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1.  Diagnostic Accuracy of Post Procedural Creatine Kinase, MB Form can Predict Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Selective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention? 
Measuring cardiac markers in blood has been the main strategy for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction for nearly 50 years. Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) has been demonstrated to be a highly specific marker.
The present study aimed to assess the role of CK-MB changes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to predict one year outcomes of this procedure.
Patients and Methods:
This cohort study was conducted on 138 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. Sixty-nine patients who had a CK-MB elevation ≥ 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) post procedurally were considered as group I and 69 patients without cardiac enzyme rise after PCI were considered as the control group (group II). The composite end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during one year was assessed by telephone follow-up or presentation at clinical visiting, and compared between the two groups. The MACE was defined as the appearance of at least one of the following events: mortality, repeated revascularization procedures, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular events.
Although one year mortality in the group I was 4 (5.8%), about two times greater than the other group 2 (2.9%), the difference was not significantly discrepant (P = 0.57). Moreover, 8 (11.6%) of patients in group I experienced one year MACE, while this rate in the other group was 4 (5.8%), with insignificant difference (P = 0.22). In group I, one case experienced coronary artery bypass surgery, one, exhibited cerebrovascular disease and one reported ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), while two patients in the other group were suspicious of having non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and candidates for repeated PCI. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased post-procedural CK-MB ≥ 3 times UNL could not predict long-term MACE in patients who underwent selective PCI. Area under the curve (AUC) for predicting one year MACE was 0.593 (95% CI: 0.397 - 0.788), indicating inappropriate accuracy for this biomarker (P = 0.290).
It seems that CK-MB ≥ 3 times ULN within 24 hours after PCI cannot independently predict one year MACE in patients undergoing PCI.
PMCID: PMC4253746  PMID: 25478525
Creatine Kinase, MB Form; Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary; Myocardial Infarction
2.  Immediate Results and Six-Month Clinical Outcome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 
Redo coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is associated with a higher risk of mortality than the first operation. However, the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the outcome in such patients is currently unclear. We evaluated the in-hospital and six-month clinical outcomes of post-CABG patients who underwent PCI in our center.
Between April 2008 and July 2009, 71 post-CABG patients (16 women and 55 men) underwent 110 stent implantations (74% drug-eluting stents) for 89 lesions. Sixty percent of the PCI procedures were performed on the native coronary arteries, 32% on graft arteries, and 8% on both types of vessels. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded in hospital and at six months’ follow-up.
The procedural success rate was 93%, and the in-hospital MACE rate was 5.6 % (1 death, 3 myocardial infarctions). At 6 months, the incidence of MACE was 5.6% (no death or myocardial infarction, but 4 target lesion revascularizations) and 4 (5.6 %) in-stent restenoses. There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of MACE between the patients treated in either native arteries or in the grafts (15% vs.12%, p value = 0.8). According to the univariate analysis, hypertension and the use of the bare metal stent vs. the drug-eluting stent were the significant predictors of MACE, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that only hypertension (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 3.4–4, p value < 0.048) was the independent predictor of MACE. The mean of the left ventricular ejection fraction had no effect on the incidence of MACE (p value = 0.9). The multivariate analysis showed hypertension (p value < 0.048) and the use of the bare metal stent (p value < 0.018) were the independent predictors of MACE. The chronic total occlusion (CTO) (p value < 0.01) was the independent predictor of the success rate. The prevalence of diabetes had no impact on the incidence of MACE according to the univariate analysis (p value = 0.9). Our multivariate analysis showed that hypertension and the use of the bare metal stent were the independent predictors of MACE and that chronic total occlusion was the independent predictor of the procedural failure rate.
PCI is preferable to redo CABG for post-CABG patients. The independent predictors of MACE were hypertension and bare metal stents.
PMCID: PMC3466866  PMID: 23074602
Angioplasty; Coronary artery bypass; Treatment outcome; Reoperation
3.  Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(2):93-99.
Background and Objectives
A higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in various cardiac diseases. However, the clinical availability of NLR in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been known. We evaluated the availability of NLR to predict clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed 326 consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. The patients were divided into tertiles according to NLR: NLR≤3.30 (n=108), 3.316.53 (n=110). We evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all causes of death, non-fatal MI, and ischemic stroke at the 12-month follow-up.
The high NLR group was associated with a significantly higher rate of 12-month MACE (19.1% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001), 12-month death (18.2% vs. 2.8%, p<0.001), in-hospital MACE (12.7% vs. 2.8%, p=0.010) and in-hospital death (12.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003) compared to the low NLR group. In the multivariable model, high NLR was an independent predictor of 12-month MACE {hazard ratio (HR) 3.33 (1.09-10.16), p=0.035} and death {HR 4.10 (1.17-14.46), p=0.028} after adjustment for gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine clearance, angiographic parameters and factors included in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score for STEMI. There was a significant gradient of 12-month MACE across the NLR tertiles with a markedly increased MACE hazard in the high NLR group (log rank test p=0.002).
