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1.  A Risk-Scoring Model to Predict One-year Major Adverse Cardiac Events after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Background: The aim of the present study was to develop a scoring system for predicting 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including mortality, target vessel or target lesion revascularization, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and non-fatal myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: The data were extracted from a single center PCI registry. The score was created based on the clinical, procedural, and laboratory characteristics of 8206 patients who underwent PCI between April 2004 and October 2009. Consecutive patients undergoing PCI between November 2009 and February 2011 (n= 2875) were included as a validation data set.
Results: Diabetes mellitus, increase in the creatinine level, decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction, presentation with the acute coronary syndrome, number of diseased vessels, primary PCI, PCI on the left anterior descending artery and saphenous vein graft, and stent type and diameter were identified as the predictors of the outcome and used to develop the score (R² = 0.795). The models had adequate goodness of fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic; p value = 0.601) and acceptable ability of discrimination (c-statistics = 0.63). The score categorized the individual patients as low-, moderate-, and high-risk for the occurrence of MACE. The validation of the model indicated a good agreement between the observed and expected risks.
Conclusion: An individual risk-scoring system based on both clinical and procedural variables can be used conveniently to predict 1-year MACE after PCI. Risk classification based on this score can assist physicians in decision-making and postprocedural health care.
PMCID: PMC4791644  PMID: 26985204
Patient-specific modeling; Prognosis; Percutaneous coronary intervention
2.  Percutaneous coronary intervention strategies and prognosis for graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting 
The purpose of this study was to compare the prognosis of graft-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and native vessel (NV)-PCI, drug-eluting stents (DESs) and bare-metal stents (BMSs) for the treatment of graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to determine the risk factors for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). A total of 289 patients who underwent PCI following CABG between August 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The effects on survival were compared among patients who underwent NV- and graft-PCI, and DES and BMS implantation. Additionally, the risk factors for MACEs following PCI for graft lesions were analyzed. The findings showed that MACE-free and revascularization-free survival rates were significantly higher in the NV-PCI group compared with those in the graft-PCI group. There were 63 cases (29.0%) of MACEs in the DES group and 25 cases (52.1%) in the BMS group. In patients undergoing NV-PCI, the DES group had significantly fewer MACEs and less target vessel revascularization (TVR) than the BMS group. In patients undergoing graft-PCI, the DES group showed a tendency for fewer MACEs and a lower incidence of cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction and TVR compared with the BMS group. Diabetes, an age of >70 years and graft-PCI were independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-PCI. It is concluded that NV-PCI has superior long-term outcomes compared with graft-PCI, and should therefore be considered as the first-line treatment for graft disease following CABG. Despite this, graft-PCI remains a viable option. DESs are the first choice for graft-PCI due to their safety and efficacy and their association with reduced mortality and MACE rate. Diabetes, older age and graft-PCI are independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-CABG who are undergoing revascularization.
PMCID: PMC4471697  PMID: 26136874
coronary artery bypass grafting; percutaneous coronary intervention; multivariate risk factors; prognosis; follow-up
3.  Diagnostic Accuracy of Post Procedural Creatine Kinase, MB Form can Predict Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Selective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention? 
Measuring cardiac markers in blood has been the main strategy for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction for nearly 50 years. Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) has been demonstrated to be a highly specific marker.
The present study aimed to assess the role of CK-MB changes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to predict one year outcomes of this procedure.
Patients and Methods:
This cohort study was conducted on 138 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. Sixty-nine patients who had a CK-MB elevation ≥ 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) post procedurally were considered as group I and 69 patients without cardiac enzyme rise after PCI were considered as the control group (group II). The composite end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during one year was assessed by telephone follow-up or presentation at clinical visiting, and compared between the two groups. The MACE was defined as the appearance of at least one of the following events: mortality, repeated revascularization procedures, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular events.
Although one year mortality in the group I was 4 (5.8%), about two times greater than the other group 2 (2.9%), the difference was not significantly discrepant (P = 0.57). Moreover, 8 (11.6%) of patients in group I experienced one year MACE, while this rate in the other group was 4 (5.8%), with insignificant difference (P = 0.22). In group I, one case experienced coronary artery bypass surgery, one, exhibited cerebrovascular disease and one reported ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), while two patients in the other group were suspicious of having non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and candidates for repeated PCI. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased post-procedural CK-MB ≥ 3 times UNL could not predict long-term MACE in patients who underwent selective PCI. Area under the curve (AUC) for predicting one year MACE was 0.593 (95% CI: 0.397 - 0.788), indicating inappropriate accuracy for this biomarker (P = 0.290).
It seems that CK-MB ≥ 3 times ULN within 24 hours after PCI cannot independently predict one year MACE in patients undergoing PCI.
PMCID: PMC4253746  PMID: 25478525
Creatine Kinase, MB Form; Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary; Myocardial Infarction
4.  Immediate Results and Six-Month Clinical Outcome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 
Redo coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is associated with a higher risk of mortality than the first operation. However, the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the outcome in such patients is currently unclear. We evaluated the in-hospital and six-month clinical outcomes of post-CABG patients who underwent PCI in our center.
