This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast milk and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. We used the biological anti-oxidant potential test, a new method to measure TAC in breast milk. Breast milk for premature infants were stored at −20°C and thawed within 48 h of collection. We measured TAC in two types of formula milk in the same way. TAC was clearly higher in breast milk than formula milk. Although a negative correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and age when collected, TAC was always higher than the average TAC in formula milk. TAC in breast milk is higher than TAC in formula milk. We suggest the importance of breast milk for preventing oxidative stress and starting breastfeeding early.
breast milk; total antioxidant capacity; premature infant
Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit’s typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change.
In developed countries, care and treatment are available for pregnant women and infants that can decrease the rate of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to 2% or less. The paediatrician has a key role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 by identifying HIV-exposed infants whose mothers’ HIV infection was not diagnosed before delivery, prescribing antiretroviral prophylaxis for these infants to decrease the risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection, and promoting avoidance of HIV-1 transmission through human milk. In addition, the paediatrician can provide care for HIV-exposed infants by monitoring them for early determination of HIV-1 infection status and for possible short- and long-term toxicities of antiretroviral exposure, providing chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia, and supporting families living with HIV-1 infection by providing counselling to parents or caregivers.
Antiretroviral; Diagnosis; HIV-1; HIV-exposed infants; Mother-to-child transmission
Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the event of an emergency. Exclusive and continued breastfeeding should be promoted as an emergency preparedness activity by emergency management organisations as well as health authorities. The greater the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed when an emergency occurs, the more resilient the community, and the easier it will be to provide effective aid to the caregivers of formula fed infants.
disasters; emergencies; infant formula; artificial feeding; breastfeeding; emergency preparedness
Our aim was to develop guidance for general paediatricians and primary care physicians in diagnosing and managing cow's milk protein allergy in infants. The guidelines were developed by discussion based on existing national recommendations and standards, clinical experience and, whenever possible, evidence from the literature. Separate algorithms cover breast‐fed and formula‐fed infants. The recommendations emphasise the importance of comprehensive history taking and careful physical examination. Patients with severe symptoms need to be referred to a specialist. Elimination of cow's milk protein from the infant's or mother's diet and challenges are the gold standard for diagnosis. This guidance is intended as a basis for local discussion, implementation and prospective evaluation. The algorithms should be regularly assessed using clinical audit standards. Once validated, the diagnostic framework could provide a standardised approach in epidemiological and therapeutic studies.
AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment.
METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In a second phase an observational, prospective and multicentre study was conducted and 2069 milk-fed infants with mild gastrointestinal disorders (colic, constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea) were included. There was a baseline visit (start of treatment) and a final visit four weeks later. The effectiveness of the various Novalac formulas, as well as the satisfaction of the parents/tutors and paediatricians with the dietetic treatment were assessed at the final visit.
RESULTS: The prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders was 27.8% of all paediatrician consultations (9.2%, 7.8%, 6.1% and 4.6% in relation to colic, constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea, respectively). The several Novalac adapted milk formulas resolved 88.4% of the mild gastrointestinal disorders. Depending on the type of disorder, differences in response rate were observed. The highest effectiveness was recorded with respect to diarrhoea (92.6%), followed by constipation (91.6%), colic (87.6%) and regurgitation (81%). Overall, 91% of the paediatricians and 88.8% of the parents/tutors were satisfied or very satisfied with the Novalac adapted milk formulas.
CONCLUSION: Mild gastrointestinal disorders show a high prevalence in paediatric practice. The Novalac adapted milk formulas have been shown to be effective in treating mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in the context of routine clinical practice.
Mild gastrointestinal disorders; Prevalence; Adapted infant formulas; Effectiveness; Satisfaction
The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding.
The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food.
There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.
Background & Methods
To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of temperament derived from 14 subscales. Infant temperament scores were related to mode of infant milk feeding at age 3 months (breast only; formula milk only; or mixed) with adjustment for infant's age at assessment and an index of deprivation.
Infant temperament dimension scores differed across the three infant feeding groups, but appeared to be comparable between exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. Compared to formula milk-fed infants, exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants were rated as having lower impulsivity and positive responses to stimulation (adjusted mean [95% CI] “Surgency/Extraversion” in formula-fed vs. mixed-fed vs. breast-fed groups: 4.3 [4.2–4.5] vs. 4.0 [3.8–4.1] vs. 4.0 [3.9–4.1]; p-heterogeneity = 0.0006), lower ability to regulate their own emotions (“Orienting/Regulation”: 5.1 [5.0–5.2], vs. 4.9 [4.8–5.1] vs. 4.9 [4.8–5.0]; p = 0.01), and higher emotional instability (“Negative affectivity”: 2.8 [2.6–2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.8–3.1] vs. 3.0 [2.9–3.1]; p = 0.03).
