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1.  The Future is Now: Frontiers on Display at Yale-NAVBO Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling Symposium 2014 
Earlier this year, 200 researchers from across the globe gathered at the Omni New Haven Hotel at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, for 3 days of talks from 30 of the leading pioneers in modern cardiovascular medicine. From May 8 to 10, 2014, scientists discussed and dissected topics ranging from the clinical treatment of atherosclerosis to the molecular biology of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. With other sessions exploring vascular malformation and aneurysm, hypertension, the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (endo-MT), and the role of metabolism in cardiovascular disease, conference participants gained striking insights into rapid advances and ongoing challenges in the field of cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling.
PMCID: PMC4257044  PMID: 25506292
aneurysm; angiogenesis; atherosclerosis; Calabresi; cardiology; cardiomyopathy; cardiovascular; disease; endo-MT; endothelial; hypertension; inflammation; leukocyte; Loeys-Dietz; malformation; Marfan; mesenchymal; metabolism; NAVBO; PGC; PPCM; pulmonary; remodeling; symposium; transition; vascular; Yale
2.  Mutations with epigenetic effects in myeloproliferative neoplasms and recent progress in treatment: Proceedings from the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium 
Blood Cancer Journal  2011;1(3):e7-.
Immediately following the 2010 annual American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting, the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium on Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and BCR-ABL1-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) took place on 7–8 December 2010 in Orlando, Florida, USA. During this meeting, the most recent advances in laboratory research and clinical practice, including those that were presented at the 2010 ASH meeting, were discussed among recognized authorities in the field. The current paper summarizes the proceedings of this meeting in BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. We provide a detailed overview of new mutations with putative epigenetic effects (TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)) and an update on treatment with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, pomalidomide, everolimus, interferon-α, midostaurin and cladribine. In addition, the new ‘Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS)-plus' prognostic model for primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and the clinical relevance of distinguishing essential thrombocythemia from prefibrotic PMF are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3255279  PMID: 23471017
myeloproliferative; myelofibrosis; polycythemia; thrombocythemia; mastocytosis
3.  James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(9):416-420.
The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4190431  PMID: 25189714
The National Foundation for Cancer Research; the Szent-Györgyi Prize; James Allison; immune checkpoint therapy
4.  The first fifty years of the Connecticut Tumor Registry: reminiscences and prospects. 
The first fifty years of the Connecticut Tumor Registry (1935-1985) have seen unprecedented progress in the collection of standardized data on cancer patients and in the processing of these data, from paper documents to punch cards and magnetic tapes. The need for collecting such information was first recognized, in the early 1930s, by a group of physicians, health professionals, and laymen in New Haven who observed alarming increases in cancer rates and poor survival of cancer patients in this city. This paper recalls the growth and development of the registry and the role played by the Connecticut legislature, the State Medical Society, the Connecticut Department of Health, and the National Cancer Institute in this process. For half a century, the registry has provided assistance to practitioners, hospitals, and research scientists, not only in Connecticut but across the country and around the world. By making available reliable data on incidence and survival, the registry has played a key role in patient management, clinical trials, and etiologic studies. It has also demonstrated the value and served as an exemplary model of a population-based registry. At this juncture in its history, prospects for the future of the Connecticut Tumor Registry appear bright. Its data base will be an essential resource for the recently established Cancer Control Research Unit (CCRU) in the state and for new intervention studies by investigators at Yale, the University of Connecticut, and the State Health Department.
PMCID: PMC2590186  PMID: 3541408
The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration.
Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies.
Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers.
With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity.
PMCID: PMC3968540  PMID: 20457793
6.  The Role of Neuroactive Steroids in Ethanol/Stress Interactions Proceedings of Symposium VII at the Volterra Conference on Alcohol and Stress, May 2008 
Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)  2009;43(7):521-530.