Between April 2008 and July 2009, 71 post-CABG patients (16 women and 55 men) underwent 110 stent implantations (74% drug-eluting stents) for 89 lesions. Sixty percent of the PCI procedures were performed on the native coronary arteries, 32% on graft arteries, and 8% on both types of vessels. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded in hospital and at six months’ follow-up.
The procedural success rate was 93%, and the in-hospital MACE rate was 5.6 % (1 death, 3 myocardial infarctions). At 6 months, the incidence of MACE was 5.6% (no death or myocardial infarction, but 4 target lesion revascularizations) and 4 (5.6 %) in-stent restenoses. There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of MACE between the patients treated in either native arteries or in the grafts (15% vs.12%, p value = 0.8). According to the univariate analysis, hypertension and the use of the bare metal stent vs. the drug-eluting stent were the significant predictors of MACE, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that only hypertension (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 3.4–4, p value < 0.048) was the independent predictor of MACE. The mean of the left ventricular ejection fraction had no effect on the incidence of MACE (p value = 0.9). The multivariate analysis showed hypertension (p value < 0.048) and the use of the bare metal stent (p value < 0.018) were the independent predictors of MACE. The chronic total occlusion (CTO) (p value < 0.01) was the independent predictor of the success rate. The prevalence of diabetes had no impact on the incidence of MACE according to the univariate analysis (p value = 0.9). Our multivariate analysis showed that hypertension and the use of the bare metal stent were the independent predictors of MACE and that chronic total occlusion was the independent predictor of the procedural failure rate.
PCI is preferable to redo CABG for post-CABG patients. The independent predictors of MACE were hypertension and bare metal stents.
PMCID: PMC3466866  PMID: 23074602
Angioplasty; Coronary artery bypass; Treatment outcome; Reoperation
5.  A pilot study of prognostic value of non-invasive cardiac parameters for major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention 
The objective of this study was to determine the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and individual electrocardiographic parameters related to abnormal depolarization/repolarization or baroreceptor sensitivity that had the best predictive value for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in this prospective study. Ventricular late potential (VLP), heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T wave alternans (TWA) parameters were measured using 24 h Holter monitoring 2-4 weeks after onset of ACS. Initial and follow-up LVEF was measured by ultrasound. Patients were followed for at least 6 months to record the occurrence of MACE. Models using combinations of the individual independent prognostic factors found by multivariate analysis were then constructed to use for estimation of risk of MACE. In multivariate analysis, VLP measured as QRS duration, HRV measured as standard deviation of normal RR intervals, and followup LVEF, but none of the other parameters studied, were independent risk factors for MACE. Areas under ROC curve (AUCs) for combinations of 2 or all 3 factors ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Combinations of any of the three independent risk factors for MACE in ACS patients with PCI improved prediction and, because these risk factors were obtained non-invasively, may have future clinical usefulness.
PMCID: PMC4730012  PMID: 26885226
Acute coronary syndrome; ventricular late potential; heart rate turbulence; heart rate variability; LVEF
6.  Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140532.
Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58%) patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30–12.90, 13.00–13.50, 13.60–16.40). GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024–1.055; p < 0.001; 1.699; 1.294–2.232; p < 0.001; respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p < 0.001). For GRACE score alone, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MACEs was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.707–0.787). The area under the ROC curve for MACEs increased to 0.805 (0.766–0.839, p = 0.034) after adding RDW content. The incremental predictive value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI = 0.023, p = 0.002). Combining the predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone.
PMCID: PMC4607415  PMID: 26468876
7.  Adjustment of the GRACE score by HemoglobinA1c enables a more accurate prediction of long-term major adverse cardiac events in acute coronary syndrome without diabetes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention 
The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is widely recommended for risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Chronic hyperglycemia [hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c)] can independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ACS. We investigated whether the prediction of MACEs with the GRACE score could be improved with the addition of HbA1c content in ACS patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
We enrolled 549 ACS patients without DM who underwent PCI. The GRACE score and HbA1c content were determined on admission. Correlation was analyzed by Spearman’s rank correlation. Cumulative MACE curve was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify predictors of MACEs. Additionally, the predictive value of HbA1c content alone and combined with GRACE score was estimated by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI).
During a median of 42.3 months (interquartile range 39.3–44.2 months), 16 (2.9 %) were lost to follow-up, and patients experienced 69 (12.9 %) MACEs: 51 (9.6 %) all-cause deaths and 18 (3.4 %) nonfatal myocardial infarction cases. The GRACE score was positively associated with HbA1c content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and HbA1c content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.030; 95 % CI 1.020–1.040; p < 0.001; 3.530; 95 % CI 1.927–6.466; p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated increased risk of MACEs with increasing HbA1c content (log-rank 33.906, p < 0.001). Adjustment of the GRACE risk estimate by HbA1c improved the predictive value of the GRACE score [increase in AUC from 0.75 for the GRACE score to 0.80 for the GRACE score plus HbA1c, p = 0.012; IDI = 0.055, p < 0.001; NRI (>0) = 0.70, p < 0.001].
