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1.  The Future is Now: Frontiers on Display at Yale-NAVBO Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling Symposium 2014 
Earlier this year, 200 researchers from across the globe gathered at the Omni New Haven Hotel at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, for 3 days of talks from 30 of the leading pioneers in modern cardiovascular medicine. From May 8 to 10, 2014, scientists discussed and dissected topics ranging from the clinical treatment of atherosclerosis to the molecular biology of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. With other sessions exploring vascular malformation and aneurysm, hypertension, the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (endo-MT), and the role of metabolism in cardiovascular disease, conference participants gained striking insights into rapid advances and ongoing challenges in the field of cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling.
PMCID: PMC4257044  PMID: 25506292
aneurysm; angiogenesis; atherosclerosis; Calabresi; cardiology; cardiomyopathy; cardiovascular; disease; endo-MT; endothelial; hypertension; inflammation; leukocyte; Loeys-Dietz; malformation; Marfan; mesenchymal; metabolism; NAVBO; PGC; PPCM; pulmonary; remodeling; symposium; transition; vascular; Yale
2.  Mutations with epigenetic effects in myeloproliferative neoplasms and recent progress in treatment: Proceedings from the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium 
Blood Cancer Journal  2011;1(3):e7-.
Immediately following the 2010 annual American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting, the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium on Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and BCR-ABL1-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) took place on 7–8 December 2010 in Orlando, Florida, USA. During this meeting, the most recent advances in laboratory research and clinical practice, including those that were presented at the 2010 ASH meeting, were discussed among recognized authorities in the field. The current paper summarizes the proceedings of this meeting in BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. We provide a detailed overview of new mutations with putative epigenetic effects (TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)) and an update on treatment with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, pomalidomide, everolimus, interferon-α, midostaurin and cladribine. In addition, the new ‘Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS)-plus' prognostic model for primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and the clinical relevance of distinguishing essential thrombocythemia from prefibrotic PMF are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3255279  PMID: 23471017
myeloproliferative; myelofibrosis; polycythemia; thrombocythemia; mastocytosis
3.  The Role of Neuroactive Steroids in Ethanol/Stress Interactions Proceedings of Symposium VII at the Volterra Conference on Alcohol and Stress, May 2008 
Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)  2009;43(7):521-530.
This report summarizes the proceedings of the symposium VII on the role of neuroactive steroids in stress/alcohol interactions. The production of GABAergic neuroactive steroids, including (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC) is a consequence of both acute stress and acute ethanol exposure. Acute, but not chronic ethanol administration elevates brain levels of these steroids and enhances GABAA receptor activity. Neuroactive steroids modulate acute anticonvulsant effects, sedation, spatial memory impairment, anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and reinforcing properties of ethanol in rodents. Furthermore, these steroids participate in the homeostatic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, it is not surprising that neuroactive steroids are involved in ethanol/stress interactions. Nevertheless, the interactions are complex and not well understood. This symposium addressed the role of neuroactive steroids in both stress and alcohol responses and their interactions. Professor Giovanni Biggio of the University of Cagliari, Italy presented the effects of juvenile isolation stress on neuroactive steroids, GABAA receptor expression and ethanol sensitivity. Professor Howard Becker of the Medical University of South Carolina, USA presented evidence for neuroactive steroid involvement in ethanol dependence and drinking behavior. Professor Patrizia Porcu of the University of North Carolina, USA described a potential neuroactive steroid biomarker that may predict heavy drinking in monkeys and mice. These presentations provide a framework for new theories on the nature of ethanol/stress interactions that may be amenable to therapeutic interventions.
PMCID: PMC2778608  PMID: 19913195
neuroactive steroids; GABAA receptors; social isolation; C57BL/6J mice; DBA/2J mice; HPA axis
4.  Unraveling the genetic underpinnings of myeloproliferative neoplasms and understanding their effect on disease course and response to therapy: Proceedings from the 6th International Post-ASH Symposium 
American journal of hematology  2012;87(5):562-568.