This report summarizes the proceedings of the symposium VII on the role of neuroactive steroids in stress/alcohol interactions. The production of GABAergic neuroactive steroids, including (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC) is a consequence of both acute stress and acute ethanol exposure. Acute, but not chronic ethanol administration elevates brain levels of these steroids and enhances GABAA receptor activity. Neuroactive steroids modulate acute anticonvulsant effects, sedation, spatial memory impairment, anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and reinforcing properties of ethanol in rodents. Furthermore, these steroids participate in the homeostatic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, it is not surprising that neuroactive steroids are involved in ethanol/stress interactions. Nevertheless, the interactions are complex and not well understood. This symposium addressed the role of neuroactive steroids in both stress and alcohol responses and their interactions. Professor Giovanni Biggio of the University of Cagliari, Italy presented the effects of juvenile isolation stress on neuroactive steroids, GABAA receptor expression and ethanol sensitivity. Professor Howard Becker of the Medical University of South Carolina, USA presented evidence for neuroactive steroid involvement in ethanol dependence and drinking behavior. Professor Patrizia Porcu of the University of North Carolina, USA described a potential neuroactive steroid biomarker that may predict heavy drinking in monkeys and mice. These presentations provide a framework for new theories on the nature of ethanol/stress interactions that may be amenable to therapeutic interventions.
PMCID: PMC2778608  PMID: 19913195
neuroactive steroids; GABAA receptors; social isolation; C57BL/6J mice; DBA/2J mice; HPA axis
7.  The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950) 
The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life.
Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73.
His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery of gastrin. He established a famous school of gastrointestinal physiologists at McGill University. He supported his trainees and helped them establish their careers. He received many honors: a DSc in London, England, and an LLD from Dalhousie University. Most importantly, he was the recipient of the Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroenterological Association for lifelong contributions to the field. Dr Babkin taught us his philosophical aspect of approaching physiology, his devotion to his disciples and his overall kindness. Most importantly, he has proven that one can achieve international recognition by publishing mainly in Canadian journals. He is an example to follow.
PMCID: PMC2659943  PMID: 17001399
Biography; Boris Petrovich Babkin; Brain-gut-brain interaction; Friedenwald Medal; Gastrin; GI secretions; Ivan Petrovich Pavlov; McGill University; Mentor; Physiologist
10.  James Spence Medallist 1995. Professor Richard H R White. 
PMCID: PMC1511164  PMID: 7639542
12.  James Spence Medallist 1989. Professor David C. Morley. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(11):1527-1528.
PMCID: PMC1792641  PMID: 2690737
13.  James Spence Medallist 1991, Professor John A. Davis. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1991;66(8):913-914.
PMCID: PMC1793451  PMID: 1929485
14.  Professor George James Allman, M.D., F.R.S 
British Medical Journal  1898;2(1979):1726.
PMCID: PMC2434762
15.  James Spence Medallist, 1988. Professor Otto Wolff. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1988;63(9):1003-1004.
PMCID: PMC1779102  PMID: 3052309
17.  Meeting Report XIII International Charles Heidelberger Symposium and 50 Years of Fluoropyrimidines in Cancer Therapy Held on September 6 to 8, 2007 at New York University Cancer Institute, Smilow Conference Center 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2009;8(5):10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0731.
This conference opened with Franco Muggia, host and principal organizer, thanking Joseph Landolph, co-Chair of the International Scientific Organizing Committee and its members (Franco Muggia, co-Chair, Max Costa, Steven Burakoff, Howard Hochster, Eliezer Huberman, John Bertram, Peter Danenberg, and Richard Moran); the members of the Local Organizing Committee (Drs. Costa, Guttenplan, Geacintov, and Hochster); and the Charles and Patricia Heidelberger Foundation for Cancer Research for developing the scientific program and for working to help him create this special symposium honoring the late Charles Heidelberger, former president of the American Association for Cancer Research, member of the National Academy of Sciences, and extraordinary scientist in the fields of carcinogenesis and cancer chemotherapy. It was most appropriate to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the patent obtained by him for 5-fluorouracil (5FU), a drug that came to symbolize the promise chemotherapy of nonhematologic malignancies. After this compound was shown to be helpful in the treatment of colorectal and breast cancers, Dr. Heidelberger proceeded to develop other fluoropyrimidines and to inspire Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows to investigate their mechanisms of action and to develop assays applicable to clinical specimens (what we now refer to as translational science). Steven Burakoff, director of the NYU Cancer Institute (2000 to 2008), followed with welcoming remarks. Dr. Burakoff pointed to his personal fortuitous connection to the Symposium: The famous immunologist, Michael Heidelberger, Charles’ father, who was known as the Father of Immunochemistry, trained Elvin Kabat while at Columbia, who trained Baruch Benacerraf, who moved from NYU to Harvard and subsequently became Burakoff’s mentor. The renowned NYU Division of Immunology carries the name Michael Heidelberger because he spent more than 30 years in the Department of Pathology at the NYU School of Medicine after retiring from Columbia University.