The NLR is a useful marker to predict 12-month MACE and death in patients with STEMI who have undergone primary PCI.
PMCID: PMC3596670  PMID: 23508782
Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; Myocardial infarction
4.  Development and validation of a Bayesian index for predicting major adverse cardiac events with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty 
Heart  2001;85(1):69-72.
OBJECTIVE—To create a risk model for predicting major adverse complicating events of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and to test the accuracy of the model on a prospective cohort of patients
SETTING—Tertiary cardiac centre
METHODS—Available software can predict probabilities of events using Bayes's theorem. To establish the accuracy of these predictive tools, a Bayes table was created to evaluate major adverse complicating events (MACE)—death, emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or Q wave infarct occurring during the in-patient episode—on the first 1500 patients in the department PTCA database (development group); the predictive value of this model was then tested with the subsequent 1000 patients (evaluation group). The following probabilities were assessed to determine their association with MACE: age, sex, left ventricular function, American Heart Association lesion morphology classification, cardiogenic shock, previous CABG, diabetes, hypertension, multivessel PTCA.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—To establish the discriminatory ability of the predictive index, calibration plots and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to compare the development and evaluation groups.
RESULTS—The ROC curve plotted to determine the discriminatory value of the Bayesian table created from the development group (n = 1500) in predicting MACE in the evaluation group (n = 1000) showed a moderately predictive area under the curve of 0.76 (SEM 0.07). This predictive accuracy was confirmed with separately constructed calibration plots.
CONCLUSIONS—Accurate predictions of MACE can be identified in populations undergoing percutaneous intervention. The database used allows operators to obtain consent from patients appropriately from their own experience rather than from other published data. If a national PTCA database existed along similar lines, individual operators and interventional centres could compare themselves with nationally available data.

Keywords: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Bayesian risk; outcome prediction
PMCID: PMC1729571  PMID: 11119467
5.  Early and Midterm Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patient With Saphenous Vein Graft Using Direct Stenting or Embolic Protection Device Stenting 
The treatment of an occluded saphenous vein graft (SVG) with percutaneous coronary intervention may encounter major adverse cardiac events (MACE). MACE rates have been reduced significantly by using the embolic protection device (EPD).
The aim of this study was to clarify the risks and the benefits of embolic protection devices.
Patients and Methods:
In a prospective, non-randomized observational study, patients aged 33 to 85 years old who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention due to SVG stenosis at our tertiary care center were enrolled between 2009 and 2011. The incidence rates of adverse events, including MACE, were obtained during the patients’ hospitalization and at 30-day and 6-month follow-up. MACE included death, Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, in-stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization.
From 150 patients enrolled to the study, 128 (85.3%) patients underwent direct stenting and the rest underwent the EPD procedure. In-hospital MACE occurred in 17.2% of the patients in the direct stenting group versus only 9.1% in the EPD group (P = 0.530). MACE incidence was gradually increased at one and 6-month follow-up periods in the direct stenting group (19.5% and 21.9%, respectively), and remained unchanged in the EPD group (9.1% at six-month follow-up). Multivariate logistic regression model showed that the stenting procedure type could not predict early and midterm MACE with the presence of baseline characteristics as cofounders.
Despite the considerable lower early and midterm MACE rates, numerically following the EPD procedure compared to direct stenting, the difference in the MACE rates between the two groups was not significant.
PMCID: PMC4253743  PMID: 25478526
Lesion; Blood Vessels; Saphenous Vein; Transplants; Embolic Protection Devices; Coronary Artery Bypass
6.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to Treat Chronic Total Occlusion: Predictors of Technical Success and One-Year Clinical Outcome 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2014;41(1):40-47.
We investigated the overall success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a treatment for coronary chronic total occlusion and sought to determine the predictive factors of technical success and of one-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE). These factors have not been conclusively defined.
Using data from our single-center PCI registry, we enrolled 269 consecutive patients (mean age, 56.13 ± 10.72 yr; 66.2% men) who underwent first-time PCI for chronic total occlusion (duration, ≥3 mo) from March 2006 through September 2010. We divided them into 2 groups: procedural success and procedural failure. We compared occurrences of in-hospital sequelae and one-year MACE between the groups, using multivariate models to determine predictors of technical failure and one-year clinical outcome.
