The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is essential both for transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA. We have established cell extracts which support RNAP II transcription from the yeast CYC1 promoter or NER of transcriptionally silent damaged DNA on independent plasmid templates and substrates. When plasmid templates and substrates for both processes are simultaneously incubated with these extracts, transcription is significantly inhibited. This inhibition is strictly dependent on active NER and can be complemented with purified holo-TFIIH. These results suggest that in the presence of active NER, TFIIH is preferentially mobilized from the basal transcription machinery for use in NER. Inhibition of transcription in the presence of active NER requires the RAD26 gene, the yeast homolog of the human Cockayne syndrome group B gene (CSB).
The nuclear mas5 mutation causes temperature-sensitive growth and defects in mitochondrial protein import at the nonpermissive temperature in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MAS5 gene was isolated by complementation of the mutant phenotypes, and integrative transformation demonstrated that the complementing fragment encoded the authentic MAS5 gene. The deduced protein sequence of the cloned gene revealed a polypeptide of 410 amino acids which is homologous to Escherichia coli DnaJ and the yeast DnaJ log SCJ1. Northern (RNA blot) analysis revealed that MAS5 is a heat shock gene whose expression increases moderately at elevated temperatures. Cells with a deletion mutation in MAS5 grew slowly at 23 degrees C and were inviable at 37 degrees C, demonstrating that MAS5 is essential for growth at increased temperatures. The deletion mutant also displayed a modest import defect at 23 degrees C and a substantial import defect at 37 degrees C. These results indicate a role for a DnaJ cognate protein in mitochondrial protein import.
Human NC2 utilizes a unique mechanism of repression of transcription by associating with TBP and inhibition of preinitiation complex formation. Here we have cloned two genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and functionally characterized them as yeast NC2. We show that yeast NC2 binds to TBP as a heterodimer and represses RNA polymerase II transcription during assembly of the preinitiation complex. Yeast NC2 is highly homologous to its human counterpart within histone fold domains. C-Terminal regions previously discussed to be important for repression in man are in part not conserved. The human alpha but not the beta subunit efficiently heterodimerizes and represses transcription in combination with the corresponding yeast subunit. Yeast and human NC2 inhibit transcription in the presence of yeast and human TBP. However, repression is optimal within one species. The N-terminus of human TBP supports repression of transcription by human but not by yeast NC2.
Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a heterodimeric enzyme that modifies a group of proteins, including Ras, in mammals and yeasts. Plant FTase alpha and beta subunits were cloned from tomato and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess their functional conservation in farnesylating Ras and a-factor proteins, which are important for cell growth and mating. The tomato FTase beta subunit (LeFTB) alone was unable to complement the growth defect of ram1 delta mutant yeast strains in which the chromosomal FTase beta subunit gene was deleted, but coexpression of LeFTB with the plant alpha subunit gene (LeFTA) restored normal growth, Ras membrane association, and mating. LeFTB contains a novel 66-amino-acid sequence domain whose deletion reduces the efficiency of tomato FTase to restore normal growth to yeast ram1 delta strains. Coexpression of LeFTA and LeFTB in either yeast or insect cells yielded a functional enzyme that correctly farnesylated CaaX-motif-containing peptides. Despite their low degree of sequence homology, yeast and plant FTases shared similar in vivo and in vitro substrate specificities, demonstrating that this enzymatic modification of proteins with intermediates from the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is conserved in evolutionarily divergent eukaryotes.
