Systemic spread of viruses in plants involves local movement from cell to cell and long-distance transport through the vascular system. The cell-to-cell movement of the Beet yellows virus (BYV) is mediated by a movement protein that is an Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h). This protein is required for the assembly of movement-competent virions that incorporate Hsp70h. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, and in planta coexpression approaches, we show here that the Hsp70h interacts with a 20-kDa BYV protein (p20). We further demonstrate that p20 is associated with the virions presumably via binding to Hsp70h. Genetic and immunochemical analyses indicate that p20 is dispensable for assembly and cell-to-cell movement of BYV but is required for the long-distance transport of virus through the phloem. These results reveal a novel activity for the Hsp70h that provides a molecular link between the local and systemic spread of a plant virus by docking a long-distance transport factor to virions.
The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
The Hsp70 chaperone plays a central role in multiple processes within cells, including protein translation, folding, intracellular trafficking, and degradation. This protein is implicated in the replication of numerous viruses. We have shown that rabies virus infection induced the cellular expression of Hsp70, which accumulated in Negri body-like structures, where viral transcription and replication take place. In addition, Hsp70 is present in both nucleocapsids purified from infected cells and in purified virions. Hsp70 has been shown to interact with the nucleoprotein N. The downregulation of Hsp70, using specific chaperone inhibitors, such as quercetin or RNA interference, resulted in a significant decrease of the amount of viral mRNAs, viral proteins, and virus particles. These results indicate that Hsp70 has a proviral function during rabies virus infection and suggest that Hsp70 is involved in at least one stage(s) of the viral life cycle, such as viral transcription, translation, and/or production. The mechanism by which Hsp70 controls viral infection will be discussed.
Actin and small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous and multifaceted proteins that exist in 2 reversible forms, monomers and multimers, ie, the microfilament of the cytoskeleton and oligomers of the sHsps, generally, supposed to be in a spherical and hollow form. Two situations are described in the literature, where the properties of actin are modulated by sHsps; the actin polymerization is inhibited in vitro by some sHsps acting as capping proteins, and the actin cytoskeleton is protected by some sHsps against the disruption induced by various stressful conditions. We propose that a direct actin-sHsp interaction occurs to inhibit actin polymerization and to participate in the in vivo regulation of actin filament dynamics. Protection of the actin cytoskeleton would result from an F-actin–sHsp interaction in which microfilaments would be coated by small oligomers of phosphorylated sHsps. Both proteins share common structural motives suggesting direct binding sites, but they remain to be demonstrated. Some sHsps would behave with the actin cytoskeleton as actin-binding proteins capable of either capping a microfilament when present as a nonphosphorylated monomer or stabilizing and protecting the microfilament when organized in small, phosphorylated oligomers.
Filamentous virions of Beet yellows virus contain a long body formed by a major capsid protein and a short tail that is assembled by a minor capsid protein (CPm), an Hsp70-homolog (Hsp70h), a 64-kDa protein (p64), and a 20-kDa protein (p20). Using mutation analysis and newly developed in planta assays, here we investigate the genetic requirements for the tail assembly. We show that the inactivation of CPm dramatically reduces incorporation of both Hsp70h and p64. Furthermore, inactivation of Hsp70h prevents incorporation of p64 into virions and vice versa. Hsp70h and p64 are each required for efficient incorporation of CPm. We also show that the tails possessing normal relative amounts of CPm, Hsp70h, and p64 can be formed in the absence of the major capsid protein and p20. Similar to the tails isolated from the wild type virions, these mutant tails encapsidate the ~700 nt-long, 5’-terminal segments of the viral RNA. Taken together, our results imply that CPm, Hsp70h and p64 act cooperatively to encapsidate a defined region of the closterovirus genome.