Successful revascularization was achieved in 221 patients (82.2%). One-year MACE occurred in 13 patients (4.8%), with a predominance of target-vessel revascularization (3.7%). The prevalence of MACE was significantly lower in the procedural-success group (1.8% vs 18.8%; P <0.001). In the multivariate model, technical failure was the only predictor of one-year MACE. The predictors of failed procedures were lesion location, multivessel disease, the occurrence of dissection, a Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade of 0 before PCI, the absence of tapered-stump arterial structure, and an increase in serum creatinine level or lesion length.
In our retrospective, observational study, PCI was successful in a high percentage of chronic total occlusion patients and had a low prevalence of complications. This suggests its safety and effectiveness as a therapeutic option.
PMCID: PMC3967487  PMID: 24512398
Angioplasty, balloon, coronary/methods; chronic disease/therapy; coronary occlusion/therapy; disease-free survival; heart diseases/prevention & control; multivariate analysis; myocardial revascularization; patient selection; retrospective studies; treatment outcome
7.  Long term outcomes of saphaneous vein graft intervention in elderly patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft 
To investigate the procedure characteristics and long term follow-up of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for saphaneous vein graft (SVG) lesions in the elderly patients.
From December 2005 to December 2011, 84 graft lesions were treated percutaneously. Seventeen were located at proximal anastomosis, 48 were located at SVG body, 19 were located at distal anastomosis. Primary endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, composite of cardiac death, target vessel revascularization, acute myocardial infarction).
The graft age was 6.7 ± 4.0 years. Most anastomosis lesions (80.0%) presented within one year post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Proximal anastomosis lesion had the lowest successful rate for PCI compared with graft body and distal anastomosis lesions (70.6% vs. 91.7%, 79.0%, P < 0.05). The distal embolic protection device was used in 19.1% of patients, most frequently used in body graft PCI (29.2%, P < 0.01). The diameter of the stent was smallest in distal anastomosis group (2.9 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05). The highest post dilatation pressure was required in the proximal anastomosis (17.8 ± 2.7 atm, P < 0.05). The patients were followed up for 24.3 ± 16.9 months. MACE occurred in 18.57% of patients. Incidence of MACE was highest among proximal anastomosis PCI (47.1% vs. body graft PCI 16.7%, distal anastomosis PCI 21.1%; P < 0.05). Old myocardial infarction was the predictive factor for the poor clinical outcomes (P = 0.04).
PCI of SVG lesions is feasible with lower success rate. PCI of ostial graft anastomosis lesions had the lowest procedure success rate and highest MACE rate compared with graft body and distal anastomosis lesions. Old myocardial infarction was a predictive factor of poor outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3981980  PMID: 24748878
Graft; Anastomosis; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Coronary artery bypass grafting
8.  Contemporary outcomes in vascular patients who require pre-operative coronary stent 
Annals of vascular surgery  2013;27(5):646-654.
The documented risks of pre-operative coronary revascularization prior to vascular surgery have led to a marked reduction in the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during pre-operative risk stratification. However, many patients with peripheral arterial disease are first identified immediately after a PCI for an acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine the risks associated with these patients who then go on to have a peripheral arterial intervention (open operation or endovascular procedure). We hypothesized that there was no difference in outcomes in patients whose medical condition required PCI with coronary stent placement prior to a vascular operation compared to a control cohort of non-stented patients who underwent a vascular operation alone. We report the vascular operative outcomes in a contemporary cohort of vascular patients who had PCI with coronary stent placement for an acute event.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis utilizing administrative data, of 3,678 vascular patients from 2005 to 2010 at a tertiary care hospital. Two groups were defined: patients with preoperative PCI and coronary stent placement within one year prior to vascular operation (N=101, mean age 66±1.22 years, 51.5% male) and patients with no PCI prior to vascular operation (N=3,577, mean age 60±.27 years, 46.37% male). Cardiovascular risk factors and complications derived from ICD-9 codes were used to parse data following open peripheral vascular surgery, endovascular repair, or amputation. Primary outcomes were death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac event (MACE, defined as death, MI or subsequent coronary revascularization) or bleeding.
Univariate analysis showed significant differences in both demographic and outcome analysis in patients with and without prior coronary stent. Patients with a recent PCI followed by a vascular procedure were more likely to undergo an endovascular procedure (75.3% vs 64.5%, OR = 1.67, p = 0.028). These patients also had 11 of 20 cardiovascular risk factors significantly greater than those without a prior PCI. Multivariate sub-group analysis indicated that patients with a prior coronary stent were more likely to have an episode of congestive heart failure (CHF) after 1 year of surgery (16.8%, p= 0.045). Additionally, an acute cardiac ischemic event was more likely within 1 year (2.0%, p= 0.036) and beyond 1 year (4.0%, p= 0.022) of surgery. Importantly, there was no significant increase in death, MI, MACE, or bleeding in patients with pre-operative coronary stent.