HbA1c content is positively associated with GRACE risk score and their combination further improved the risk stratification for ACS patients without DM undergoing PCI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-015-0274-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4541750  PMID: 26285575
8.  Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(2):93-99.
Background and Objectives
A higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in various cardiac diseases. However, the clinical availability of NLR in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been known. We evaluated the availability of NLR to predict clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed 326 consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. The patients were divided into tertiles according to NLR: NLR≤3.30 (n=108), 3.316.53 (n=110). We evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all causes of death, non-fatal MI, and ischemic stroke at the 12-month follow-up.
The high NLR group was associated with a significantly higher rate of 12-month MACE (19.1% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001), 12-month death (18.2% vs. 2.8%, p<0.001), in-hospital MACE (12.7% vs. 2.8%, p=0.010) and in-hospital death (12.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003) compared to the low NLR group. In the multivariable model, high NLR was an independent predictor of 12-month MACE {hazard ratio (HR) 3.33 (1.09-10.16), p=0.035} and death {HR 4.10 (1.17-14.46), p=0.028} after adjustment for gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine clearance, angiographic parameters and factors included in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score for STEMI. There was a significant gradient of 12-month MACE across the NLR tertiles with a markedly increased MACE hazard in the high NLR group (log rank test p=0.002).
The NLR is a useful marker to predict 12-month MACE and death in patients with STEMI who have undergone primary PCI.
PMCID: PMC3596670  PMID: 23508782
Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; Myocardial infarction
9.  Drug-eluting stents appear superior to bare metal stents for vein-graft PCI in vessels up to a stent diameter of 4 mm 
Heart International  2016;11(1):e17-e24.
Research trials have shown improved short-term outcome with drug-eluting stents (DES) over bare metal stents (BMS) in saphenous vein graft (SVG) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), primarily by reducing target vessel revascularization (TVR) for in-stent restenosis. We compared the outcomes in patients undergoing SVG stent implantation treated with DES or BMS. In exploratory analyses we investigated the influence of stent generation and diameter.
Data were obtained from a prospective database of 657 patients who underwent PCI for SVG lesions between 2003 and 2011. A total of 344 patients had PCI with BMS and 313 with DES. Propensity scores were developed based on 15 observed baseline covariates in a logistic regression model with stent type as the dependent variable. The nearest-neighbour-matching algorithm with Greedy 5-1 Digit Matching was used to produce two patient cohorts of 313 patients each. We assessed major adverse cardiac events (MACE) out to a median of 3.3 years (interquartile range: 2.1-4.1). MACE was defined as all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), TVR and stroke.
There was a significant difference in MACE between the two groups in favour of DES (17.9% DES vs. 31.2% BMS group; p = 0.0017) over the 5-year follow-up period. MACE was driven by increased TVR in the BMS group. There was no difference in death, MI or stroke. Adjusted Cox analysis confirmed a decreased risk of MACE for DES compared with BMS 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.94), with no difference in the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.77-1.68). However, when looking at stent diameters greater than 4 mm, no difference was seen in MACE rates between BMS and DES.
Overall in our cohort of patients who had PCI for SVG disease, DES use resulted in lower MACE rates compared with BMS over a 5-year follow-up period; however, for stent diameters over 4 mm no difference in MACE rates was seen.
PMCID: PMC5072290  PMID: 27924213
Bare metal stent; Drug-eluting stent; Percutaneous intervention; Stroke; Target vessel revascularisation; Venous graft
10.  Development and validation of a Bayesian index for predicting major adverse cardiac events with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty 
Heart  2001;85(1):69-72.
OBJECTIVE—To create a risk model for predicting major adverse complicating events of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and to test the accuracy of the model on a prospective cohort of patients
SETTING—Tertiary cardiac centre
METHODS—Available software can predict probabilities of events using Bayes's theorem. To establish the accuracy of these predictive tools, a Bayes table was created to evaluate major adverse complicating events (MACE)—death, emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or Q wave infarct occurring during the in-patient episode—on the first 1500 patients in the department PTCA database (development group); the predictive value of this model was then tested with the subsequent 1000 patients (evaluation group). The following probabilities were assessed to determine their association with MACE: age, sex, left ventricular function, American Heart Association lesion morphology classification, cardiogenic shock, previous CABG, diabetes, hypertension, multivessel PTCA.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—To establish the discriminatory ability of the predictive index, calibration plots and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to compare the development and evaluation groups.
RESULTS—The ROC curve plotted to determine the discriminatory value of the Bayesian table created from the development group (n = 1500) in predicting MACE in the evaluation group (n = 1000) showed a moderately predictive area under the curve of 0.76 (SEM 0.07). This predictive accuracy was confirmed with separately constructed calibration plots.