Virus assembly; helical virion; Closterovirus; Hsp70
Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy have been used to study the intracellular distributions of the major heat shock proteins, hsp 89, hsp 70, and hsp 24, in chicken embryo fibroblasts stressed by heat shock, allowed to recover and then restressed. Hsp 89 was localized primarily to the cytoplasm except during the restress when a portion of this protein concentrated in the nuclear region. Under all conditions, hsp 89 was readily extracted from cells by detergent. During stress and restress, significant amounts of hsp 70 moved to the nucleus and became resistant to detergent extraction. Some of this hsp 70 was released from the insoluble form in an ATP-dependent reaction. Hsp 24 was confined to the cytoplasm and, during restress, aggregated to detergent-insoluble perinuclear phase-dense granules. These granules dissociated during recovery and hsp 24 could be solubilized by detergent. The nuclear hsps reappeared in the cytoplasm in cells allowed to recover at normal temperatures. Sodium arsenite also induces hsps and their distributions were similar to that observed after a heat shock, except for hsp 89, which remained cytoplasmic. We also examined by immunofluorescence the cytoskeletal systems of chicken embryo fibroblasts subjected to heat shock and found no gross morphological changes in cytoplasmic microfilaments or microtubules. However, the intermediate filament network was very sensitive and collapsed around the nucleus very shortly after a heat shock. The normal intermediate filament morphology reformed when cells were allowed to recover from the stress. Inclusion of actinomycin D during the heat shock--a condition that prevents synthesis of the hsps--did not affect the intermediate filament collapse, but recovery of the normal morphology did not occur. We suggest that an hsp(s) may aid in the formation of the intermediate filament network after stress.
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was identified as a cellular interaction partner of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. The biological significance of the interaction between Hsp70 and RNP has not been fully investigated.
Here we demonstrated that Hsp70 was involved in the regulation of influenza A viral transcription and replication. It was found that Hsp70 was associated with viral RNP by directly interacting with the PB1 and PB2 subunits, and the ATPase domain of Hsp70 was required for the association. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Hsp70 was translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus in infected cells. Then we found that Hsp70 negatively regulated the expression of viral proteins in infected cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcription and replication of all eight viral segments were significantly reduced in Hsp70 overexpressed cells and greatly increased as Hsp70 was knocked down by RNA interference. Luciferase assay showed that overexpression of Hsp70 could inhibit the viral RNP activity on both vRNA and cRNA promoters. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that Hsp70 interfered with the integrity of RNP. Furthermore, delivered Hsp70 could inhibit the replication of influenza A virus in mice.
Our study indicated that Hsp70 interacted with PB1 and PB2 of RNP and could interfere with the integrity of RNP and block the virus replication in vitro and in vivo possibly through disrupting the binding of viral polymerase with viral RNA.
The behavior of the endogenous heat shock protein 25 (Hsp25) in heat-stressed rat H9c2 myoblasts was studied. After mild or severe heating, this protein became less extractable with Triton X-100 and displayed characteristic immunofluorescence patterns, namely (1) granules in the nucleus, and (2) association with F-actin bundles in the cytoplasm. The intranuclear granulation of Hsp25 and its association with F-actin were sensitive to drugs affecting Hsp25 phosphorylation (cantharidin, sodium orthovanadate, SB203580, SB202190). Isoform analysis of Hsp25 translocated to the nucleus-free cytoskeletal fraction revealed only mono- and biphosphorylated Hsp25 and no unphosphorylated Hsp25. Transfected luciferase with initial localization in the nucleosol became colocalized with the Hsp25-containing granules after a heat shock treatment that denatured the enzyme in the cells. The association of Hsp25 with actin filaments after a mild heat stress conferred protection from subsequent F-actin–damaging treatments with cytochalasins (D and B) or severe heat stress. We hypothesize that (1) the binding of heat-denatured nucleosolic proteins to the Hsp25 contained in specific granular structures may serve for the subsequent chaperoning or degradation of the bound proteins, and (2) the actin cytoskeleton is stabilized by the direct targeting of phosphorylated Hsp25 to microfilament bundles.