We identified a new Drosophila gene, peter pan (ppan), in a screen for larval growth–defective mutants. ppan mutant larvae do not grow and show minimal DNA replication but can survive until well after their heterozygotic siblings have pupariated. We cloned the ppan gene by P-element plasmid rescue. ppan belongs to a highly conserved gene family that includes Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSF1 and SSF2, as well as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis elegans, mouse, and human homologues. Deletion of both SSF1 and SSF2 in yeast is lethal, and depletion of the gene products causes cell division arrest. Mosaic analysis of ppan mutant clones in Drosophila imaginal disks and ovaries demonstrates that ppan is cell autonomous and required for normal mitotic growth but is not absolutely required for general biosynthesis or DNA replication. Overexpression of the wild-type gene causes cell death and disrupts the normal development of adult structures. The ppan gene family appears to have an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in cell growth.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombination between direct repeats is synergistically reduced in rad1 rad52 double mutants, suggesting that the two genes define alternate recombination pathways. Using a classical genetic approach, we searched for suppressors of the recombination defect in the double mutant. One mutation that restores wild-type levels of recombination was isolated. Cloning by complementation and subsequent physical and genetic analysis revealed that it maps to RAF1. This locus encodes the large subunit of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, RP-A, which is conserved from S. cerevisiae to humans. The rfa1 mutation on its own causes a 15-fold increase in direct-repeat recombination. However, unlike most other hyperrecombination mutations, the elevated levels in rfa1 mutants occur independently of RAD52 function. Additionally, rfa1 mutant strains grow slowly, are UV sensitive, and exhibit decreased levels of heteroallelic recombination. DNA sequence analysis of rfa1 revealed a missense mutation that alters a conserved residue of the protein (aspartic acid 228 to tyrosine [D228Y]). Biochemical analysis suggests that this defect results in decreased levels of RP-A in mutant strains. Overexpression of the mutant subunit completely suppresses the UV sensitivity and partially suppresses the recombination phenotype. We propose that the defective complex fails to interact properly with components of the repair, replication, and recombination machinery. Further, this may permit the bypass of the recombination defect of rad1 rad52 mutants by activating an alternative single-stranded DNA degradation pathway.
Infantile Batten disease is a severe neurodegenerative storage disorder caused by mutations in the human PPT1 (palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1) gene, which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase that removes fatty acids from lipid-modified proteins. PPT1 has orthologs in many species, including lower organisms and plants, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains a previously uncharacterized open reading frame (SPBC530.12c) that encodes the S. pombe Ppt1p ortholog fused in frame to a second enzyme that is highly similar to a previously cloned mouse dolichol pyrophosphatase (Dolpp1p). In the present study, we characterized this interesting gene (designated here as pdf1, for palmitoyl protein thioesterase-dolichol pyrophosphate phosphatase fusion 1) through deletion of the open reading frame and complementation by plasmids bearing mutations in various regions of the pdf1 sequence. Strains bearing a deletion of the entire pdf1 open reading frame are nonviable and are rescued by a pdf1 expression plasmid. Inactivating mutations in the Dolpp1p domain do not rescue the lethality, whereas mutations in the Ppt1p domain result in cells that are viable but abnormally sensitive to sodium orthovanadate and elevated extracellular pH. The latter phenotypes have been previously associated with class C and class D vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutants and vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase (vma) mutants in S. cerevisiae. Importantly, the Ppt1p-deficient phenotype is complemented by the human PPT1 gene. These results indicate that the function of PPT1 has been widely conserved throughout evolution and that S. pombe may serve as a genetically tractable model for the study of human infantile Batten disease.
We have found that, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the DNA helicase Ssl2p confers resistance to adriamycin. Ssl2p is involved, as a subunit of the basic transcription factor TFIIH, in the initiation of transcription and in nucleotide-excision repair (NER), and this helicase is essential for the survival of yeast cells. An examination of the relationship between the known functions of Ssl2p and adriamycin resistance indicated that overexpression of Ssl2p caused little or no increase in the rate of RNA synthesis and in NER. The absence of any involvement of NER in adriamycin resistance was supported by the finding that yeast cells that overexpressed the mutant form of Ssl2p that lacked the carboxy-terminal region, which is necessary for NER, remained resistant to adriamycin. When we examined the effects of overexpression in yeast of other mutant forms of Ssl2p with various deletions, we found that, of the 843 amino acids of Ssl2p, the entire amino acid sequence from position 81 to position 750 was necessary for adriamycin resistance. This region is identical to the region of Ssl2p that is necessary for the survival of yeast cells. Although this region contains helicase motifs, the overexpression of other yeast helicases, such as Rad3 and Sgs1, had little or no effect on adriamycin resistance, indicating that a mere increase in the intracellular level of helicases does not result in adriamycin resistance. Our results suggest that the functions of Ssl2p that are essential for yeast survival are also required for protection against adriamycin toxicity.