Patients who underwent PCI with coronary stent and then went on to require a vascular procedure had significantly more CV risk factors and were more likely to have an endovascular procedure than those patients without preoperative PCI. When controlling for CV risk factors and procedure type, there was no significant difference in death, MI, MACE or bleeding complications between the groups.
PMCID: PMC3700602  PMID: 23541775
9.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetic Nephropathy: A Single Center Experience 
Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and coronary artery disease (CAD) represent a subset of patients with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The optimal revascularization strategy using either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of PCI to CABG in DN patients with CAD.
The clinical and angiographic records of DN patients with CAD who underwent either CABG (n=52) or PCI (n=48) were retrospectively analyzed.
The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for the severity of the CAD. At 30 days, the death rate (PCI: 2.1% vs. CABG: 9.6%, p=0.21) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate (PCI: 2.1% vs. CABG: 9.6%, p=0.21) were similar in comparisons between the PCI and CABG groups. At three years, the death rate (PCI: 18.8% vs. CABG: 19.2%, p=0.94) was similar between the PCI and CABG groups but the MACE rate (PCI: 47.9% vs. CABG: 21.2%, p=0.006) was higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group. In addition, the repeat revascularization rate was higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group (PCI: 12.5% vs. CABG: 1.9%, p=0.046).
The CABG procedure was associated with a lower incidence of MACE and repeat revascularization for up to three years of follow-up in DN patients with CAD. However, the overall survival rate was similar in the CABG and PCI groups. Therefore, CABG may be superior to PCI with regard to MACE and repeat revascularization.
PMCID: PMC2687692  PMID: 17939329
Diabetic Nephropathy; Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
10.  A novel predictor of infarct-related artery patency before percutaneous intervention and in-hospital outcomes for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients: serum bilirubin level 
Previous studies have reported a relationship between serum bilirubin levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data are rare up to now regarding the relation of bilirubin levels with infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Moreover, previous studies reported that increased bilirubin was related to impaired post-intervention coronary flow. To our knowledge, the association between serum total bilirubin (TB) levels and pre-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with patency of IRA flow in STEMI patients has not been investigated.
To evaluate the association of TB with pre-primary PCI, coronary flow and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with STEMI.
Material and methods
A total of 360 consecutive patients with STEMI (mean age = 61.4 ±13.7 years) admitted within 12 h from the time of symptom onset were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the serum TB levels. We defined normal flow as pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow, while impaired flow was defined as pre-PCI TIMI ≤ 2 flow.
Pre-PCI impaired flow was higher in the TB group than pre-PCI normal flow (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality and MACE were significantly higher in the high TB group (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, TB > 0.825 mg/dl predicted impaired IRA flow before p-PCI with a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 71%.
The TB is an inexpensive and readily available marker for STEMI patients undergoing PCI. It can be used for risk stratification in this patient population.
PMCID: PMC4108732  PMID: 25061454
bilirubin; percutaneous coronary intervention; novel predictor
11.  Clinical Significance of On-Treatment Triglyceride Level in Patients Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome 
The use of statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has increased, and reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lead to lower coronary event rates. We studied the effect of lipid levels during statin treatment on prognosis in patients with ACS and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Between January 2005 and May 2007, 325 ACS patients who underwent PCI and received statins were evaluated. We measured serum lipid levels at baseline and 4 weeks. The relationships between on-treatment levels of triglyceride (TG) and LDL-C and one-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were assessed.
At 4 weeks, the mean LDL-C level was 72.5±23.8 mg/dL and the mean TG was 123.2±62.8 mg/dL. MACE occurred in 41 cases (12.6%). Baseline serum lipid levels were similar between the patients with and those without MACE. However, the patients with MACE showed significantly higher TG level at 4 weeks (149.6±81.4 vs. 119.3±58.9 mg/dL, p=0.026) than those without. High on-treatment TG level (≥150 mg/dL) were associated with increased adverse events compared to lower TG level in a univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3; p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, high 4-week TG level after statin treatment was an independent predictor for MACE (HR, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.85 to 9.06; p=0.001), however, baseline TG and LDL-C levels were not.
High on-treatment TG level (≥150 mg/dL) was associated with a higher risk of MACE. This finding supports the concept that achieving low TG levels may be an important therapeutic parameter in statin-treated patients following ACS and PCI.