Many viruses and bacteriophage utilize chaperone systems for DNA replication and viral morphogenesis. We have previously shown that in the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cell nucleus, foci enriched in the Hsp70/Hsp40 chaperone machinery are formed adjacent to viral replication compartments (A. D. Burch and S. K. Weller, J. Virol. 78:7175-7185, 2004). These foci have now been named virus-induced chaperone-enriched (VICE) foci. Since the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is known to engage the Hsp70/Hsp40 system in eukaryotes, the subcellular localization of Hsp90 in HSV-1-infected cells was analyzed. Hsp90 is found within viral replication compartments as well as in the Hsp70/Hsp40-enriched foci. Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, results in decreased HSV-1 yields and blocks viral DNA synthesis. Furthermore, we have found that the viral DNA polymerase is mislocalized to the cytoplasm in both infected and transfected cells in the presence of geldanamycin. Additionally, in the presence of an Hsp90 inhibitor, proteasome-dependent degradation of the viral polymerase was detected by Western blot analysis. These data identify the HSV-1 polymerase as a putative client protein of the Hsp90 chaperone system. Perturbations in this association appear to result in degradation, aberrant folding, and/or intracellular localization of the viral polymerase.
Human heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1)/heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 is a small heat shock protein which is thought to have several roles within the cell. One of these roles includes regulating actin filament dynamics in cell movement, since Hsp27 has previously been found to inhibit actin polymerization in vitro. In this study, the role of Hsp27 in regulating actin filament dynamics is further investigated. Hsp27 protein levels were reduced using siRNA in SW480 cells, a human colon cancer cell line. An in vitro wound closure assay showed that cells with knocked down Hsp27 levels were unable to close wounds, indicating that this protein is involved in regulating cell motility. Immunoprecipitation pull down assays were done, to observe if and when Hsp27 and actin are in the same complex within the cell, before and after heat shock. At all time points tested, Hsp27 and actin were present in the same cell lysate fraction. Lastly, indirect immunostaining was done before and after heat shock to evaluate Hsp27 and actin interaction in cells. Hsp27 and actin showed colocalization before heat shock, little association 3 h after heat shock, and increased association 24 h after heat shock. Cytoprotection was observed as early as 3 h after heat shock, yet cells were still able to move. These results show that Hsp27 and actin are in the same complex in cells and that Hsp27 is important for cell motility.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0098-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Hsp27; Actin; Cell motility; Heat shock; Cancer
Although several factors participating in enterovirus 71 (EV71) entry and replication had been reported, the precise mechanisms associated with these events are far from clear. In the present study, we showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key element associated with EV71 entry and replication in a human rhabdomyosarcoma of RD cells. Inhibition of HSP90 by pretreating host cells with HSP90β siRNA or blocking HSP90 with a HSP90-specific antibody or geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of HSP90, as well as recombinant HSP90β resulted in inhibiting viral entry and subsequent viral replication. Co-immunprecipitation of EV71 with recombinant HSP90β and colocalization of EV71-HSP90 in the cells demonstrated that HSP90 was physically associated with EV71 particles. HSP90 seems to mediate EV71 replication by preventing proteosomal degradation of the newly synthesized capsid proteins, but does not facilitate viral gene expression at transcriptional level. This was evident by post-treatment of host cells with GA, which did not affect the expression of viral transcripts but accelerated the degradation of viral capsid proteins and interfered with the formation of assembled virions. In vivo studies were carried out using human SCARB2-transgenic mice to evaluate the protection conferred by HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an analog of geldanamycin, that elicited similar activity but with less toxicity. The results showed that the administration of 17-AAG twice conferred the resistance to hSCARB2 mice challenged with C2, C4, and B4 genotypes of EV71. Our data supports HSP90 plays an important role in EV71 infection. Targeting of HSP90 with clinically available drugs might provide a feasible therapeutic approach to treat EV71 infection.