The yeast inheritable [URE3] element corresponds to a prion form
of the nitrogen catabolism regulator Ure2p. We have isolated several
orthologous URE2 genes in different yeast species: Saccharomyces
paradoxus, S. uvarum, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans, and
Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show here by in silico analysis that
the GST-like functional domain and the prion domain of the Ure2 proteins have
diverged separately, the functional domain being more conserved through the
evolution. The more extreme situation is found in the two S. pombe
genes, in which the prion domain is absent. The functional analysis
demonstrates that all the homologous genes except for the two S.
pombe genes are able to complement the URE2 gene deletion in a
S. cerevisiae strain. We show that in the two most closely related
yeast species to S. cerevisiae, i.e., S. paradoxus and
S. uvarum, the prion domains of the proteins have retained the
capability to induce [URE3] in a S. cerevisiae strain.
However, only the S. uvarum full-length Ure2p is able to behave as a
prion. We also show that the prion inactivation mechanisms can be
cross-transmitted between the S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair mechanism capable of removing a variety of helix-distorting DNA lesions. A specialized NER pathway, called transcription coupled NER (TC-NER), refers to preferential repair in the transcribed strand of an actively transcribed gene. To be distinguished from TCR-NER, the genome-wide NER process is termed as global genomic NER (GG-NER). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GG-NER is dependent on Rad7, whereas TC-NER is mediated by Rad26, the homolog of the human Cockayne syndrome group B protein, and by Rpb9, a nonessential subunit of RNA polymerase II. Tfb5, the tenth subunit of the transcription/repair factor TFIIH, is implicated in one group of the human syndrome trichothiodystrophy. Here, we show that Tfb5 plays different roles in different NER pathways in yeast. No repair takes place in the nontranscribed strand of a gene in tfb5 cells, or in both strands of a gene in rad26 rpb9 tfb5 cells, indicating that Tfb5 is essential for GG-NER. However, residual repair occurs in the transcribed strand of a gene in tfb5 cells, suggesting that Tfb5 is important, but not absolutely required for TC-NER. Interestingly, substantial repair occurs in the transcribed strand of a gene in rad7 tfb5 and rad7 rpb9 tfb5 cells, indicating that, in the absence of GG-NER, Tfb5 is largely dispensable for Rad26 mediated TC-NER. Furthermore, we show that no repair takes place in the transcribed strand of a gene in rad7 rad26 tfb5 cells, suggesting that Tfb5 is required for Rpb9 mediated TC-NER. Taken together, our results indicate that Tfb5 is partially dispensable for Rad26 mediated TC-NER, especially in GG-NER deficient cells. However, this TFIIH subunit is required for other NER pathways.
Rad7; Rad26; Rpb9; nucleotide excision repair; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Tfb5; global genomic repair; transcription coupled repair
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that carry deletions in both the LOS1 (a tRNA export receptor) and the PUS1 (a tRNA:pseudouridine synthase) genes exhibit a thermosensitive growth defect. A Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene, named spPUS1, was cloned from a cDNA library by complementation of this conditional lethal phenotype. The corresponding protein, spPus1p, shows sequence similarity to S.cerevisiae and murine Pus1p as well as other known members of the pseudouridine synthase family. Accordingly, recombinant spPus1p can catalyze in vitro the formation of pseudouridines at positions 27, 28, 34, 35 and 36 of yeast tRNA transcripts. The sequence and functional conservation of the Pus1p proteins in fungi and mammalian species and their notable absence from prokaryotes suggest that this family of pseudouridine synthases is required for a eukaryote-specific step of tRNA biogenesis, such as nuclear export.