Breast and mixed-fed infants were rated by their mothers as having more challenging temperaments in all three dimensions; particular subscales included greater distress, less smiling, laughing, and vocalisation, and lower soothability. Increased awareness of the behavioural dynamics of breastfeeding, a better expectation of normal infant temperament and support to cope with difficult infant temperament could potentially help to promote successful breastfeeding.
National legislation in Pakistan adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in 2002 to restrict the promotion of infant formula feeding. Our objectives were to assess health professionals' awareness of this law in urban government hospitals and describe their reports of violations, including receiving free samples, gifts and sponsorship.
Structured interviews were conducted with health staff between July and August 2006 at 12 urban government hospitals in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar including paediatricians, obstetricians, nurses, resident doctors, midwives and lady health visitors (LHVs).
Of the 427 health workers interviewed, the majority were not aware of the national breastfeeding law (70.5%; n = 301) or the International Code (79.6%; n = 340). Paediatricians, and staff who had been working for 10 years or more, were more likely to be aware of the law [OR = 7.00, 95% CI 3.12, 15.7 (paediatricians); OR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.45, 4.24 (10 years working)].
More than one third (38.4%, n = 164) had received small gifts such as pens, pencils and calendars; 12.4% (n = 53) had received sponsorship for training or conferences; and 15.9% (n = 68) had received free samples of infant formula from the Companies. Staff who were aware of the law were also more likely to report receiving gifts (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08, 2.51) and free samples (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.19).
Most hospital health professionals were unaware of national breastfeeding legislation in Pakistan, and infant formula companies were continuing to flout the ban on gifts, free samples and sponsorship for health staff.
Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life.
The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed.
Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001).
This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes.
The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (WHO Code) aims to protect and promote breastfeeding. Japan ratified the WHO Code in 1994, but most hospitals in Japan continue to receive free supplies of infant formula and distribute discharge packs to new mothers provided by infant formula companies. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan to the WHO Code.
A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 132 pediatricians in the 131 NICUs which belonged to the Neonatal Network of Japan, and to 96 chief obstetricians in the general hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan, in 2004.
Responses were received from 68% of pediatricians and 64% of obstetricians. Sixty-six percent of pediatricians agreed that "Breastmilk is the best", compared to only 13% of obstetricians. Likewise, pediatricians were more likely to be familiar with the WHO Code (51%) than obstetricians (18%).
In Japan, pediatricians and obstetricians, in general, have low levels of support for breastfeeding and low levels of familiarity with the WHO Code. To increase the breastfeeding rates in Japan, both pediatricians and obstetricians need increased knowledge about current infant feeding practices and increased awareness of international policies to promote breastfeeding.
Whether breast milk influences later neurodevelopment has been explored in non-randomised studies, potentially confounded by social and demographic differences between feed groups. Here in a strictly randomised prospective multicentre trial, Bayley psychomotor and mental development indices (PDI and MDI) were assessed at 18 months postterm in survivors of 502 preterm infants assigned to receive, during their early weeks, mature donor breast milk or a preterm formula. These diets were compared as sole enteral feeds or as supplements to the mother's expressed breast milk. No differences in outcome at 18 months were seen between the two diet groups despite the low nutrient content of donor milk in relation to the preterm formula and to the estimated needs of preterm infants. These results contrast with those reported from our parallel two centre study that compared infants randomly assigned a standard term formula or the preterm formula during their early weeks; those fed standard formula, now regarded as nutritionally insufficient for preterm infants, were substantially disadvantaged in PDI and MDI at 18 months post-term. It is shown here that infants from that study fed solely on standard formula had significantly lower developmental scores at 18 months than those fed on donor breast milk in the present study; yet the standard formula had a higher nutrient content than the donor milk. Thus, donor milk feeding was associated with advantages for later development that may have offset any potentially deleterious effects of its low nutrient content for preterm infants. As these outcome advantages were not confounded by the social and educational biases usually associated with mothers' choice to breast feed, our data add significant support to the view that breast milk promotes neurodevelopment.
During the 5-year period 1973--77 there was a considerable change in infant feeding practice (the use of low solute cows' milk formulae instead of high solute formulae and the later introduction of solid foods into the diet) which should have led to a reduced incidence of hypernatraemia among infants admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis. We have compared the incidence of hypernatraemia in such infants admitted during three 12-month periods between January 1973 and December 1977. Our results show there was such a reduction; they also show that hypernatraemia did not occur in infants fed a low solute milk formula alone.
Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.
Design. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups by the second week of life. One group was assigned to be fed a milk-based formula (Enfamil), whereas another was assigned to be fed (Nutramigen), a particularly unpleasant-tasting protein hydrolysate formula. The remaining groups were assigned to be fed Nutramigen for 3 months and Enfamil for 4 months; the timing of exposure differed between the groups. After 7 months of exposure, infants were videotaped on 3 separate days while feeding, in counterbalanced order, Enfamil, Nutramigen, and Alimentum, a novel hydrolysate formula.
Results. For each of the 4 interrelated measures of behavior (intake, duration of formula feeding, facial expressions, and mothers’ judgments of infant acceptance), previous exposure to Nutramigen significantly enhanced subsequent acceptance of both Nutramigen and Alimentum. Seven months of exposure led to greater acceptance than did 3 months.
Conclusions. The bases for clinical difficulties in introducing hydrolysate formulas during older infancy are clarified in this study. More broadly, variation in formula flavor provided a useful model for demonstrating experimentally the effects of long-term exposure differences on later acceptance. Such early variation, under more species-typical circumstances (eg, via exposure to different flavors in amniotic fluid and mothers’ milk), may underlie individual differences in food acceptability throughout the life span. Pediatrics 2004;113:840–845; protein hydrolysate, formula, taste, flavor, infants, programming, development, nutrition.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of maternal diet during lactation and the use of formula feeds on the development of atopic eczema in infants at risk. DESIGN--Mothers who planned to breast feed exclusively were randomly allocated to either a restricted diet (avoiding milk and other dairy products, eggs, fish, peanuts, and soybeans) or a diet without restrictions. Mothers who did not plan to breast feed were randomly allocated to using one of three formula feeds. SETTING--Child health centre in Canada. SUBJECTS--97 Mothers who chose to breast feed and 124 mothers who did not. INTERVENTIONS--Restricted diet for 49 mothers who breast fed. Casein hydrolysate formula, soy milk formula, or cows' milk formula for infants not breast fed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Development of eczema in babies. RESULTS--Infants were followed up over 18 months and examined for eczema. Eczema was less common and milder in babies who were breast fed and whose mothers were on a restricted diet (11/49 (22%) v 21/48 (48%)). In infants fed casein hydrolysate, soy milk, or cows' milk 9/43 (21%), 26/41 (63%), and 28/40 (70%), respectively, developed atopic eczema. CONCLUSIONS--In families with a history of atopic disease [corrected] mothers who breast feed should avoid common allergenic foods during lactation. If they choose not to breast feed a hydrolysate formula should be used.
Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.
Aim of the study
To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.
A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12.
Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9–30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3–119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1–15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P < 0.001) per unit increase in milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P < 0.001).
Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.
Lutein; Human milk; Infant formula; Serum; Bioavailability
In a randomised double blind trial, the effect on growth and clinical status of a nutrient enriched 'post-discharge' milk formula versus a standard term formula, was compared in 32 exclusively bottle fed preterm infants. The formulas were used as the sole milk intake up to a postnatal age of 9 months. Significant increases in linear growth and weight gain were observed in the infants who received the enriched diet. There were no differences in vomiting, posseting, or bowel habit between the groups. Formula volumes ingested were similar between diet groups, indicating that the difference in formula composition did not affect the infants' regulation of intake. These preliminary data suggest that there is a role for specially designed formulas for preterm infants after discharge from hospital.
Plasma amino acids were measured in 35 preterm infants, of whom 11 weighed less than 1000 g and 24 weighed between 1000 g and 1500 g at the time of sampling. Repeat samples were obtained in 18 at least seven days later. Seventeen infants were fed with preterm formula milk and 18 with expressed maternal breast milk at one to two hourly intervals during the study period. Formula fed infants gained weight faster than those fed on breast milk but there was little difference in amino acid patterns. Infants fed on breast milk were more likely to have concentrations of essential amino acids below the mid trimester fetal range than formula fed infants, but few infants in either feeding group had values above the fetal range. Those that did were equally distributed between both groups. Only two samples approached toxic concentrations, both in the group fed breast milk. The ratio of branched chain to aromatic amino acids was higher in the group fed on formula after correction for post conceptional age, implying that liver maturation may be accelerated by formula feeding. No correlations were found between plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen retention or metabolisable energy intake.