Plasmodesmata (PD) are the communication channels which allow the trafficking of macromolecules between neighboring cells. Such cell-to-cell movement of macromolecules is regulated during plant growth and development; however, little is known about the regulation mechanism of PD size exclusion limit (SEL). Plant viral movement proteins (MPs) enhance the invasion of viruses from cell to cell by increasing the SEL of the PD and are therefore a powerful means for the study of the plasmodesmal regulation mechanisms. In a recent study, we reported that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the increase of the PD SEL induced by MPs. Microinjection experiments demonstrated that actin depolymerization was required for the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) MP-induced increase in the PD SEL. In vitro experiments showed that CMV MP severs actin filaments (F-actin). Furthermore, through the analyses of two CMV MP mutants, we demonstrated that the F-actin severing ability of CMV MP was required to increase the PD SEL. These results are similar to what has been found in Tobacco mosaic virus MP. Thus, our data suggest that actin dynamics may participate in the regulations of the PD SEL.
plasmodesmata; size exclusion limit; movement protein; actin filaments; F-actin severing
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 and peptide complexes (eHSP70/HSP70-PCs) regulate a variety of biological behaviors in tumor cells. Whether eHSP70/HSP70-PCs are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells remains unclear.
To determine the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on EMT of hepatocarcinoma cells.
The expressions of E-cadherin, HSP70, α-smooth muscle actin protein (α-SMA) and p-p38 were detected immunohistochemically in liver cancer samples. Immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time RT-PCR methods were used to analyze the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on the expressions of E-cadherin, α-SMA and p38/MAPK in vivo.
HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 were elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. The expression of HSP70 was positively correlated with malignant differentiated liver carcinoma. The expressions of HSP70, α-SMA and p-p38 correlated with recurrence-free survival after resection. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs significantly promoted the expressions of α-SMA and p-p38 and reduced the expressions of E-cadherin in vivo. The effect was inhibited by SB203580.
The expressions of HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 may represent indicators of malignant potential and could discriminate the malignant degree of liver cancer. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs play an important role in the EMT of hepatocellular carcinoma via the p38/MAPK pathway.
The yeast AAA+ chaperone Hsp104 is essential for the development of thermotolerance and for the inheritance of prions. Recently, Hsp104, together with the actin cytoskeleton, has been implicated in the asymmetric distribution of carbonylated proteins. Here, we investigated the interplay between Hsp104 and actin by using a dominant-negative variant of Hsp104 (HAP/ClpP) that degrades substrate proteins instead of remodeling them. Coexpression of HAP/ClpP causes defects in morphology and the actin cytoskeleton. Taking a candidate approach, we identified Spa2, a member of the polarisome complex, as an Hsp104 substrate. Furthermore, we provided genetic evidence that links Spa2 and Hsp104 to Hof1, a member of the cytokinesis machinery. Spa2 and Hof1 knockout cells are affected in the asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins, suggesting that Hsp104, Spa2, and Hof1 are members of a network controlling the inheritance of carbonylated proteins.
Expression of the auxiliary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpr causes arrest of primate host cells in G2. Expression of this protein in budding yeast has been previously reported to cause growth arrest and a large-cell phenotype. Investigation of the effect of Vpr expression in budding yeast, reported here, showed that it causes disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Expression of HSP42, the gene for a small heat shock protein (sHSP), from a high-copy-number plasmid reversed this effect. The sHSPs are induced by exposure of cells to thermal, osmotic, and oxidative stresses and to mitogens. In animal cells, overexpression of sHSPs causes increased resistance to stress and stabilization of actin stress fibers. Yeast cells subjected to mild stress, such as shifting from 23 to 39 degrees C, arrest growth and then resume cell division. Growth arrest is accompanied by transient disorganization of the cytoskeleton. Yeast in which the HSP42 gene was disrupted and which was subjected to moderate thermal stress reorganized the actin cytoskeleton more slowly than did wild-type control cells. These results demonstrate that in yeast, as in metazoan cells, sHSPs promote maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton.
Increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsp) occurs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells when they are exposed to stress. By increasing their hsp content, cells protect themselves from lethal assaults, primarily because hsp interfere with the uncontrolled protein unfolding that occurs under stress. However, hsp are not produced only by stressed cells; some hsp are synthesized constitutively and perform important housekeeping functions. Accordingly, hsp are involved in the assembly of molecules which play important roles in the immune system. It is not surprising that due to their wide distribution and their homology among different species, hsp represent target antigens of the immune response. Frequent confrontation of the immune system with conserved regions of hsp which are shared by various microbial pathogens can potentiate antimicrobial immunity. However, long-term confrontation of the immune system with hsp antigens which are similar in the host and invaders may convert the immune response against these host antigens and promote autoimmune disease. This review provides an overview of the role of hsp in immunity with a focus on infectious and autoimmune diseases.