CONCLUSIONS—Accurate predictions of MACE can be identified in populations undergoing percutaneous intervention. The database used allows operators to obtain consent from patients appropriately from their own experience rather than from other published data. If a national PTCA database existed along similar lines, individual operators and interventional centres could compare themselves with nationally available data.

Keywords: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Bayesian risk; outcome prediction
PMCID: PMC1729571  PMID: 11119467
11.  Mean Platelet Volume as a Predictor of One-Year Major Adverse Cardiac Events following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Interventions 
Mean platelet volume (MPV) correlates with platelet activity. The relation between MPV and long-term outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been investigated in several studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility of MPV in prognosticating the long-term outcome after elective PCI.
The study cohort included 2627 patients undergoing elective PCI between September 2008 and June 2010, whose baseline MPV measurements before PCI were available. The patients were divided into three groups of MPV < 9.1 fL, MPV = 9.1 to 10 fL, and MPV > 10 fL, and they were assessed for developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE), comprising death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) over a one-year follow-up.
Of 2539 patients, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at one year occurred in 77 (3.0%) patients, including mortality in 26 (1.0%). The patients in the highest tertile (MPV > 10 fL) had no increased frequency of MACE compared to those in the mid (9.1 to 10 fL) and lowest (< 9.1 fL) tertiles (3.3%, 2.2%, and 3.8%, respectively; p value = 0.14).
No significant differences were found for each of the primary endpoints among the MPV tertiles. In multivariate logistic regression, we investigated the association between high MPV and total MACE (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.69–1.77; p value = 0.68), death (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.51–2.54; p value = 0.74), and non-fatal MI (OR = 1.85, 95%CI: 0.73–4.67; p value = 0.19) at one year's follow-up but MPV did not remain in the model in any of the cases.
In the diabetic patients, the one-way analysis of variance demonstrated that mortality was 1.6% (4 patients) in the highest tertile, 0.8% (2 patients) in the mid tertile, and 0.5% (one patient) in the lowest tertile.
There was no direct correlation between pre-procedural MPV and MACE in elective PCI. MPV can only be considered as an appropriate factor for predicting mortality in diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI.
PMCID: PMC4389194  PMID: 25861321
Coronary artery disease; Angioplasty; Mean platelet volume; Treatment outcome
12.  Early and Midterm Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patient With Saphenous Vein Graft Using Direct Stenting or Embolic Protection Device Stenting 
The treatment of an occluded saphenous vein graft (SVG) with percutaneous coronary intervention may encounter major adverse cardiac events (MACE). MACE rates have been reduced significantly by using the embolic protection device (EPD).
The aim of this study was to clarify the risks and the benefits of embolic protection devices.
Patients and Methods:
In a prospective, non-randomized observational study, patients aged 33 to 85 years old who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention due to SVG stenosis at our tertiary care center were enrolled between 2009 and 2011. The incidence rates of adverse events, including MACE, were obtained during the patients’ hospitalization and at 30-day and 6-month follow-up. MACE included death, Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, in-stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization.
From 150 patients enrolled to the study, 128 (85.3%) patients underwent direct stenting and the rest underwent the EPD procedure. In-hospital MACE occurred in 17.2% of the patients in the direct stenting group versus only 9.1% in the EPD group (P = 0.530). MACE incidence was gradually increased at one and 6-month follow-up periods in the direct stenting group (19.5% and 21.9%, respectively), and remained unchanged in the EPD group (9.1% at six-month follow-up). Multivariate logistic regression model showed that the stenting procedure type could not predict early and midterm MACE with the presence of baseline characteristics as cofounders.
Despite the considerable lower early and midterm MACE rates, numerically following the EPD procedure compared to direct stenting, the difference in the MACE rates between the two groups was not significant.
PMCID: PMC4253743  PMID: 25478526
Lesion; Blood Vessels; Saphenous Vein; Transplants; Embolic Protection Devices; Coronary Artery Bypass
13.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to Treat Chronic Total Occlusion: Predictors of Technical Success and One-Year Clinical Outcome 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2014;41(1):40-47.
We investigated the overall success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a treatment for coronary chronic total occlusion and sought to determine the predictive factors of technical success and of one-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE). These factors have not been conclusively defined.
Using data from our single-center PCI registry, we enrolled 269 consecutive patients (mean age, 56.13 ± 10.72 yr; 66.2% men) who underwent first-time PCI for chronic total occlusion (duration, ≥3 mo) from March 2006 through September 2010. We divided them into 2 groups: procedural success and procedural failure. We compared occurrences of in-hospital sequelae and one-year MACE between the groups, using multivariate models to determine predictors of technical failure and one-year clinical outcome.
