The role of DNA topoisomerases in eucaryotic class III gene transcription in vitro has been studied through the use of inhibitory drugs and antisera to DNA topoisomerases I and II. The DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, novobiocin and coumermycin AI, were found to inhibit transcription of cloned 5S and tRNA genes. Novobiocin acts by interfering with an ATP-requiring step in the pathway to stable preinitiation complex formation. However, it is unlikely that this step reflects the enzymatic action of DNA topoisomerase II since a specific inhibitor of this enzyme (VM-26) and anti-DNA topoisomerase II antibodies fail to inhibit transcription under conditions where topoisomerase II enzymatic activity is inhibited. Similarly, a specific inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I (camptothecin) and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibodies fail to inhibit class III gene transcription. These results argue against a role for either DNA topoisomerase in 5S or tRNA gene transcription in vitro.
Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes by a complex, ATP-dependent strand passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the first structure of a fully-catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer, complexed with DNA and a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog. The enzyme adopts a domain-swapped configuration wherein the ATPase domain of one protomer sits atop the nucleolytic region of its partner subunit. This organization produces an unexpected interaction between the bound DNA and a conformational transducing element in the ATPase domain, which we show is critical for both DNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and global topoisomerase activity. Our data indicate that the ATPase domains pivot about each other to ensure unidirectional strand passage and that this state senses bound DNA to promote ATP turnover and enzyme reset.
Topoisomerase; supercoiling; ATPase; DNA topology; DNA replication; chromosome segregation
Members of the GHL ATPase superfamily, including type II topoisomerases, Hsp90-class chaperones, and MutL, all share a common GHKL-type ATP-binding fold and act as nucleotide-controlled ‘molecular clamps’. These enzymes' ATP-binding sites have proven to be rich drug targets, and certain inhibitors of type II topoisomerases and Hsp90 bind to this region and competitively inhibit these enzymes. Recently, it was found that radicicol, a drug known to block Hsp90 function, also inhibits the archaeal type IIB topoisomerase topo VI. Here, we use X-ray crystallography to show that despite low sequence identity (∼10–12%) between topo VI and Hsp90, radicicol binds to the ATPase sites of these two enzymes in an equivalent manner. We further demonstrate that radicicol inhibits both the dimerization of the topo VI ATPase domains and ATP hydrolysis, two critical steps in the enzyme's strand passage reaction. This work contributes to a growing set of structures detailing the interactions between GHL-family proteins and various drugs, and reveals radicicol as a versatile scaffold for targeting distantly related GHL enzymes.
Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90–topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.
Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that modulate the topological structure of DNA in order to facilitate cellular events such as replication and transcription. These enzymes are also the cellular targets of certain classes of chemotherapeutic agents termed topoisomerase poisons. A new human topoisomerase isoform, IIIa, was discovered in 1996, which is thought to have roles in genome stability and possibly chromosome separation during mitosis. It is possible that novel or existing anti-topoisomerase agents target topoisomerase IIIa, suggesting that this enzyme may have potential as a prognostic marker and chemotherapeutic target. In order to study expression patterns of topoisomerase IIIa we have produced a novel monoclonal antibody to human topoisomerase IIIa (TOPO3a-1A4), and used it to assess topoisomerase IIIa expression in a wide range of normal and neoplastic tissues. We have found that topoisomerase IIIa is expressed in a wide range of tissue types, with especially high concentrations in endothelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. No general relationship was observed between expression of topoisomerase IIIa and proliferation. Expression in neoplastic tissues often paralleled their normal counterparts, although certain tumours showed either increased (e.g. colonic adenoma) or reduced (e.g. gastric carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of bronchus) expression. If topoisomerase IIIa is found to be a target for chemotherapeutic agents, clinical response in different tumour types may be related to topoisomerase IIIa expression, which may be assessed using TOPO3a-1A4. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
topoisomerase IIIα; monoclonal antibody; expression; immunohistochemistry; tissues
Type II topoisomerases are essential ATP-dependent homodimeric enzymes required for transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation. These proteins alter DNA topology by generating transient enzyme-linked double-strand breaks for passage of one DNA strand through another. The central role of type II topoisomerases in DNA metabolism has made these enzymes targets for anticancer drugs. Here, we describe a genetic screen that generated novel alleles of Drosophila