PMCID: PMC3878070  PMID: 19417150
18.  Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2011;119(4):487-493.
New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions.
We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA).
Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs.
Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations.
Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models.
PMCID: PMC3080930  PMID: 21335318
air pollution; feasibility analysis; health effects; nitrogen oxides; particulate matter
19.  SYNAPSE, Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast: A One-day, Regional Neuroscience Meeting Focusing on Undergraduate Research 
The Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast (SYNAPSE; was designed to encourage contacts among faculty and students interested in neuroscience. Since its inception in 2003, the SYNAPSE conference has consistently drawn faculty and undergraduate interest from the region. This unique meeting provides undergraduates with a valuable opportunity for neuroscience education; students interact with noted neuroscience faculty, present research results, obtain feedback from neuroscientists at other institutions, and form connections with other neuroscientists in the region. Additionally, SYNAPSE allows undergraduate students and faculty to attend workshops and panel discussions about issues related to professional skills and career options. The SYNAPSE conference currently travels among host institutions in the southeastern United States in two-year cycles. This article briefly describes the genesis of SYNAPSE and reviews SYNAPSE conferences from 2006 through 2010. The goal of this paper is to highlight key issues organizers have experienced launching, sustaining, and hosting this regional undergraduate neuroscience conference as well as assist faculty to develop similar conferences.
PMCID: PMC3592723  PMID: 23493950
undergraduate education; neuroscience; conferences
20.  CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Imaging the organization and trafficking of lipolytic effectors in adipocytes1,2 
Journal of animal science  2010;89(3):701-710.
The storage and mobilization of lipid energy are central functions of adipocytes. Lipid energy is stored as triglyceride in lipid droplet structures that are now recognized as bona fide organelles and whose functions are greatly influenced by members of the perilipin family of lipid droplet scaffolds. Recent work indicates that the signaling events underlying fatty acid mobilization involve protein trafficking to a specialized subset of lipid droplets. Furthermore, the core lipolytic machinery is composed of evolutionarily conserved proteins whose functions are conserved in avian and mammalian production species. Lipolysis affects many aspects of animal nutrition and physiology, which can have an important influence on growth efficiency, lactation, and meat quality. This review focuses on recent research that addresses the organization and trafficking of key players in hormone-stimulated lipolysis, and the central role of perilipin1A in adipocyte lipolysis. The review emphasizes recent work from the laboratories of the authors that utilizes imaging techniques to explore the organization and interactions among lipolytic effectors in live cells during lipolytic activation. A mechanistic understanding of lipolysis may lead to new strategies for promoting human and animal health.
PMCID: PMC3786141  PMID: 20852075
adipose triglyceride lipase; alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing 5; fluorescence resonance energy transfer; hormone sensitive lipase; perilipin; protein complementation
21.  Retinal neovascularisation: early contributions of Professor Michaelson and recent observations. 
The late Professor I. C. Michaelson's pioneer contributions to the development and pathophysiology of the retinal vasculature have laid the groundwork for a generation of ophthalmic research scientists to pursue this exciting field of investigation. In more recent studies it has been found that, in diabetic retinopathy, branch vein occlusion, sickle cell retinopathy, and retrolental fibroplasia, retinal neovascularisation follows the development of retinal capillary closure. The capillary closure or nonperfusion has been demonstrated by fluorescein angiography. A working hypothesis to explain the clinical and experimental observations is that these areas of nonperfused retina are ischaemic or hypoxic and liberate a theoretical angiogenic or vasoproliferative substance which stimulates the development of retinal neovascularisation. In postulating this working hypothesis it is important to recognise, firstly, that this hypothesis remains to be proved, and, secondly, that retinal neovascularisation may develop from other stimuli such as intraocular inflammation where retinal ischaemia is not apparent.