Successful revascularization was achieved in 221 patients (82.2%). One-year MACE occurred in 13 patients (4.8%), with a predominance of target-vessel revascularization (3.7%). The prevalence of MACE was significantly lower in the procedural-success group (1.8% vs 18.8%; P <0.001). In the multivariate model, technical failure was the only predictor of one-year MACE. The predictors of failed procedures were lesion location, multivessel disease, the occurrence of dissection, a Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade of 0 before PCI, the absence of tapered-stump arterial structure, and an increase in serum creatinine level or lesion length.
In our retrospective, observational study, PCI was successful in a high percentage of chronic total occlusion patients and had a low prevalence of complications. This suggests its safety and effectiveness as a therapeutic option.
PMCID: PMC3967487  PMID: 24512398
Angioplasty, balloon, coronary/methods; chronic disease/therapy; coronary occlusion/therapy; disease-free survival; heart diseases/prevention & control; multivariate analysis; myocardial revascularization; patient selection; retrospective studies; treatment outcome
14.  Comparing of Light Transmittance Aggregometry and Modified Thrombelastograph in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Chinese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stenting with Clopidogrel 
Chinese Medical Journal  2015;128(6):774-779.
Several platelet function tests are currently used to measure responsiveness to antiplatelet therapy. This study was to compare two tests, light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and modified thrombelastography (mTEG), for predicting clinical outcomes in Chinese patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Prospective, observational, single-center study of 789 Chinese patients undergoing PCI was enrolled. This study was investigated the correlations between the two tests and performed receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 1-year follow-up.
MACEs occurred in 32 patients (4.1%). Correlations were well between the two tests in the adenosine diphosphate induced platelet reactivity (Spearman r = 0.733, P < 0.001). ROC-curve analysis demonstrated that LTA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.677; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.643–0.710; P = 0.0009), and mTEG (AUC: 0.684; 95% CI: 0.650–0.716; P = 0.0001) had moderate ability to discriminate between patients with and without MACE. MACE occurred more frequently in patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) when assessed by LTA (7.4% vs. 2.7%; P < 0.001), and by TEG (6.7% vs. 2.6%; P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that HPR based on the LTA and mTEG was associated with almost 3-fold increased risk of MACE at 1-year follow-up.
The correlation between LTA and mTEG is relatively high in Chinese patients. HPR measured by LTA and mTEG were significantly associated with MACE in Chinese patients undergoing PCI.
PMCID: PMC4833981  PMID: 25758271
Clopidogrel; High On-treatment Platelet Reactivity; Light Transmittance Aggregometry; Thrombelastography
15.  Long term outcomes of saphaneous vein graft intervention in elderly patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft 
To investigate the procedure characteristics and long term follow-up of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for saphaneous vein graft (SVG) lesions in the elderly patients.
From December 2005 to December 2011, 84 graft lesions were treated percutaneously. Seventeen were located at proximal anastomosis, 48 were located at SVG body, 19 were located at distal anastomosis. Primary endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, composite of cardiac death, target vessel revascularization, acute myocardial infarction).
The graft age was 6.7 ± 4.0 years. Most anastomosis lesions (80.0%) presented within one year post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Proximal anastomosis lesion had the lowest successful rate for PCI compared with graft body and distal anastomosis lesions (70.6% vs. 91.7%, 79.0%, P < 0.05). The distal embolic protection device was used in 19.1% of patients, most frequently used in body graft PCI (29.2%, P < 0.01). The diameter of the stent was smallest in distal anastomosis group (2.9 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05). The highest post dilatation pressure was required in the proximal anastomosis (17.8 ± 2.7 atm, P < 0.05). The patients were followed up for 24.3 ± 16.9 months. MACE occurred in 18.57% of patients. Incidence of MACE was highest among proximal anastomosis PCI (47.1% vs. body graft PCI 16.7%, distal anastomosis PCI 21.1%; P < 0.05). Old myocardial infarction was the predictive factor for the poor clinical outcomes (P = 0.04).
PCI of SVG lesions is feasible with lower success rate. PCI of ostial graft anastomosis lesions had the lowest procedure success rate and highest MACE rate compared with graft body and distal anastomosis lesions. Old myocardial infarction was a predictive factor of poor outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3981980  PMID: 24748878
Graft; Anastomosis; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Coronary artery bypass grafting
16.  Thrombolysis Followed by Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention via Transradial Artery Approach in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Infarction  
Acta Cardiologica Sinica  2014;30(4):284-291.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of thrombolysis followed by early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
A total of 161 patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty-three of them who underwent thrombolysis in non-PCI hospital and immediately transferred to receive early PCI were assigned to the early PCI group (E-PCI); the rest of the patients were assigned to the primary PCI group (P-PCI). Coronary angiography and PCI were performed via the transradial artery approach for patients in both groups. Angiographic parameters, bleeding complications and total hospital stay were compared between the two groups. All patients were followed-up for 30 days to evaluate major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
Before PCI procedure, the thrombus score of IRA in the E-PCI group was lower, and the percentage of TIMI flow grade (TFG) 3 was higher (both p < 0.05) compared to those in the P-PCI group. The myocardial reperfusion in the E-PCI group was better than that in the P-PCI group. There was a trend towards a lower peak value of serum creatine kinase MB in the E-PCI group, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before discharge in E-PCI was higher than that in the P-PCI group (54.38 ± 5.29% vs. 52.19 ± 7.00%, respectively, p = 0.028). No significant differences were found in the incidences of bleeding complications and hospital stay between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the 30-day MACE between the two groups (p = 0.863), and no significance of cumulative MACE-free survival rates were found between the two groups as well (p = 0.522). Variables predicting MACE upon patient follow-up according to univariable Cox regression analyses showed that a history of hyperlipidemia, smokers, TFG of infarction related artery before PCI < 2, and low levels of LVEF were associated with poor clinical outcomes (all p < 0.05).