Few data from randomised prospective studies address whether early diet influences later neurodevelopment in man. As part of a larger multicentre trial, 502 low birthweight infants were assigned randomly, for a median of 30 days, to receive a preterm formula or unfortified donor breast milk as sole diets or as supplements to their mothers' expressed milk. Surviving infants were assessed at nine months after their expected date of delivery without knowledge of their feeding regimen. The mean developmental quotient was 0.25 standard deviations lower in those fed donor breast milk rather than preterm formula. In infants fed their mother's expressed milk, however, the disadvantage of receiving banked milk compared with preterm formula as a supplement, was greater when the supplement was over half the total intake, and approached five points, representing 0.5 standard deviations for developmental quotient. Infants fed donor breast milk were at particular disadvantage following fetal growth retardation, with developmental quotients 5.3 points lower. We suggest that the diet used for low birthweight babies over a brief, but perhaps critical, postnatal period has developmental consequences that persist into infancy; infants who are small for gestational age are especially vulnerable to suboptimal postnatal nutrition.
Background and Objective
Intestinal permeability in preterm infants represents a critical balance between absorption of nutritional agents and protection from dangerous pathogens. This study identified the relationship between feeding type (human milk and formula) and intestinal permeability as measured by lactulose to mannitol ratio in preterm infants in the first postnatal month.
Sixty-two preterm (≤32 weeks of gestation) infants had assessment of feeding type and evaluation with enteral lactulose and mannitol administration and urinary measurement at three time points in the first postnatal month.
Infants who received the majority of feeding as human milk (>75%) demonstrated significantly lower intestinal permeability when compared to infants receiving minimal or no human milk (<25% or none) at postnatal days 7, 14, and 30 (p = 0.02, 0.02, and 0.047, respectively). When infants receiving any human milk were compared to infants receiving formula only, a significant difference existed at day 7 and day 14 but not for day 30 (p = 0.04, 0.02, and 0.15, respectively). With evaluation over the complete study period, exclusively formula-fed infants demonstrated a 2.8-fold higher composite median lactulose/mannitol ratio when compared with those who received any human milk. Infants who received >75% of enteral feeding as mother's milk demonstrated a 3.8-fold lower composite median ratio when compared to infants receiving <25% or no mother's milk.
Preterm infant intestinal permeability was significantly decreased for those receiving human milk versus formula in a dose-related manner in the first postnatal month.
In a double blind study, 40 infants with cows' milk intolerance of various causes were randomised to receive a nutritionally complete formula in which nitrogen was supplied either as whey hydrolysate or amino acids. The median age of infants was 10 weeks (range 36 weeks' gestation to 108 weeks' postnatal age). After a median follow up period of 25 weeks there was no significant difference in dietary intake between the formulas. Twenty four weeks after entry, weight and weight for length improved equally on both formulas. Plasma albumin improved significantly on the hydrolysed whey formula but not in the amino acid group. Both milks were palatable and normal intakes of formula were maintained. Biochemical and haematological indices remained within normal limits. There was no difference in stool frequency and vomiting between the two formulas. Two infants developed a probable allergic colitis while receiving hydrolysed whey. Amino acid formula may have a role in the management of atopic infants with severe cows' milk intolerance who have already reacted to whey or casein hydrolysate formula.
Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.
Human milk and two infant formula feeds were tested for antiviral and antibacterial activity before being given to 21 low birthweight (LBW) infants; neither was present. When samples were aspirated from the stomachs of the infants within one to three hours of feeding, however, they reduced titres of enveloped virus and also killed both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. The lipid fraction of the gastric aspirate from an infant who had been given human milk as well as those from four infants who had been given a conventional LBW infant formula feed, showed antiviral and antibacterial activities at least equal to the activities of the unfractionated aspirates. There was no consistent difference in antiviral or antibacterial activity of either the stomach aspirates or the lipid fractions of these aspirates between infants given human milk and those given formula feeds. The antiviral and antibacterial activities of the gastric aspirates seem to result from intragastric production of monoglycerides and fatty acids from the triglyceride content of the ingested feeds.
It is universally accepted that breast milk is the optimum exclusive source of nutrition for the first six months of life, and may remain part of the healthy infant diet for the first two years of life and beyond. Despite advances in infant formulas, human breast milk provides a bioactive matrix of benefits that cannot be replicated by any other source of nutrition. When the mother’s own milk is unavailable for the sick, hospitalized newborn, pasteurized human donor breast milk should be made available as an alternative feeding choice followed by commercial formula. There is a limited supply of donor breast milk in Canada and it should be prioritized to sick, hospitalized neonates who are the most vulnerable and most likely to benefit from exclusive human milk feeding.
Breast milk; Human donor breast milk; Human milk banking; Preterm infant
The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance.
Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography.
Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling.
The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems may be of clinical importance. For infants who rely solely on bottle feeds there may be increased risk of deficiency. Bottle shape, size, and venting should be considered.