The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is thought to consist of two subpathways: transcription-coupled repair, limited to the transcribed strand of active genes, and global genome repair for nontranscribed DNA strands. Recently we cloned the RAD26 gene, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human CSB/ERCC6, a gene involved in transcription-coupled repair and the disorder Cockayne syndrome. This paper describes the analysis of yeast double mutants selectively affected in each NER subpathway. Although rad26 disruption mutants are defective in transcription-coupled repair, they are not UV sensitive. However, double mutants of RAD26 with the global genome repair determinants RAD7 and RAD16 appeared more UV sensitive than the single rad7 or rad16 mutants but not as sensitive as completely NER-deficient mutants. These findings unmask a role of RAD26 and transcription-coupled repair in UV survival, indicate that transcription-coupled repair and global genome repair are partially overlapping, and provide evidence for a residual NER modality in the double mutants. Analysis of dimer removal from the active RPB2 gene in the rad7/16 rad26 double mutants revealed (i) a contribution of the global genome repair factors Rad7p and Rad16p to repair of the transcribed strand, confirming the partial overlap between both NER subpathways, and (ii) residual repair specifically of the transcribed strand. To investigate the transcription dependence of this repair activity, strand-specific repair of the inducible GAL7 gene was investigated. The template strand of this gene was repaired only under induced conditions, pointing to a role for transcription in the residual repair in the double mutants and suggesting that transcription-coupled repair can to some extent operate independently from Rad26p. Our findings also indicate locus heterogeneity for the dependence of transcription-coupled repair on RAD26.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBA1 gene was cloned by PCR amplification from yeast genomic DNA following its identification as encoding an ortholog of human p23, an Hsp90 cochaperone. The SBA1 gene product is constitutively expressed and nonessential, although a disruption mutant grew more slowly than the wild type at both 18 and 37°C. A double deletion of SBA1 and STI1, encoding an Hsp90 cochaperone, displayed synthetic growth defects. Affinity isolation of histidine-tagged Sba1p (Sba1His6) after expression in yeast led to coisolation of Hsp90 and the cyclophilin homolog Cpr6. Using an in vitro assembly assay, purified Sba1His6 bound to Hsp90 only in the presence of adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or adenyl-imidodiphosphate. Furthermore, interaction between purified Sba1His6 and Hsp90 in yeast extracts was inhibited by the benzoquinoid ansamycins geldanamycin and macbecin. The in vitro assay was also used to identify residues in Hsp90 that are important for complex formation with Sba1His6, and residues in both the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and C-terminal half were characterized. In vivo analysis of known Hsp90 substrate proteins revealed that Sba1 loss of function had only a mild effect on the activity of the tyrosine kinase v-Src and steroid hormone receptors.
The CHS5 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for wild-type levels of chitin synthase III activity. chs5 cells have reduced levels of this activity. To further understand the role of CHS5 in yeast, the CHS5 gene was cloned by complementation of the Calcofluor resistance phenotype of a chs5 mutant. Transformation of the mutant with a plasmid carrying CHS5 restored Calcofluor sensitivity, wild-type cell wall chitin levels, and chitin synthase III activity levels. DNA sequence analysis reveals that CHS5 encodes a unique polypeptide of 671 amino acids with a molecular mass of 73,642 Da. The predicted sequence shows a heptapeptide repeated 10 times, a carboxy-terminal lysine-rich tail, and some similarity to neurofilament proteins. The effects of deletion of CHS5 indicate that it is not essential for yeast cell growth; however, it is important for mating. Deletion of CHS3, the presumptive structural gene for chitin synthase III activity, results in a modest decrease in mating efficiency, whereas chs5delta cells exhibit a much stronger mating defect. However, chs5 cells produce more chitin than chs3 mutants, indicating that CHS5 plays a role in other processes besides chitin synthesis. Analysis of mating mixtures of chs5 cells reveals that cells agglutinate and make contact but fail to undergo cell fusion. The chs5 mating defect can be partially rescued by FUS1 and/or FUS2, two genes which have been implicated previously in cell fusion, but not by FUS3. In addition, mating efficiency is much lower in fus1 fus2 x chs5 than in fus1 fus2 x wild type crosses. Our results indicate that Chs5p plays an important role in the cell fusion step of mating.