The molecular chaperone Hsp104 is a crucial factor in the acquisition of thermotolerance in yeast. Under stress conditions, the disaggregase activity of Hsp104 facilitates the reactivation of misfolded proteins. Hsp104 is also involved in the propagation of fungal prions. For instance, the well-characterized [PSI+] prion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not propagate in Δhsp104 cells or in cells overexpressing Hsp104. In this study, we characterized the functional homolog of Hsp104 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp_Hsp104). As its S. cerevisiae counterpart, Sp_hsp104+ is heat-inducible and required for thermotolerance in S. pombe. Sp_Hsp104 displays low disaggregase activity and cannot propagate the [PSI+] prion in S. cerevisiae. When overexpressed in S. cerevisiae, Sp_Hsp104 confers thermotolerance to Δhsp104 cells and reactivates heat-aggregated proteins. However, overexpression of Sp_Hsp104 does not propagate nor eliminate [PSI+]. Strikingly, [PSI+] was cured by overexpression of a chimeric chaperone bearing the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the S. cerevisiae Hsp104 protein. Our study demonstrates that the ability to untangle aggregated proteins is conserved between the S. pombe and S. cerevisiae Hsp104 homologs, and points to a role of the CTD in the propagation of the S. cerevisiae [PSI+] prion.
Cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses occurs via plasmodesmata (PD), organelles that evolved to facilitate intercellular communications. Viral movement proteins (MP) modify PD to allow passage of the virus particles or nucleoproteins. This passage occurs via several distinct mechanisms one of which is MP-dependent formation of the tubules that traverse PD and provide a conduit for virion translocation. The MP of tubule-forming viruses including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recruit the plant PD receptors called Plasmodesmata Located Proteins (PDLP) to mediate tubule assembly and virus movement. Here we show that PDLP1 is transported to PD through a specific route within the secretory pathway in a myosin-dependent manner. This transport relies primarily on the class XI myosins XI-K and XI-2. Inactivation of these myosins using dominant negative inhibition results in mislocalization of PDLP and MP and suppression of GFLV movement. We also found that the proper targeting of specific markers of the Golgi apparatus, the plasma membrane, PD, lipid raft subdomains within the plasma membrane, and the tonoplast was not affected by myosin XI-K inhibition. However, the normal tonoplast dynamics required myosin XI-K activity. These results reveal a new pathway of the myosin-dependent protein trafficking to PD that is hijacked by GFLV to promote tubule-guided transport of this virus between plant cells.
To establish infection, plant viruses spread cell-to-cell via narrow channels in the cell wall, the plasmodesmata (PD). Movement proteins (MP) are virus-encoded proteins essential for virus intercellular transport through PD. Plasmodesmata located plant proteins (PDLPs), are specifically recognised by the MPs of tubule-forming viruses. Here we show that PDLP targeting to PD depends on the molecular motors myosin XI-K and XI-2. Consistently, and in support of a function of PDLP as PD receptor for MP, overexpression of dominant negative myosin mutants inhibits tubule formation by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) MP and dramatically reduces virus movement.
Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an accessory protein that plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. This pathogenic activity of Vpr is related in part to its capacity to induce cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis of target T cells. A screening for multicopy suppressors of these Vpr activities in fission yeast identified heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as a suppressor of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest. Hsp70 is a member of a family of molecular chaperones involved in innate immunity and protection from environmental stress. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 infection induces Hsp70 in target cells. Overexpression of Hsp70 reduced the Vpr-dependent G2 arrest and apoptosis and also reduced replication of the Vpr-positive, but not Vpr-deficient, HIV-1. Suppression of Hsp70 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in increased apoptosis of cells infected with a Vpr-positive, but not Vpr-defective, HIV-1. Replication of the Vpr-positive HIV-1 was also increased when Hsp70 expression was diminished. Vpr and Hsp70 coimmunoprecipitated from HIV-infected cells. Together, these results identify Hsp70 as a novel anti-HIV innate immunity factor that targets HIV-1 Vpr.