Immediately after the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), a select group of clinical and laboratory investigators in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is summoned to a post-ASH conference on chronic myeloid leukemia and the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. The 6th such meeting occurred on 13th–14th December 2011, in La Jolla, California, USA, under the direction of its founder, Dr. Tariq Mughal. The current document is the first of two reports on this post-ASH event and summarizes the most recent preclinical and clinical advances in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3491640  PMID: 22460584
ASXL1; EZH2; JAK2; myelofibrosis; myeloproliferative neoplasms; TET2; thrombocythemia
5.  Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology 
European Radiology  2012;22(11):2283-2294.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of “population images” that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures.
Key Points
• New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.
• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.
• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment.
PMCID: PMC3472054  PMID: 22699871
Radiology; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Informatics; Algorithms; Efficiency; Organizational
6.  State of the Science and the Intraductal Approach for Breast Cancer: Proceedings Summary of The Sixth International Symposium on the Intraductal Approach To Breast Cancer Santa Monica, California, 19–21 February 2009 
BMC Proceedings  2009;3(Suppl 5):I1.
Researchers are using the intraductal approach to advance breast cancer risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Procedures and technologies that can access and interrogate the ductal-alveolar systems include nipple aspiration, ductal lavage and ductoscopy. Ductoscopic papillectomy, ductoscopic margin evaluation, and intraductal therapy are considered promising investigational and innovative treatments. These techniques are used to explore the biology of the normal breast; collect and analyze breast fluid and cells to identify biomarkers that can be used in breast cancer detection and risk assessment; and to identify new ways to find and administer therapeutic and/or preventive agents to the breast tissue. This report summarizes the latest research findings in these areas, presented at The 6th International Symposium on the Intraductal Approach to Breast Cancer in 2009.
PMCID: PMC2727116
7.  James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(9):416-420.
The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4190431  PMID: 25189714
The National Foundation for Cancer Research; the Szent-Györgyi Prize; James Allison; immune checkpoint therapy
8.  C.-E.A. Winslow Day: Proceedings of the June 3, 1977 Centenary Celebration 
Sponsored by Yale University, the City of New Haven, and the John B. Pierce Foundation, the C.-E.A. Winslow Day program consisted of speeches by Mr. Leonard Woodcock, President Emeritus, U.A.W., the Honorable Kenneth Gibson, Mayor of Newark, and Dr. Hector Acuña, Director, Pan American Health Organization; reminiscences of Ira Hiscock, Anna M.R. Lauder Professor Emeritus of Public Health, Mary Elizabeth Tennant, Associate Professor Emeritus of Nursing (Public Health), A. Pharo Gagge, Emeritus Fellow, John B. Pierce Foundation, and Mrs. Harriet Welch, Former President of the VNA of New Haven. The proceedings also included the presentation of gifts and the official C.-E.A. Winslow Day Proclamation.
PMCID: PMC2595576  PMID: 345631
9.  Changing the Global Health Care Landscape—Proceedings of a “Glocal” Symposium* 
This glocal (global knowledge with local action) symposium was convened by a professional therapeutic massage bodywork professional organization to bring together the fields of economics, politics, and traditional and complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) to begin development of effective TCAM advocacy worldwide. The symposium addressed the core question, “What information will be needed to address issues that will arise as TCAM practitioners advocate for a respectful and equalfooting access to health care provision, public and private, worldwide?”
Participants and Setting
The 35 international participants convened in a Victoria, Canada hotel. They were selectively invited to provide expertise in: advocacy, politics, public policy, economics, TCAM practice, integrative practice, sociology and TCAM research, education, media and language framing, psychology, and mediation.
The two-day symposium used a facilitated dialogue and knowledge-sharing design process geared to achieving group-supported recommendations. Invited panelists discussed each agenda topic, followed by facilitated discussion with the entire group.
In general, participants agreed that advocacy from a TCAM perspective is needed. Additionally, more research should use methods with more relevance to everyday health care provision and health care costs such as effectiveness comparative trials and cost effectiveness studies. A number of specific advocacy steps were recommended. Most focused on developing local support for better access and equity regarding TCAM within local health care systems and advocacy work, which needs to both understand and engage the local TCAM practitioners and those using the TCAM services.