It is safe and efficacious for STEMI patients to receive thrombolysis followed by early PCI via the transradial artery approach.
PMCID: PMC4804990  PMID: 27122801
Major adverse cardiac event; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Radial artery; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; Thrombolysis
17.  Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis 
Heart  2015;101(6):455-462.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fractional flow reserve (FFR) should be performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to guide the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy.
PCI is the most effective method to improve the outcomes of CAD. However, the proper usage of PCI has not been achieved in clinical practice.
A meta-analysis was performed on angiography-guided PCI and FFR-guided PCI strategies. Prospective and retrospective studies were included when research subjects were patients with CAD undergoing PCI. The primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Secondary endpoints included death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularisation and death or MI.
Four prospective and three retrospective studies involving 49 517 patients were included. Absolute risks of MACE/MACCE, death, MI, revascularisation and death or MI for angiography-guided PCI and FFR-guided PCI were 34.8% vs 22.5%, 15.3% vs 7.6%, 8.1% vs 4.2%, 20.4% vs 14.8%, and 21.9% vs 11.8%, respectively. The meta-analysis demonstrated that FFR-guided PCI was associated with lower MACE/MACCE (OR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.23), death (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.96), MI (OR: 2.05, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.60), repeat revascularisation (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.44), and death or MI (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.15) than angiography-guided PCI strategy.
This meta-analysis supports current guidelines advising the FFR-guided PCI strategy for CAD. PCI should only be performed when haemodynamic significance is found.
PMCID: PMC4413679  PMID: 25637372
18.  Contemporary outcomes in vascular patients who require pre-operative coronary stent 
Annals of vascular surgery  2013;27(5):646-654.
The documented risks of pre-operative coronary revascularization prior to vascular surgery have led to a marked reduction in the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during pre-operative risk stratification. However, many patients with peripheral arterial disease are first identified immediately after a PCI for an acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine the risks associated with these patients who then go on to have a peripheral arterial intervention (open operation or endovascular procedure). We hypothesized that there was no difference in outcomes in patients whose medical condition required PCI with coronary stent placement prior to a vascular operation compared to a control cohort of non-stented patients who underwent a vascular operation alone. We report the vascular operative outcomes in a contemporary cohort of vascular patients who had PCI with coronary stent placement for an acute event.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis utilizing administrative data, of 3,678 vascular patients from 2005 to 2010 at a tertiary care hospital. Two groups were defined: patients with preoperative PCI and coronary stent placement within one year prior to vascular operation (N=101, mean age 66±1.22 years, 51.5% male) and patients with no PCI prior to vascular operation (N=3,577, mean age 60±.27 years, 46.37% male). Cardiovascular risk factors and complications derived from ICD-9 codes were used to parse data following open peripheral vascular surgery, endovascular repair, or amputation. Primary outcomes were death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac event (MACE, defined as death, MI or subsequent coronary revascularization) or bleeding.
Univariate analysis showed significant differences in both demographic and outcome analysis in patients with and without prior coronary stent. Patients with a recent PCI followed by a vascular procedure were more likely to undergo an endovascular procedure (75.3% vs 64.5%, OR = 1.67, p = 0.028). These patients also had 11 of 20 cardiovascular risk factors significantly greater than those without a prior PCI. Multivariate sub-group analysis indicated that patients with a prior coronary stent were more likely to have an episode of congestive heart failure (CHF) after 1 year of surgery (16.8%, p= 0.045). Additionally, an acute cardiac ischemic event was more likely within 1 year (2.0%, p= 0.036) and beyond 1 year (4.0%, p= 0.022) of surgery. Importantly, there was no significant increase in death, MI, MACE, or bleeding in patients with pre-operative coronary stent.
Patients who underwent PCI with coronary stent and then went on to require a vascular procedure had significantly more CV risk factors and were more likely to have an endovascular procedure than those patients without preoperative PCI. When controlling for CV risk factors and procedure type, there was no significant difference in death, MI, MACE or bleeding complications between the groups.
PMCID: PMC3700602  PMID: 23541775
19.  The SYNTAX Score Can Predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
The SYNTAX score is a grading system that evaluates the complexity and prognosis of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the association between the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) following PCI and the SYNTAX score in patients with three-vessel disease.