We describe a strategy to analyze the impact of single nucleotide mutations on protein function. Our method utilizes a combination of yeast functional complementation, growth competition of mutant pools and polyacrylamide gel immobilized PCR. A system was constructed in which the yeast PGK1 gene was expressed from a plasmid-borne copy of the gene in a PGK1 deletion strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this system, we demonstrated that the enrichment or depletion of PGK1 point mutants from a mixed culture was consistent with the expected results based on the isolated growth rates of the mutants. Enrichment or depletion of individual point mutants was shown to result from increases or decreases, respectively, in the specific activities of the encoded proteins. Further, we demonstrate the ability to analyze the functional effect of many individual point mutations in parallel. By functional complementation of yeast deletions with human homologs, our technique could be readily applied to the functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genes of medical interest.
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a biochemical process required for the repair of many different types of DNA lesions. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the RAD7, RAD16, and RAD23 genes have been specifically implicated in NER of certain transcriptionally repressed loci and in the nontranscribed strand of transcriptionally active genes. We have used a cell-free system to study the roles of the Rad7, Rad16, and Rad23 proteins in NER. Transcription-independent NER of a plasmid substrate was defective in rad7, rad16, and rad23 mutant extracts. Complementation studies with a previously purified NER protein complex (nucleotide excision repairosome) indicate that Rad23 is a component of the repairosome, whereas Rad7 and Rad16 proteins were not found in this complex. Complementation studies with rad4, rad7, rad16, and rad23 mutant extracts suggest physical interactions among these proteins. This conclusion was confirmed by experiments using the yeast two-hybrid assay, which demonstrated the following pairwise interactions: Rad4 with Rad23, Rad4 with Rad7, and Rad7 with Rad16. Additionally, interaction between the Rad7 and Rad16 proteins was demonstrated in vitro. Our results show that Rad7, Rad16, and Rad23 are required for transcription-independent NER in vitro. This process may involve a unique protein complex which is distinct from the repairosome and which contains at least the Rad4, Rad7, and Rad16 proteins.
Arginine methylation of non-histone proteins by protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) has been shown to be important for various biological processes from yeast to human. Although PRMT genes are well conserved in fungi, none of them have been functionally characterized in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. In this study, we identified and characterized all of the four predicted PRMT genes in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Whereas deletion of the other three PRMT genes had no obvious phenotypes, the Δamt1 mutant had pleiotropic defects. AMT1 is a predicted type I PRMT gene that is orthologous to HMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Δamt1 mutant was slightly reduced in vegetative growth but normal in asexual and sexual reproduction. It had increased sensitivities to oxidative and membrane stresses. DON mycotoxin production and virulence on flowering wheat heads also were reduced in the Δamt1 mutant. The introduction of the wild-type AMT1 allele fully complemented the defects of the Δamt1 mutant and Amt1-GFP fusion proteins mainly localized to the nucleus. Hrp1 and Nab2 are two hnRNPs in yeast that are methylated by Hmt1 for nuclear export. In F. graminearum, AMT1 is required for the nuclear export of FgHrp1 but not FgNab2, indicating that yeast and F. graminearum differ in the methylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of hnRNP components. Because AMT2 also is a predicted type I PRMT with limited homology to yeast HMT1, we generated the Δamt1 Δamt2 double mutants. The Δamt1 single and Δamt1 Δamt2 double mutants had similar defects in all the phenotypes assayed, including reduced vegetative growth and virulence. Overall, data from this systematic analysis of PRMT genes suggest that AMT1, like its ortholog in yeast, is the predominant PRMT gene in F. graminearum and plays a role in hyphal growth, stress responses, and plant infection.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RNA polymerase II assembly is probably initiated by the formation of the RPB3–RPB11 heterodimer. RPB3 is encoded by a single copy gene in the yeast, mouse and human genomes. The RPB11 gene is also unique in yeast and mouse, but in humans a gene family has been identified that potentially encodes several RPB11 proteins differing mainly in their C-terminal regions. We compared the abilities of both yeast and human proteins to heterodimerize. We show that the yeast RPB3/RPB11 heterodimer critically depends on the presence of the C-terminal region of RPB11. In contrast, the human heterodimer tolerates significant changes in RPB11 C-terminus, allowing two human RPB11 variants to heterodimerize with the same efficiency with RPB3. In keeping with this observation, the interactions between the conserved N-terminal ‘α-motifs’ is much more important for heterodimerization of the human subunits than for those in yeast. These data indicate that the heterodimerization interfaces have been modified during the course of evolution to allow a recent diversification of the human RPB11 subunits that remains compatible with heterodimerization with RPB3.