The increasing awareness of TCAM and advancement toward integrative medicine—including traditional medicines and perspectives—are themes currently in development worldwide. Now is a good time for TCAM practitioners to open dialogue to develop better partnerships in health care. Such dialogue is facilitated when diverse people at the health care table understand each other’s perspectives. More discussions like this, with diverse people across more disciplines, need to occur worldwide.
PMCID: PMC3242645  PMID: 22211154
congresses; consumer advocacy; delivery of health care - integrated; complementary therapies; holistic health; economics; organizing; financing; policy
10.  Proceedings of the 2013 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2013;42(1):12-44.
The 2013 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri” was held in Portland, Oregon in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 32nd annual meeting. The goal of the NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for audience voting and discussion. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium included a caudal tail vertebra duplication in mice; nephroblastematosis in rats; ectopic C cell tumor in a hamster; granular cell aggregates/tumor in the uterus of a hamster; Pneumocystis carinii in the lung of a rat; iatrogenic chronic inflammation in the lungs of control rats; hepatoblastoma arising within an adenoma in a mouse; humoral hypercalcemia of benignancy in a transgenic mouse; acetaminophen induced hepatoxicity in rats; electron microscopy images of iatrogenic intraerythrocytic inclusions in transgenic mice; questionable hepatocellular degeneration/cell death/artifact in rats; atypical endometrial hyperplasia in rats; malignant mixed Müllerian tumors/carcinosarcomas in rats; differential diagnoses of proliferative lesions the intestine of rodents; and finally obstructive nephropathy caused by melamine poisoning in a rat.
PMCID: PMC3992853  PMID: 24334674
NTP Satellite Symposium; duplicate vertebra; nephroblastematosis; granular cell aggregates; Pneumocystis carinii; bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia; hepatoblastoma; intraerythrocytic inclusions; hepatocellular apoptosis; atypical endometrial hyperplasia; malignant mixed Müllerian tumor; gastrointestinal diverticulum; obstructive nephropathy
11.  Proceedings of the 2010 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2010;39(1):240-266.
The 2010 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Chicago, Illinois, in advance of the scientific symposium sponsored jointly by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP). The goal of the annual NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for voting or discussion. Some topics covered during the symposium included a comparison of rat and mouse hepatocholangiocarcinoma, a comparison of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in rats, a mixed pancreatic neoplasm with acinar and islet cell components, an unusual preputial gland tumor, renal hyaline glomerulopathy in rats and mice, eosinophilic substance in the nasal septum of mice, INHAND nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the CNS/PNS, retinal gliosis in a rat, fibroadnexal hamartoma in rats, intramural plaque in a mouse, a treatment-related chloracne-like lesion in mice, and an overview of mouse ovarian tumors.
PMCID: PMC3096448  PMID: 21177527
NTP Satellite Symposium; INHAND nomenclature; hepatocholangiocarcinoma; acinar-islet cell; preputial gland; hyaline glomerulopathy; eosinophilic substance; ependymoma; axonal degeneration; retinal gliosis; fibroadnexal hamartoma; intramural plaque; chloracne; ovary; cholangiocarcinoma
12.  Proceedings of the 2011 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2011;40(2):321-344.
The 2011 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Denver, Colorado in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology’s 30th Annual Meeting. The goal of the NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers’ presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for audience voting or discussion. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include: proliferative lesions from various fish species including ameloblastoma, gas gland hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hepatocellular hyperplasia, and malignant granulosa cell tumor; spontaneous cystic hyperplasia in the stomach of CD1 mice and histiocytic aggregates in the duodenal villous tips of treated mice; an olfactory neuroblastoma in a cynomolgus monkey; various rodent skin lesions, including follicular parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, adnexal degeneration, and epithelial intracytoplasmic accumulations; oligodendroglioma and microgliomas in rats; a diagnostically challenging microcytic, hypochromic, responsive anemia in rats; a review of microcytes and microcytosis; nasal lesions associated with green tea extract and Ginkgo biloba in rats; corneal dystrophy in Dutch belted rabbits; valvulopathy in rats; and lymphoproliferative disease in a cynomolgus monkey.