PMCID: PMC1040236  PMID: 6197084
22.  HIV as a chronic disease: Implications for long-term care at an AIDS-dedicated skilled nursing facility 
To describe the characteristics and outcomes of the first 3 years of admissions to a dedicated skilled nursing facility for people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Systematic chart review of consecutive admissions to a 30-bed, AIDS-designated long-term care facility in New Haven, Connecticut, from October 1995 through December 1998.
The facility has remained filled to 90% or more of its bed capacity since opening. Of 180 patients (representing 222 admissions), 69% were male; mean age was 41 years; 57% were injection drug users; 71% were admitted directly from a hospital. Leading reasons for admission were (1) the need for 24-hour nursing/medical supervision, (2) completion of acute medical treatment, and (3) terminal care. On admission, the median Karnofsky score was 40, and median CD4+ cell count was 24/mm3; 48% were diagnosed with serious neurologic disease, 44% with psychiatric illness; patients were receiving a median of 11 medications on admission. Of 202 completed admissions, 44% of patients died, 48% were discharged to the community, 8% were discharged to a hospital. Median length of stay was 59 days (range 1 to 1,353). Early (≤6 months) mortality was predicted by lower admission CD4+ count, impairments in activities of daily living, and the absence of a psychiatric history; long-term stay (>6 months) was predicted by total number of admission medications, neurologic disease, and dementia. Comparison of admissions from 1995 to 1996 to those in 1997 to 1998 indicated significantly decreased mortality rates and increased prevalence of psychiatric illness between the two periods (P<.01).
A dedicated skilled nursing facility for people with AIDS can fill an important service need for patients with advanced disease, acute convalescence, long-term care, and terminal care. The need for long-term care may continue to grow for patients who do not respond fully to current antiretroviral therapies and/or have significant neuropsychiatric comorbidities. This level of care may be increasingly important not only in reducing lengths of stay in the hospital, but also as a bridge to community-based residential options in the emerging chronic disease phase of the AIDS epidemic.
PMCID: PMC3456125  PMID: 10856000
AIDS; End-of-Life Care; Health Services; Long-Term Care; Palliative Care; Skilled Nursing Facilities
23.  1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in MS: Gait and Balance Measures in the Evaluation of People with MS 
Gait and balance measures have particular potential as outcome measures in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) because, of the many hallmarks of MS disability, gait and balance dysfunction are present throughout the course of the disease, impact many aspects of a person's life, and progress over time. To highlight the importance and relevance of gait and balance measures in MS, explore novel measurements of gait and balance in MS, and discuss how gait, balance, and fall measures can best be used and developed in clinical and research settings, the 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in Multiple Sclerosis was held in Portland, Oregon, USA on October 1, 2011. This meeting brought together nearly 100 neurologists, physiatrists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, engineers, and others to discuss the current status and recent advances in the measurement of gait and balance in MS. Presentations focused on clinician-administered, self-administered, and instrumented measures of gait, balance, and falls in MS.
PMCID: PMC3385660  PMID: 22762000
24.  The USCACA hosted symposiums at the 7th CACA annual meeting and the 15th CSCO annual meeting in Beijing 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(11):505-506.
In September 2012, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) hosted two symposiums in Beijing. The USCACA hosted the first joint session at the 7th annual meetings of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA), themed on “Collaboration between the US and China in Cancer Research.” Six experts from the United States and China presented their latest work on basic and translational cancer research. During this symposium, 5 young Chinese scholars, returnees after their training in the United States, were honored the “AFCR-USCACA Scholarships Award.” The USCACA hosted a second symposium during the 15th annual meeting of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO), focused on the “US-China Collaboration in Cancer Drug Clinical Development.” An international delegation of oncology experts presented the innovative clinical trial strategies and discussed the biomarkers for cancer early detection and clinical trials, targeted therapy, and new drug development. The Oncology Drug Clinical Development and Safety Evaluation Committee was also launched to promote an innovative environment and to provide a collaborative platform for anti-cancer drug development in China.
PMCID: PMC3777516  PMID: 23121765
25.  2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy 
mAbs  2012;4(5):562-570.
The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery.
PMCID: PMC3499296  PMID: 22864478
antibody-drug conjugates; biosimilars; biobetters; bispecific antibodies; cetuximab/Erbitux; immunotoxins; monoclonal antibodies; rituximab/Rituxan; tumor penetration; trastuzumab/Herceptin

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