In a forward genetic screen for interaction with mitochondrial iron carrier proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a hypomorphic mutation of the essential DRE2 gene was found to confer lethality when combined with Δmrs3 and Δmrs4. The dre2 mutant or Dre2-depleted cells were deficient in cytosolic Fe/S cluster protein activities while maintaining mitochondrial Fe/S clusters. The Dre2 amino acid sequence was evolutionarily conserved, and cysteine motifs (CX2CXC and twin CX2C) in human and yeast proteins were perfectly aligned. The human Dre2 homolog (implicated in blocking apoptosis and called CIAPIN1 or anamorsin) was able to complement the nonviability of a Δdre2 deletion strain. The Dre2 protein with triple hemagglutinin tag was located in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Yeast Dre2 overexpressed and purified from bacteria was brown and exhibited signature absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, indicating the presence of both [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters. Thus, Dre2 is an essential conserved Fe/S cluster protein implicated in extramitochondrial Fe/S cluster assembly, similar to other components of the so-called CIA (cytoplasmic Fe/S cluster assembly) pathway although partially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
In an effort to identify novel genes involved in recombination repair, we isolated fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and a synthetic lethal with rad2. A gene that complements such mutations was isolated from the S. pombe genomic library, and subsequent analysis identified it as the fbh1 gene encoding the F-box DNA helicase, which is conserved in mammals but not conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An fbh1 deletion mutant is moderately sensitive to UV, MMS, and γ rays. The rhp51 (RAD51 ortholog) mutation is epistatic to fbh1. fbh1 is essential for viability in stationary-phase cells and in the absence of either Srs2 or Rqh1 DNA helicase. In each case, lethality is suppressed by deletion of the recombination gene rhp57. These results suggested that fbh1 acts downstream of rhp51 and rhp57. Following UV irradiation or entry into the stationary phase, nuclear chromosomal domains of the fbh1Δ mutant shrank, and accumulation of some recombination intermediates was suggested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Focus formation of Fbh1 protein was induced by treatment that damages DNA. Thus, the F-box DNA helicase appears to process toxic recombination intermediates, the formation of which is dependent on the function of Rhp51.
Like all viruses, HIV-1 requires cellular host factors for replication. The mechanisms for production of progeny virions involving these host factors, however, are not fully understood. To better understand these mechanisms, we used a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genetic screen to identify mutant strains in which HIV-1 Gag targeting to the plasma membrane was aberrant. Of the 917 mutants identified, we selected 14 mutants whose missing genes had single orthologous counterparts in human and tested them for Gag-induced viruslike particle (VLP) release in yeast cells. We found that the Vps18 and Mon2 proteins were important for HIV-1 Gag-induced VLP release in yeast. In eukaryote cells, these host proteins are highly conserved and function in protein trafficking. Depletion of hVps18 or hMon2 reduced the efficient production of infectious HIV-1 virions in human cells. Our data suggest that these cellular factors play an important role in the efficient production of infectious HIV-1 virion particles.
We have isolated the poly(A) polymerase (PAP) encoding gene pla1 [for poly(A) polymerase] from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Protein sequence alignments with other poly(A) polymerases reveal that pla1 is more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PAP than to bovine PAP. The two yeast poly(A) polymerases share significant sequence homology not only in the generally conserved N-terminal part but also in the C-terminus. Furthermore, pla1 rescues a S. cerevisiae PAP1 disruption mutant. An extract from the complemented strain is active in the specific in vitro polyadenylation assay. In contrast, recombinant PLA1 protein can not replace bovine PAP in the mammalian in vitro polyadenylation assay. These results indicate a high degree of conservation of the polyadenylation machinery among the evolutionary diverged budding and fission yeasts.