PMCID: PMC2784976  PMID: 19949731
Lipids; Triglycerides; Acute coronary syndrome; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor
12.  Impact of SYNTAX score on 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unprotected left main coronary artery 
SYNTAX score is an angiographic scoring system that was developed to quantify the number, complexity, and location of lesions in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Up to now, the impact of SYNTAX score on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions has not been fully examined. Therefore, we evaluate the usefulness of the SYNTAX score and identify the cutoff value of this score to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. This was a single-center retrospective study that included 49 consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. We calculated the SYNTAX score and examined the correlations between this score and 1-year clinical outcomes. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred in 12 patients (24%): target lesion revascularization in 9 patients (18%), myocardial infarction in 2 (4%), and cardiac death in 1 (2%). The frequency of MACE was significantly higher in the intermediate (47%) or high score group (50%) than in the low score group (4%). Furthermore, the SYNTAX score was significantly higher in the MACE group than in the non-MACE group (31 vs. 22, p = 0.008). Receiver-operating characteristic curve showed that the SYNTAX score exhibited 83% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting the development of MACE at a cutoff value 26. These results demonstrate that the SYNTAX score could be a useful tool to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions.
PMCID: PMC3427976  PMID: 22937491
Coronary artery disease; left main coronary artery; percutaneous coronary intervention; SYNTAX score
13.  Immediate results and six-month outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in a referral heart center in Isfahan, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):24-30.
There is a lack of data in our society on the outcomes, complications, and prognostic factors in patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the success rate, early and late outcomes, and prognostic factors in a referral university center in Isfahan, IRAN.
This prospective cohort study was conducted in Chamran University Hospital in Isfahan (IRAN) from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients consequently were included if they have the indication for emergent or elective PCI. Outcomes included procedural success, complications, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and 6 months follow-up.
A total of 282 patients (74.1% females) with mean age of 57.0±3.2 years were studied. Most of the patients (89.7%) underwent elective PCI. Angiographic and procedure success rates were 95.7% and 94.6%, respectively. In-hospital MACE included two cases of death (0.7%) and one MI (0.3%); 2/29 (6.9%) of the emergent PCI and 1/253 (0.4%) of the elective PCI cases. MACE during follow-up included three cases of death (1.0%) and two MI (0.7%); 2/252 (0.8%) of the elective PCI and 1/28 (3.5%) of the emergent PCI cases. The overall MACE was calculated as 8 cases (2.8%) which included 5/29 (17.2%) of the emergent and 3/253 (1.1%) of the elective cases; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, none of the factors including gender, age, emergency of the procedure, lesion type, number of stenotic vessels, or stent type were associated with total MACE (P>0.05).
PCI is performed with an acceptable success rate in our center in Isfahan and mortality and complications are within the range reported by other highly specialized centers in IRAN. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to find predictive factors.
PMCID: PMC3347842  PMID: 22577441
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Myocardial Infarction; Acute Coronary Syndrome; Reperfusion Therapy; Outcome; Mortality
14.  Impact of diabetes on long term follow-up of elderly patients with chronic total occlusion post percutaneous coronary intervention 
The prognosis of elderly patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) and diabetes mellitus (DM) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not known.
To investigate the effect of diabetes on long-term follow-up of CTO after PCI in elderly patients.
A total of 153 elderly patients (age > 65 years old) with CTO lesions which were successfully treated with PCI were enrolled. Fifty one patients with diabetes and 102 without diabetes were compared for long-term outcomes (mean follow up: 36 ± 12 months). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) which include death, myocardial infarction or target lesion revascularization (TLR) were considered as a combined endpoint.
The combined endpoint occurred in 29.4% of diabetes patients, and 11.3% of the patients without diabetes (P < 0.05). The Cox proportional hazards model identified: drug eluting stent (DES) or bare metal stent (BMS) (HR: 0.13, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.03–0.62, P = 0.004), DM (HR: 6.69, 95% CI: 1.62–15.81, P = 0.01) and final minimal lumen diameter (MLD) (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.13–0.90, P = 0.03 ) as independent predictors of MACE, DM with renal impairment (HR: 6.64, 95% CI: 1.32–33.36, P = 0.02), HBA1C on admission (HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.09–2.94, P = 0.02), as independent predictors of MACE at long term follow-up.
The study demonstrates that DM is a predictive factor for MACE in elderly CTO patients treated with PCI, type of stent, final minimal lumen diameter and DM with renal impairment, and HBA1C level on admission are predictors of MACE.
PMCID: PMC3627706  PMID: 23610569
Diabetes; Chronic total occlusion; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Elderly patient; Drug eluting stent
15.  Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Saphenous Vein Graft and Native Coronary Vessels 
The optimal target for revascularization in patients with history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is unclear. This study was designed to compare the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and that on native vessels in patients with previous CABG in terms of major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
The study drew upon data on consecutive patients hospitalized for PCI and MACE rate during a nine-month follow-up period. The patients were divided according to the target vessel for PCI into two groups: SVG and native vessel.