PMCID: PMC3490626  PMID: 22089839
NTP Satellite Symposium; ameloblastoma; gas gland hyperplasia; stomach cystic hyperplasia; sodium dichromate dihydrate; olfactory neuroblastoma; cynomolgus monkey; adnexal degeneration; parakeratotic hyperkeratosis; oligodendroglioma; microglioma; microcytic hypochromic anemia; microcytosis; spherocytosis; poikilocytosis; green tea; Ginkgo biloba; corneal dystrophy; Dutch belted rabbit valvulitis; valvulopathy; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease
13.  Proceedings of the 2013 Joint JSTP/NTP Satellite Symposium 
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology  2013;26(2):231-257.
The first joint Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology (JSTP) and National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held on January 29th at Okura Frontier Hotel in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, in advance of the JSTP’s 29th Annual Meeting. The goal of this Symposium was to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers’ presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, select images that were used for audience voting or discussion, and the voting results. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include: treatment-related atypical hepatocellular foci of cellular alteration in B6C3F1 mice; purulent ventriculoencephalitis in a young BALB/c mouse; a subcutaneous malignant schwannoma in a RccHan:WIST rat; spontaneous nasal septum hyalinosis/eosinophilic substance in B6C3F1 mice; a rare pancreatic ductal cell adenoma in a young Lewis rat; eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia in a transgenic mouse model; hyaline glomerulopathy in two female ddY mice; treatment-related intrahepatic erythrocytes in B6C3F1 mice; treatment-related subendothelial hepatocytes in B6C3F1 mice; spontaneous thyroid follicular cell vacuolar degeneration in a cynomolgus monkey; congenital hepatic fibrosis in a 1-year-old cat; a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of the middle ear in a young Crl:CD(SD) rat; and finally a series of cases illustrating some differences between cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in Sprague Dawley and F344 rats.
PMCID: PMC3695348  PMID: 23914068
JSTP/NTP Satellite Symposium; atypical foci of cellular alteration; cholangiocarcinoma; cholangiofibrosis; congenital hepatic fibrosis; eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia; eosinophilic substance; epithelioid type of malignant schwannoma; hyaline glomerulopathy; intrahepatocytic erythrocytes; middle ear adenocarcinoma; nasal septum hyalinosis; pancreatic ductal cell adenoma; subendothelial hepatocytes; thyroid follicular cell vacuolar degeneration; ventriculoencephalitis
14.  Proceedings of the 2012 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2012;41(2):151-180.
The 2012 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Boston in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology’s 31st annual meeting. The goal of the NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers’ presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for audience voting or discussion. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia in a transgenic mouse model; differentiating adrenal cortical cystic degeneration from adenoma; atypical eosinophilic foci of altered hepatocytes; differentiating cardiac schwannoma from cardiomyopathy; diagnosis of cardiac papillary muscle lesions; intrahepatocytic erythrocytes and venous subendothelial hepatocytes; lesions in Rathke’s cleft and pars distalis; pernicious anemia and megaloblastic disorders; embryonic neuroepithelial dysplasia, holoprosencephaly and exencephaly; and INHAND nomenclature for select cardiovascular lesions.
PMCID: PMC4195569  PMID: 23262640
NTP Satellite Symposium; eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia; adrenal cortex adenoma; cortical cystic degeneration; atypical foci of altered hepatocytes; cardiac schwannoma; cardiomyopathy; myocardial necrosis; myocardial fibrosis; pancreatic ductal cell adenoma; intrahepatocytic erythrocytes; subendothelial hepatocytes; Rathke’s cleft; pernicious anemia; megaloblastic anemia; neuroepithelial dysplasia; holoprosencephaly; exencephaly