We consecutively enrolled 381 patients with three-vessel disease undergoing PCI and stenting. The SYNTAX score was divided into tertiles as low (≤16), intermediate (16-22) and high (>22). The endpoint was the incidence of MACE defined as cardiac death, in-hospital mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization. Then, the incidence of MACE was compared among the SYNTAX score tertile groups.
The median follow-up was 14 months, and the rate of MACE was 12.6%. The rates of MACE were 7.5%, 9.9%, and 21.6% in patients with low, intermediate, and high SYNTAX score tertiles, respectively. Higher SYNTAX scores significantly predicted a higher risk of MACE (hazard ratio = 2.36; P = 0.02) even after adjustment for potential confounders. The main predictors of MACE were SYNTAX score, advanced age, hyperlipidemia, presentation as recent ST-elevation MI, number of total lesions, and history of renal failure.
The SYNTAX score could predict major cardiac outcomes following PCI in patients with three-vessel disease.
PMCID: PMC4348991  PMID: 25774251
Coronary artery disease; major adverse cardiac events; mortality; percutaneous coronary intervention; SYNTAX score
20.  Resting heart rate associates with one-year risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention 
Experimental Biology and Medicine  2015;241(5):478-484.
The study was to access the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and one-year risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with ACS after PCI (n = 808) were prospectively followed-up for MACE. RHR was obtained from electrocardiogram. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, ischemic-driven revascularization, and ischemic stroke. The association between RHR and one-year risk of MACE was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Compared with patients with RHR >76 bpm, the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) was 0.51 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.23–1.14; P = 0.100) for patients with RHR < 61 bpm, and 0.44 (95%CI: 0.23–0.85; P = 0.014) for those with RHR 61–76 bpm. For patients with RHR ≥ 61 bpm, an increase of 10 bpm in RHR was associated with an increase by 38.0% in the risk of MACE (AHR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04–1.83; P = 0.026). ACS patients after PCI with RHR >76 bpm were at higher risk of MACE during one-year follow-up compared with patients with RHR 61–76 bpm. An elevated RHR ≥ 61 bpm was associated with increased risk of one-year MACE in ACS patients.
PMCID: PMC4950480  PMID: 26585407
Resting heart rate; acute coronary syndrome; percutaneous coronary intervention; major adverse cardiovascular events
21.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetic Nephropathy: A Single Center Experience 
Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and coronary artery disease (CAD) represent a subset of patients with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The optimal revascularization strategy using either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of PCI to CABG in DN patients with CAD.
The clinical and angiographic records of DN patients with CAD who underwent either CABG (n=52) or PCI (n=48) were retrospectively analyzed.
The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for the severity of the CAD. At 30 days, the death rate (PCI: 2.1% vs. CABG: 9.6%, p=0.21) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate (PCI: 2.1% vs. CABG: 9.6%, p=0.21) were similar in comparisons between the PCI and CABG groups. At three years, the death rate (PCI: 18.8% vs. CABG: 19.2%, p=0.94) was similar between the PCI and CABG groups but the MACE rate (PCI: 47.9% vs. CABG: 21.2%, p=0.006) was higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group. In addition, the repeat revascularization rate was higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group (PCI: 12.5% vs. CABG: 1.9%, p=0.046).
The CABG procedure was associated with a lower incidence of MACE and repeat revascularization for up to three years of follow-up in DN patients with CAD. However, the overall survival rate was similar in the CABG and PCI groups. Therefore, CABG may be superior to PCI with regard to MACE and repeat revascularization.
PMCID: PMC2687692  PMID: 17939329
Diabetic Nephropathy; Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
22.  A novel predictor of infarct-related artery patency before percutaneous intervention and in-hospital outcomes for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients: serum bilirubin level 
Previous studies have reported a relationship between serum bilirubin levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data are rare up to now regarding the relation of bilirubin levels with infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Moreover, previous studies reported that increased bilirubin was related to impaired post-intervention coronary flow. To our knowledge, the association between serum total bilirubin (TB) levels and pre-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with patency of IRA flow in STEMI patients has not been investigated.
To evaluate the association of TB with pre-primary PCI, coronary flow and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with STEMI.
Material and methods
A total of 360 consecutive patients with STEMI (mean age = 61.4 ±13.7 years) admitted within 12 h from the time of symptom onset were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the serum TB levels. We defined normal flow as pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow, while impaired flow was defined as pre-PCI TIMI ≤ 2 flow.
Pre-PCI impaired flow was higher in the TB group than pre-PCI normal flow (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality and MACE were significantly higher in the high TB group (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, TB > 0.825 mg/dl predicted impaired IRA flow before p-PCI with a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 71%.
The TB is an inexpensive and readily available marker for STEMI patients undergoing PCI. It can be used for risk stratification in this patient population.