Between 2003 and 2007, 226 patients underwent PCI 6.57 ± 4.55 years after CABG. Their mean age was 59.52±9.38 years, and 176 (77.9%) were male. PCI was performed on the SVG in 63 (27.9%) patients and on the native coronary artery in the rest. During a nine-month follow-up period, 9 (4%) patients suffered MACE; the prevalence of MACE was not significantly different between the SVG group (4.8%) and the native vessel group (4.9%), (p value = 0.999).
PCI on grafted and native vessels did not affect MACE in patients undergoing PCI after CABG.
PMCID: PMC3466893  PMID: 23074621
Coronary artery bypass; Saphenous vein; Angioplasty; balloon; coronary; Coronary vessels
16.  Long-term oral nitrate therapy is associated with adverse outcome in diabetic patients following elective percutaneous coronary intervention 
To assess the impact of long-term oral nitrate therapy on clinical outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with type II diabetes.
The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) following elective PCI for stable coronary artery disease was evaluated in 108 patients with type II diabetes (age 64.6 ± 10.5 years, 67.7% men). Major adverse cardiovascular events were defined as the need for revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of MACEs by clinical characteristics and the prescription of long-term nitrate therapy.
Isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) was prescribed to 46 patients with an average dose of 44.3 ± 15.2 mg/day. After a mean follow up of 25.3 ± 25 months, 16 patients developed MACEs. Patients who received ISMN were more likely to suffer from MACEs (26.1% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.01), mainly driven by a higher rate of acute coronary syndrome (13.0 vs 0%, P = 0.01). Average daily dose of nitrate and other cardiovascular medication was not associated with MACEs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that prescription of only ISMN (Hazard Ratio 3.09, 95% CI 1.10-10.21, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor for the development of MACEs.
Long-term oral nitrate therapy was associated with MACEs following elective coronary artery revascularization by PCI in patients with type II diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3129297  PMID: 21668965
Nitrate; Diabetes; MACEs
17.  Prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score in patients with stable angina pectoris after percutaneous coronary intervention 
To evaluate the prognostic value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
A total of 334 consecutive patients with SAP who underwent first PCI following multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) were enrolled from our institution between January 2007 and June 2012. The CAC score was calculated according to the standard Agatston calcium scoring algorithm. Complex PCI was defined as use of high pressure balloon, kissing balloon and/or rotablator. Procedure-related complications included dissection, occlusion, perforation, no/slow flow and emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Main adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as a combined end point of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization and rehospitalization for cardiac ischemic events.
Patients with a CAC score > 300 (n = 145) had significantly higher PCI complexity (13.1% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.017) and rate of procedure-related complications (17.2% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.005) than patients with a CAC score ≤ 300 (n = 189). After a median follow-up of 22.5 months (4–72 months), patients with a CAC score ≤ 300 differ greatly than those patients with CAC score > 300 in cumulative non-events survival rates (88.9 vs. 79.0%, Log rank 4.577, P = 0.032). After adjusted for other factors, the risk of MACE was significantly higher [hazard ratio (HR): 4.3, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–8.2, P = 0.038] in patients with a CAC score > 300 compared to patients with a lower CAC score.
The CAC score is an independent predictor for MACE in SAP patients who underwent PCI and indicates complexity of PCI and procedure-related complications.
PMCID: PMC4076450  PMID: 25009560
Angina; Coronary angiography; Multi-slice computed tomography; Heart catheterization; Vascular calcification
18.  Association Between Periprocedural Bleeding and Long-Term Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Older Patients 
The authors sought to describe the association between post-procedural bleeding and long-term recurrent bleeding, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and mortality among older patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Bleeding complications after PCI are associated with an increased risk for acute morbidity and long-term mortality, but the association of these bleeding complications with other events is unknown.
Patients entered into the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI Registry (n = 461,311; 946 sites) from January 2004 to December 2008 were linked with claims from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and grouped according to in-hospital post-PCI bleeding. The association between post-PCI bleeding and 1-, 12-, and 30-month readmission for bleeding, MACE, and all-cause mortality was examined with Cox regression that included patient and procedural characteristics using no bleeding as the reference.
Overall, 3.1% (n = 14,107) of patients experienced post-PCI bleeding. Patients who bled were older, more often female, had more medical comorbidities, less often received bivalirudin, and more often underwent PCI via the femoral approach. After adjustment, bleeding after the index procedure was significantly associated with readmission for bleeding (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval]: 1 month, 1.54 [1.42 to 1.67]; 12 months, 1.52 [1.40 to 1.66]; 30 months, 1.29 [1.11 to 1.50]), MACE (1 month, 1.11 [1.07 to 1.15]; 12 months, 1.17 [1.13 to 1.21]; 30 months, 1.12 [1.06 to 1.19]) and all-cause mortality (1 month, 1.32 [1.26 to 1.38]; 12 months, 1.33 [1.27 to 1.40]); 30 months, 1.22 [1.15 to 1.30]).