Two closely related genes, EXO1 and DIN 7, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been found to be sequence homologs of the exo1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe . The proteins encoded by these genes belong to the Rad2/XPG and Rad27/FEN-1 families, which are structure-specific nucleases functioning in DNA repair. An XPG nuclease deficiency in humans is one cause of xeroderma pigmentosum and those afflicted display a hypersensitivity to UV light. Deletion of the RAD2 gene in S. cerevisiae also causes UV hypersensitivity, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair (NER), but residual UV resistance remains. In this report, we describe evidence for the residual repair of UV damage to DNA that is dependent upon Exo1 nuclease. Expression of the EXO1 gene is UV inducible. Genetic analysis indicates that the EXO1 gene is involved in a NER-independent pathway for UV repair, as exo1 rad2 double mutants are more sensitive to UV than either the rad2 or exo1 single mutants. Since the roles of EXO1 in mismatch repair and recombination have been established, double mutants were constructed to examine the possible relationship between the role of EXO1 in UV resistance and its roles in other pathways for repair of UV damaged DNA. The exo1 msh2 , exo1 rad51 , rad2 rad51 and rad2 msh2 double mutants were all more sensitive to UV than their respective pairs of single mutants. This suggests that the observed UV sensitivity of the exo1 deletion mutant is unlikely to be due to its functional deficiencies in MMR, recombination or NER. Further, it suggests that the EXO1 , RAD51 and MSH2 genes control independent mechanisms for the maintenance of UV resistance.
Despite being simple eukaryotic organisms, the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been widely used as a model to study human pathologies and the replication of human, animal, and plant viruses, as well as the function of individual viral proteins. The complete genome of S. cerevisiae was the first of eukaryotic origin to be sequenced and contains about 6,000 genes. More than 75% of the genes have an assigned function, while more than 40% share conserved sequences with known or predicted human genes. This strong homology has allowed the function of human orthologs to be unveiled starting from the data obtained in yeast. RNA plant viruses were the first to be studied in yeast. In this paper, we focus on the use of the yeast model to study the function of the proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the search for its cellular partners. This human retrovirus is the cause of AIDS. The WHO estimates that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2.0 million annual deaths due to AIDS. Current therapy is able to control the disease but there is no permanent cure or a vaccine. By using yeast, it is possible to dissect the function of some HIV-1 proteins and discover new cellular factors common to this simple cell and humans that may become potential therapeutic targets, leading to a long-lasting treatment for AIDS.
The adverse reactions provoked by many antibiotics in humans are well documented but are generally poorly understood at the molecular level. To elucidate potential genetic defects that could give rise to susceptibility to prokaryote-specific antibiotics in eukaryotes, we undertook genome-wide screens using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model of eukaryotes; our previous work with a small number of yeast mutants revealed some specific gene functions required for oxytetracycline resistance. Here, the complete yeast deletion strain collection was tested for growth in the presence of a range of antibiotics. The sensitivities of mutants revealed by these screens were validated in independent tests. None of the ∼4,800 defined deletion strains tested were found to be sensitive to amoxicillin, penicillin G, rifampin, or vancomycin. However, two of the yeast mutants were tetracycline sensitive and four were oxytetracycline sensitive; encompassed among the latter were mutants carrying deletions in the same genes that we had characterized previously. Seventeen deletion strains were found to exhibit growth defects in the presence of gentamicin, with MICs for the strains being as low as 32 μg ml−1 (the wild type exhibited no growth defects at any gentamicin concentration tested up to 512 μg ml−1). Strikingly, 11 of the strains that were most sensitive to gentamicin carried deletions in genes whose products are all involved in various aspects of vacuolar and Golgi complex (or endoplasmic reticulum) function. Therefore, these and analogous organelles, which are also the principal sites of gentamicin localization in human cells, appear to be essential for normal resistance to gentamicin in eukaryotes. The approach and data described here offer a new route to gaining insight into the potential genetic bases of antibiotic insusceptibilities in eukaryotes.