PMCID: PMC4108732  PMID: 25061454
bilirubin; percutaneous coronary intervention; novel predictor
23.  Urinary 11‐Dehydro‐Thromboxane B2 as a Predictor of Acute Myocardial Infarction Outcomes: Results of Leukotrienes and Thromboxane In Myocardial Infarction (LTIMI) Study 
Urinary 11‐dehydro‐thromboxane (TX)B2 has been described as a potential predictive biomarker of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in high cardiac risk patients. This part of LTIMI (Leukotrienes and Thromboxane In Myocardial Infarction) study aimed to evaluate the relationship between 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 and MACEs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods and Results
LTIMI was an observational, prospective study in 180 consecutive patients with AMI type 1 referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. On admission and at follow‐up visits (1 month, 1 year), 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 was measured in urinary samples by using high‐performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The primary outcome was occurrence of composite MACEs during 1‐year after AMI. Left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed in echocardiography on admission and at 1‐year follow‐up. Analyses of 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 (pg/mg creatinine) were performed on log‐transformed data and expressed as median with IQR (Q1–Q3). 11‐Dehydro‐TXB 2 level on admission was 7.39 (6.85–8.01) and decreased at 1 month (6.73, 6.27–7.12; P<0.001) and 1‐year follow‐up (6.37, 5.91–6.94; P<0.001). In univariate analysis, baseline 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 was higher in patients with MACEs (n=60; 7.73, 7.07–8.60) compared with those without MACEs (n=119; 7.28, 6.68–7.79; P=0.002). In multivariate regression model, 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 and 3 other variables (diabetes, multivessel disease, and left ventricular ejection fraction) were found to be best 1‐year cumulative MACE predictors with odds ratio for 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 of 1.58 (95% CI 1.095–2.33; P=0.017) and area under the curve (in receiver operating characteristic analysis of 0.8). Baseline 11‐dehydro‐TXB 2 negatively correlated with both left ventricular ejection fraction on admission (R=−0.21; P=0.006) and after 1 year (R=−0.346; P<0.001).
11‐Dehydro‐TXB 2 predicts 1‐year cumulative MACEs in AMI patients and provides prognostic information on the left ventricular performance.
PMCID: PMC5015290  PMID: 27481134
atherosclerosis; complication; inflammation; myocardial infarction; risk factor; thromboxane; Platelets; Complications; Cardiovascular Disease; Myocardial Infarction; Thrombosis
24.  Clinical Significance of On-Treatment Triglyceride Level in Patients Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome 
The use of statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has increased, and reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lead to lower coronary event rates. We studied the effect of lipid levels during statin treatment on prognosis in patients with ACS and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Between January 2005 and May 2007, 325 ACS patients who underwent PCI and received statins were evaluated. We measured serum lipid levels at baseline and 4 weeks. The relationships between on-treatment levels of triglyceride (TG) and LDL-C and one-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were assessed.
At 4 weeks, the mean LDL-C level was 72.5±23.8 mg/dL and the mean TG was 123.2±62.8 mg/dL. MACE occurred in 41 cases (12.6%). Baseline serum lipid levels were similar between the patients with and those without MACE. However, the patients with MACE showed significantly higher TG level at 4 weeks (149.6±81.4 vs. 119.3±58.9 mg/dL, p=0.026) than those without. High on-treatment TG level (≥150 mg/dL) were associated with increased adverse events compared to lower TG level in a univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3; p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, high 4-week TG level after statin treatment was an independent predictor for MACE (HR, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.85 to 9.06; p=0.001), however, baseline TG and LDL-C levels were not.
High on-treatment TG level (≥150 mg/dL) was associated with a higher risk of MACE. This finding supports the concept that achieving low TG levels may be an important therapeutic parameter in statin-treated patients following ACS and PCI.
PMCID: PMC2784976  PMID: 19949731
Lipids; Triglycerides; Acute coronary syndrome; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor
25.  Impact of SYNTAX score on 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unprotected left main coronary artery 
SYNTAX score is an angiographic scoring system that was developed to quantify the number, complexity, and location of lesions in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Up to now, the impact of SYNTAX score on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions has not been fully examined. Therefore, we evaluate the usefulness of the SYNTAX score and identify the cutoff value of this score to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. This was a single-center retrospective study that included 49 consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. We calculated the SYNTAX score and examined the correlations between this score and 1-year clinical outcomes. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred in 12 patients (24%): target lesion revascularization in 9 patients (18%), myocardial infarction in 2 (4%), and cardiac death in 1 (2%). The frequency of MACE was significantly higher in the intermediate (47%) or high score group (50%) than in the low score group (4%). Furthermore, the SYNTAX score was significantly higher in the MACE group than in the non-MACE group (31 vs. 22, p = 0.008). Receiver-operating characteristic curve showed that the SYNTAX score exhibited 83% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting the development of MACE at a cutoff value 26. These results demonstrate that the SYNTAX score could be a useful tool to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions.
PMCID: PMC3427976  PMID: 22937491
Coronary artery disease; left main coronary artery; percutaneous coronary intervention; SYNTAX score

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