Post-PCI bleeding complications are associated with an increased risk for short- and long-term recurrent bleeding, MACE, and all-cause mortality. These data underscore the prognostic importance of periprocedural bleeding and the need for identifying strategies to reduce long-term bleeding risk among patients undergoing PCI.
PMCID: PMC3908902  PMID: 22995883
elderly patients; percutaneous coronary intervention; periprocedural bleeding
19.  The Effect of Insulin Resistance on Prognosis of Non-Diabetic Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(2):212-216.
Insulin resistance is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, there has been no data regarding its clinical effect on the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-diabetic patients. We analyzed 98 non-diabetic consecutive patients (59±11.5 yr, male:female=63:35) who underwent elective coronary angiography. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n=71; the value of HOMA-IR [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] <2.6) and Group II (n=27; the value of HOMA-IR ≥2.6). In-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were compared between the two groups. The concentrations of fasting insulin and triglyceride were significantly higher in Group II than in Group I. Significant correlations were observed between the value of HOMA-IR and body mass index (r=0.489, p<0.001), levels of total cholesterol (r=0.204, p=0.045), triglyceride (r=0.334, p=0.001) and apolipoprotein B (r=0.212, p=0.038). PCI was performed in 59 patients (60.2%). In-hospital and 30-day MACE were higher in Group II than Group I (2.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.008; 2.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.008). Multivariate analysis revealed that the value of HOMA-IR ≥2.6 was an independent predictor of MACE. Increased HOMA-IR level is an important prognostic indicator in non-diabetic patients underwent PCI.
PMCID: PMC2733993  PMID: 16614503
Coronary Disease; Insulin; Prognosis; Angioplasty
20.  Prediction of short-term clinical outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome through myeloperoxidase levels 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(2):100-106.
The present study assessed the significance of troponin and myeloperoxidase levels in the prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during the 1st month after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
This prospective, longitudinal study included 100 patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent PCI. The participants’ characteristics were recorded in a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained before and 24 h after PCI, and troponin, and myeloperoxidase levels were measured. During the 1st month after PCI, death, myocardial reinfarction, and revascularization during admission were investigated through weekly phone calls. The value of troponin and myeloperoxidase levels before and after PCI in predicting MACE was evaluated using Cox regression.
Considering the obtained methods and the short duration of the study, 99% of the patients completed the study. Moreover, one death and four cases of myocardial infarction and revascularization were reported. Cox regression did not show significant relations between the incidence of MACE and myeloperoxidase levels before (hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.9, 1.39) and after PCI (hazard ratio = 0.86; 95% confidence interval = 0.43, 1.71), or troponin levels before (hazard ratio = 0.97; 95% confidence interval = 0.81, 1.17) and after PCI (hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 1.11).
It seems that the few cases of MACE, due to the small sample size and short duration of follow-up, had been insufficient for determining the predictive value of troponin and myeloperoxidase levels before and after PCI. Therefore, further studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up duration are recommended.
PMCID: PMC4144374  PMID: 25161678
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Acute Coronary Syndrome; Major Adverse Cardiac Events; Myeloperoxidase
21.  High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e113352.
Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.
We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment.
Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious.
High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for patients with acute coronary syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4256370  PMID: 25473831
22.  Prognostic Value of Plasma Pentraxin-3 Levels in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:963096.
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory marker thought to be more specific to cardiovascular inflammation than C-reactive protein (CRP). Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of PTX3 in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) after drug eluting stent (DES) implantation. Plasma PTX3 levels were measured before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and at 24 h post-PCI in 596 consecutive patients with stable CAD. Patients were followed up for a median of 3 years (range 1–5) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). We found that the post-PCI plasma PTX3 levels were significantly higher at 24 h after PCI than pre-PCI, patients with MACEs had higher post-PCI PTX3 levels compared with MACEs-free patients, patients with higher post-PCI PTX3 levels (median > 4.384 ng/mL) had a higher risk for MACEs than those with PTX3 < 4.384 ng/mL, and post-PCI PTX3, cTnI, multiple stents, and age but not high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) were independently associated with the prevalence of MACEs after DES implantation. The present study shows that post-PCI PTX3 may be a more reliable inflammatory predictor of long-term MACEs in patients with stable CAD undergoing DES implantation than CRP. Measurement of post-PCI PTX3 levels could provide a rationale for risk stratification of patients with stable CAD after DES implantation.