Stress or heat shock proteins (hsp) are a family of approximately two dozen proteins with a high degree of amino acid sequence homology between different species, ranging from prokaryotes to humans, and are representative of a generalized response to environmental and metabolic stressors. Our previous studies showed increased expression of human hsp60 on endothelial cells of arterial intima with atherosclerotic lesions, and elevated levels of serum antibodies (Ab) against hsp65/60 in subjects with carotid atherosclerosis. To investigate the possible involvement of anti-hsp65/60 Ab in endothelial injury, specific hsp-Ab were isolated from human high titer sera by affinity chromatography and probed on heat-shock human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Purified human anti-hsp65/60 Ab reacted specifically with mycobacterial hsp65, human hsp60, and a 60-kD protein band of heat-shocked endothelial cells. High levels of hsp60 mRNA expression in endothelial cells were found between 4 and 12 h after 30 min treatment at 42 degrees C. In immunofluorescence tests, positive staining of heat-stressed endothelial cells was observed not only in the cytoplasm but also on the cell surface. Furthermore, only heat-stressed, but not untreated, Cr-labeled endothelial cells were lysed by anti-hsp65/60 Ab in the presence of complement (complement-mediated cytotoxicity) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). Control Abs, including human anti-hsp65/60 low titer antiserum, human Ig fraction deprived of hsp65/60 Ab, and mAbs to Factor VIII, alpha-actin, hsp70, and CD3 showed no cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, human serum anti-hsp65 antibodies act as autoantibodies reacting with hsp60 on stressed endothelial cells and are able to mediate endothelial cytotoxicity. Thus, a humoral immune reaction to hsp60 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an abundant molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cytosol, is involved in the folding of a set of cell regulatory proteins and in the re-folding of stress-denatured polypeptides. The basic mechanism of action of Hsp90 is not yet understood. In particular, it has been debated whether Hsp90 function is ATP dependent. A recent crystal structure of the NH2-terminal domain of yeast Hsp90 established the presence of a conserved nucleotide binding site that is identical with the binding site of geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of Hsp90. The functional significance of nucleotide binding by Hsp90 has remained unclear. Here we present evidence for a slow but clearly detectable ATPase activity in purified Hsp90. Based on a new crystal structure of the NH2-terminal domain of human Hsp90 with bound ADP-Mg and on the structural homology of this domain with the ATPase domain of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase, the residues of Hsp90 critical in ATP binding (D93) and ATP hydrolysis (E47) were identified. The corresponding mutations were made in the yeast Hsp90 homologue, Hsp82, and tested for their ability to functionally replace wild-type Hsp82. Our results show that both ATP binding and hydrolysis are required for Hsp82 function in vivo. The mutant Hsp90 proteins tested are defective in the binding and ATP hydrolysis–dependent cycling of the co-chaperone p23, which is thought to regulate the binding and release of substrate polypeptide from Hsp90. Remarkably, the complete Hsp90 protein is required for ATPase activity and for the interaction with p23, suggesting an intricate allosteric communication between the domains of the Hsp90 dimer. Our results establish Hsp90 as an ATP-dependent chaperone.
heat shock protein 90; molecular chaperone; p23; nucleotide binding; geldanamycin
Cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used to illustrate macromolecular traffic through plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. This transport process is mediated by a specialized viral movement protein, P30. In the initially infected cell, P30 is produced by transcription of a subgenomic RNA derived from the invading virus. Presumably, P30 then associates with a certain proportion of the viral RNA molecules, sequestering them from replication and mediating their transport into neighbouring uninfected host cells. This nucleoprotem complex is targeted to plasmodesmata, possibly via interaction with the host cell's cytoskeleton. Prior to passage through a plasmodesma, the plasmodesmatal channel is dilated by the movement protein. It is proposed that targeting of P30-TMV RNA complexes to plasmodesmatal involves binding to a specific cell-wall-associated receptor molecule. This protein, designated p38, also functions as a protein kinase, phosphorylating P30 at its carboxy-terminus and minimizing P30-induced interference with plasmodesmatal permeability during viral infection.
