been reported after cardiopulmonary bypass. A common physiologic change during the early postoperative period after cardiopulmonary bypass is increased diuresis. In patients whose urine output is increased, postoperative diabetes insipidus can develop, although reports of this are rare. We present the cases of 2 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (with cardiopulmonary bypass). Each was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus postoperatively: a 54-year-old man on the 3rd day, and a 66-year-old man on the 4th day. Each patient recovered from the condition after 6 hours of intranasal therapy with synthetic vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus should be considered in patients who produce excessive urine early after cardiac surgery in which cardiopulmonary bypass has been used.
Cardiopulmonary bypass/adverse effects; coronary artery bypass; diabetes insipidus/diagnosis/drug therapy/etiology; diuresis; natriuretic agents/blood; postoperative complications/diagnosis/drug therapy/etiology; time factors; treatment outcome; vasopressin/therapeutic use
We conducted a retrospective review of Egyptian patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery at our institution between 1980 and 1995. We examined the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors and evaluated the early postoperative results. We then compared these results with the corresponding data in a subset of American patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution in 1993. There were 290 Egyptian patients: 275 men and 15 women. The mean age was 54.5 years (range, 30 to 70 years). Angina was present in 258 (89%) of the Egyptian patients; of these, 186 (72.1%) were in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class 3 or 4. Risk factor analysis revealed a high prevalence of hyperlipidemia (69.7%), cigarette-smoking (66.6%), family history of coronary artery disease (53.1%), hypertension (46.9%), obesity (46.2%), and diabetes mellitus (32.4%). Comparisons between the 2 groups showed that the risk factors, except for hypertension, were significantly higher in the Egyptian patients, despite the older age of the Americans (mean, 65.5 years; range, 22 to 88 years). The prevalence of triple-vessel disease was 86.6% in the Egyptian patients and 51.0% in the American patients (p < 0.001). The operative morbidity rates in the Egyptian patients were low: these included arrhythmias (13.8%), bleeding (13.4%), infection (7.6%), low cardiac output (3.4%), myocardial infarction (3.4%), and cerebrovascular accident (1.4%). The hospital mortality rate was 1.4% for the Egyptians and 1.7% for the Americans (NS). These results show that, despite the high prevalence of risk factors among Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed with low operative morbidity and mortality rates.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that often involves the cardiovascular system. Coronary artery narrowing in patients with lupus erythematosus is severe, progressive, and related to the duration of the disease rather than to the age of the patient. Steroid use in such patients has improved their life expectancy but seems to be increasing the incidence of coronary involvement. Consequently, a larger number of systemic lupus erythematosus patients may be candidates for myocardial revascularization in the future. We report our experience with myocardial revascularization in 2 women with severe systemic lupus erythematosus, incapacitating angina, and severe obstructive coronary artery disease. One of the women required balloon angioplasty 19 months after coronary artery bypass grafting and remains asymptomatic nearly 3 years later. The other patient is free of symptoms 9 months after surgery. Our results with these 2 patients are encouraging. Long-term follow-up should yield further information regarding the benefits of myocardial revascularization and coronary angioplasty in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Coronary artery fistulas are abnormal communications between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or a major vessel (vena cava, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery). They are usually diagnosed by coronary arteriography. Clinical presentations are variable depending on the type of fistula, shunt volume, site of the shunt, and presence of other cardiac conditions.
This report describes a 46-year-old Greek female patient who was admitted to the hospital because of an acute coronary syndrome. She underwent coronary angiogram which showed a coronary artery fistula from the left anterior descending artery to the main pulmonary artery and severe coronary disease. The patient was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery and fistula closure operation.
Coronary artery fistulas between left anterior descending artery and main pulmonary artery are very rare anomalies. This case report describes a patient with this anomaly combined with severe coronary disease, reviews the current literature and discusses the available options for treating this rare condition.