15.  The first fifty years of the Connecticut Tumor Registry: reminiscences and prospects. 
The first fifty years of the Connecticut Tumor Registry (1935-1985) have seen unprecedented progress in the collection of standardized data on cancer patients and in the processing of these data, from paper documents to punch cards and magnetic tapes. The need for collecting such information was first recognized, in the early 1930s, by a group of physicians, health professionals, and laymen in New Haven who observed alarming increases in cancer rates and poor survival of cancer patients in this city. This paper recalls the growth and development of the registry and the role played by the Connecticut legislature, the State Medical Society, the Connecticut Department of Health, and the National Cancer Institute in this process. For half a century, the registry has provided assistance to practitioners, hospitals, and research scientists, not only in Connecticut but across the country and around the world. By making available reliable data on incidence and survival, the registry has played a key role in patient management, clinical trials, and etiologic studies. It has also demonstrated the value and served as an exemplary model of a population-based registry. At this juncture in its history, prospects for the future of the Connecticut Tumor Registry appear bright. Its data base will be an essential resource for the recently established Cancer Control Research Unit (CCRU) in the state and for new intervention studies by investigators at Yale, the University of Connecticut, and the State Health Department.
PMCID: PMC2590186  PMID: 3541408
16.  Coming together to document mortality in conflict situations: proceedings of a symposium 
The use of epidemiology in documenting the mortality experience in complex emergencies has become pervasive in humanitarian practice. Recent assessments in Iraq and Darfur have provoked much discussion on the assessment of mortality in scientific and policy spheres. In this context, the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative held an inter-disciplinary symposium to examine the topic among epidemiologists, demographers, forensic scientists and legal and human rights investigators.
We aimed to strengthen the scientific understanding of mortality estimation by reviewing progress across fields and building inter-disciplinary bridges. We report on the presentations and discussions here.
PMCID: PMC2654481  PMID: 19243612
17.  Advancing radiology through informed leadership: summary of the proceedings of the Seventh Biannual Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R), 23–25 August 2007 
European Radiology  2009;19(8):1827-1836.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R) brings together thought leaders from academia and industry from around the world to share ideas, points of view and new knowledge. This article summarizes the main concepts presented at the 2007 IS3R symposium, providing a window onto trends shaping the future of radiology. Topics addressed include new opportunities and challenges in the field of interventional radiology; emerging techniques for evaluating and improving quality and safety in radiology; and factors impeding progress in molecular imaging and nanotechnology and possible ways to overcome them. Regulatory hurdles to technical innovation and drug development are also discussed more broadly, along with proposals for addressing regulators’ concerns and streamlining the regulatory process.
PMCID: PMC2705708  PMID: 19277668
Interventional radiology; Molecular imaging; Device approval processes; Drug approval processes; Health-care quality; Radiology; Leadership
The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration.
Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies.
Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers.
With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity.
PMCID: PMC3968540  PMID: 20457793
19.  The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950) 
The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life.
Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73.
His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery of gastrin. He established a famous school of gastrointestinal physiologists at McGill University. He supported his trainees and helped them establish their careers. He received many honors: a DSc in London, England, and an LLD from Dalhousie University. Most importantly, he was the recipient of the Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroenterological Association for lifelong contributions to the field. Dr Babkin taught us his philosophical aspect of approaching physiology, his devotion to his disciples and his overall kindness. Most importantly, he has proven that one can achieve international recognition by publishing mainly in Canadian journals. He is an example to follow.
PMCID: PMC2659943  PMID: 17001399
Biography; Boris Petrovich Babkin; Brain-gut-brain interaction; Friedenwald Medal; Gastrin; GI secretions; Ivan Petrovich Pavlov; McGill University; Mentor; Physiologist
20.  Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2011;119(4):487-493.
New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions.
We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA).
Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs.
Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations.
Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models.
PMCID: PMC3080930  PMID: 21335318
air pollution; feasibility analysis; health effects; nitrogen oxides; particulate matter
23.  James Spence Medallist 1995. Professor Richard H R White. 
PMCID: PMC1511164  PMID: 7639542
25.  James Spence Medallist 1989. Professor David C. Morley. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(11):1527-1528.
PMCID: PMC1792641  PMID: 2690737

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