The immune response to the mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) is considered an important event in the induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats; this induction probably occurs through a molecular mimicry mechanism involving cross-reactivity against the rat homolog hsp60. To analyze the role of mammalian molecule hsp60 in arthritis, we generated a recombinant vaccinia virus (hsp60-VV) carrying the human hsp60 gene inserted into the thymidine kinase locus under the control of the 7.5k vaccinia virus promoter. Human hsp60 is almost identical to its rat homolog (97.4% linear amino acid homology) and shares about 50% of amino acid positions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis hsp65. The latter supposedly carries a critical epitope for AA induction that is not present in human hsp60. Infections with hsp60-VV of monkey cell cultures led to the expression of the human hsp60 molecule, as evidenced by immunoblotting analysis with specific monoclonal antibodies. Also, Lewis rats infected with hsp60-VV produced specific antibodies, demonstrating the in vivo expression of human hsp60 in the infected animals. Therefore, we used hsp60-VV to analyze whether the delivery of hsp60 could affect the induction of AA in Lewis rats. hsp60-VV clearly reduced and retarded arthritic symptoms when administered to rats at day 7 after AA induction. In contrast, inoculation of rats with a control recombinant vaccinia virus did not affect the course of the disease. The improvement in AA with hsp60-VV administration was associated with a specific immune response, as determined by the presence of antibodies to hsp60 in the sera and the proliferation induced by hsp60 of T cells from popliteal lymph nodes. These results support a critical role for immunity to heat shock proteins in AA. Since the protective construct is virtually identical to rat homolog hsp60, we conclude that immunity directed to conserved areas of this family of proteins is directly involved in the pathogenesis of AA.
Propagation of the yeast protein-based non-Mendelian element [PSI], a prion-like form of the release factor Sup35, was shown to be regulated by the interplay between chaperone proteins Hsp104 and Hsp70. While overproduction of Hsp104 protein cures cells of [PSI], overproduction of the Ssa1 protein of the Hsp70 family protects [PSI] from the curing effect of Hsp104. Here we demonstrate that another protein of the Hsp70 family, Ssb, previously implicated in nascent polypeptide folding and protein turnover, exhibits effects on [PSI] which are opposite those of Ssa. Ssb overproduction increases, while Ssb depletion decreases, [PSI] curing by the overproduced Hsp104. Both spontaneous [PSI] formation and [PSI] induction by overproduction of the homologous or heterologous Sup35 protein are increased significantly in the strain lacking Ssb. This is the first example when inactivation of an unrelated cellular protein facilitates prion formation. Ssb is therefore playing a role in protein-based inheritance, which is analogous to the role played by the products of mutator genes in nucleic acid-based inheritance. Ssb depletion also decreases toxicity of the overproduced Sup35 and causes extreme sensitivity to the [PSI]-curing chemical agent guanidine hydrochloride. Our data demonstrate that various members of the yeast Hsp70 family have diverged from each other in regard to their roles in prion propagation and suggest that Ssb could serve as a proofreading component of the enzymatic system, which prevents formation of prion aggregates.
The interaction between tobacco mosaic virus and its host plant cells has been intensively studied as a model for macromolecular trafficking. The observation that GFP-labelled TMV movement protein localises to microtubules led to the suggestion that microtubules are required for the cell to cell movement of the virus. In a recent paper we have demonstrated that the targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin and ER networks, which supports previous evidence from our laboratory that showed that disruption of microtubules did not prevent cell to cell movement of TMV virus, and that a mutated movement protein, which did not localise to micro-tubules, showed enhanced viral movement. In this addendum we speculate where the TMV movement protein accumulates within plasmodesmata, and the relationship of this accumulation to the cell to cell movement of the virus.
actin; endoplasmic reticulum; microtubule; plasmodesmata; targeting; tobacco mosaic virus