PMCID: PMC4265374  PMID: 25538378
23.  Impact of the introduction of drug eluting stents on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous and surgical coronary artery revascularisation procedures in Western Australia 
Increasing rates of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and decreasing rates of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery followed the introduction of drug eluting stents in Western Australia in 2002. We assessed the impact of these changes on one-year outcomes for the total population of patients undergoing coronary artery revascularisation procedures (CARP) in Western Australia between 2000-2004.
Clinical and linked administrative data (inpatient admissions and death) were merged for all patients who had their first CARP with stent or CABG in Western Australia between 2000-2004. The clinical data were collected from all hospitals in Western Australia where CARP procedures are performed. We calculated the unadjusted (Kaplan-Meier) and adjusted (Cox) risks for one-year death (all-cause), death (all-cause) or admission for myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularisation (TVR) and the composite outcome of death/MI/TVR (major adverse cardiac events, MACE).
Over the study period, there were 14,118 index CARPs. The use of drug eluting stents increased from 0% to 95.8% of PCI procedures, and PCI procedures increased from 61.1% to 74.4% of all CARPS. There were no temporal changes in adjusted one-year mortality or death/MI. Overall, adjusted one-year MACE fell from 11.3% in 2000 to 8.5% in 2004 (p<0.0001) due to a significant reduction in TVR in the PCI group.
The introduction of drug eluting stents and resulting changes in coronary revascularisation strategies were not associated with changes in the one-year risk of major clinical endpoints (death or death/MI), but were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of MACE, driven entirely by a reduction in TVR after PCI. This real world study supports the effectiveness of drug eluting stents in reducing repeat procedures in the total CARP population without increasing the risk of death or MI.
PMCID: PMC3704943  PMID: 23826870
Coronary artery disease; Coronary revascularisation; Clinical outcome; Population study; Drug eluting stents; Percutaneous coronary intervention
24.  Persistent hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of outcome in acute myocardial infarction 
Elevated blood glucose values are a prognostic factor in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The unfavourable relation between hyperglycemia and outcome is known for admission glucose and fasting glucose after admission. These predictors are single measurements and thus not indicative of overall hyperglycemia. Increased persistent hyperglycemia may better predict adverse events in MI patients.
In a prospective study of MI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) frequent blood glucose measurements were obtained to investigate the relation between glucose and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days follow-up. MACE was defined as death, recurrent infarction, repeat primary coronary intervention, and left ventricular ejection fraction equal to or smaller than 30%.
MACE occurred in 89 (21.3%) out 417 patients. In 17 patients (4.1%) it was a fatal event. A mean of 7.4 glucose determinations were available per patient. Mean +/- SD admission glucose was 10.1 +/- 3.7 mmol/L in patients with a MACE versus 9.1 +/- 2.7 mmol/L in event-free patients (P = 0.0024). Mean glucose during the first two days after admission was 9.0 +/- 2.8 mmol/L in patients with MACE compared to 8.1 +/- 2.0 mmol/L in event free patients (P < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.64 for persistent hyperglycemia and 0.59 for admission glucose. Persistent hyperglycemia emerged as a significant independent predictor (P < 0.001).
Persistent hyperglycemia in MI has a stronger relation with 30-day MACE than elevated glucose at admission.
PMCID: PMC1802732  PMID: 17284309
25.  Comorbid Conditions and Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Heart (British Cardiac Society)  2007;94(11):1424-1428.
To evaluate whether adding comorbid conditions to a risk model can help predict in-hospital outcome and long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Retrospective chart review
Academic medical center.
7,659 patients who had 9,032 PCIs.
PCI performed at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2004.
Main Outcome Measures
The Mayo Clinic Risk Score (MCRS) and the coronary artery disease (CAD)-specific index for determination of comorbid conditions in all patients.
The mean MCRS score was 6.5±2.9. The CAD-specific index was 0 or 1 in 46%, 2 or 3 in 30%, and 4 or higher in 23%. The rate of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) increased with higher MCRS and CAD-specific index (Cochran-Armitage test, P<.001 for both models). The c-statistic for the MCRS for in-hospital MACE was 0.78; adding the CAD-specific index did not improve its discriminatory ability for in-hospital MACE (c-statistic=0.78; likelihood ratio test, P=.29). A total of 707 postdismissal deaths occurred after 7,253 successful procedures. The c-statistic for all-cause mortality was 0.69 for the MCRS model alone and 0.75 for the MCRS and CAD-specific indices together (likelihood ratio test, P<.001), indicating significant improvement in the discriminatory ability.
Addition of comorbid conditions to the MCRS adds significant prognostic information for postdismissal mortality but adds little prognostic information about in-hospital complications after PCI. Such health-status measures should be included in future risk stratification models that predict long-term mortality after PCI.
PMCID: PMC2731585  PMID: 17923464
angioplasty; comorbid conditions; complications; mortality; prognosis; risk factors

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