Topoisomerase 2 (Top2). Fifteen alleles were obtained, resulting from nonsense and missense mutations. Among these, 14 demonstrated recessive lethality, with one displaying temperature-sensitive lethality. Several newly generated missense alleles carry amino acid substitutions in conserved residues within the ATPase, Topoisomerase/Primase, and Winged helix domains, including four that encode proteins with alterations in residues associated with resistance to cancer chemotherapeutics. Animals lacking zygotic Top2 function can survive to pupation and display reduced cell division and altered polytene chromosome structure. Inter se crosses between six strains carrying Top2 missense alleles generated morphologically normal trans-heterozygous adults, which showed delayed development and were female sterile. Complementation occurred between alleles encoding Top2 proteins with amino acid substitutions in the same functional domain and between alleles encoding proteins with substitutions in different functional domains. Two complementing alleles encode proteins with amino acid substitutions associated with drug resistance. These observations suggest that dimerization of mutant Top2 monomers can restore enzymatic function. Our studies establish the first series of Top2 alleles in a multicellular organism. Future analyses of these alleles will enhance our knowledge about the contributions made by type II topoisomerases to development.
Topoisomerase 2 (Top2); Drosophila; ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis; interallelic complementation
Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of ScII, the second most abundant protein after topoisomerase II, of the chromosome scaffold fraction to be identified. ScII is structurally related to a protein, Smc1p, previously found to be required for accurate chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ScII and the other members of the emerging family of SMC1-like proteins are likely to be novel ATPases, with NTP-binding A and B sites separated by two lengthy regions predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil. Analysis of the ScII B site predicted that ScII might use ATP by a mechanism similar to the bacterial recN DNA repair and recombination enzyme. ScII is a mitosis-specific scaffold protein that colocalizes with topoisomerase II in mitotic chromosomes. However, ScII appears not to be associated with the interphase nuclear matrix. ScII might thus play a role in mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation or sister chromatid disjunction, both of which have been previously shown to involve topoisomerase II.
Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes.
Topoisomerase IIα; divalent metal ion; divalent cation; ATP hydrolysis; DNA cleavage; DNA ligation; topoisomerase II poisons
DNA topoisomerase I is a nuclear enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of the DNA topology by introducing single-strand breaks into the DNA molecule. This enzyme represents a novel and distinct molecule target for cancer therapy by antitopoisomerase drugs belonging to the campthotecin series of antineoplastics. As many tumors can acquire resistance to drug treatment and become refractary to the chemotherapy it is very important to investigate the mechanisms involved in such a drug resistance for circumventing the phenomenon. This article describes the role of topoisomerase I in cell functions and the methods used to assess its in vitro catalytic activity. It reviews the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of the most specific antitopoisomerase I drugs by considering also the phenomenon of drug resistance. Some factors useful to drive the future perspectives in the development of new topoisomerase I inhibitors are also evidenced and discussed.
camptothecin; drug resistance; topo I inhibitors; topoisomerase I
Topoisomerase inhibitors are effective for antibacterial and anticancer therapy because they can lead to the accumulation of the intermediate DNA cleavage complex formed by the topoisomerase enzymes, which trigger cell death. Here we report the application of a novel enzyme-based high-throughput screening assay to identify natural product extracts that can lead to increased accumulation of the DNA cleavage complex formed by recombinant Yersinia pestis topoisomerase I as part of a larger effort to identify new antibacterial compounds. Further characterization and fractionation of the screening positives from the primary assay led to the discovery of a depside, anziaic acid, from the lichen Hypotrachyna sp. as an inhibitor for both Y. pestis and Escherichia coli topoisomerase I. In in vitro assays, anziaic acid exhibits antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and a membrane permeable strain of E. coli. Anziaic acid was also found to act as an inhibitor of human topoisomerase II but had little effect on human topoisomerase I. This is the first report of a depside with activity as a topoisomerase poison inhibitor and demonstrates the potential of this class of natural products as a source for new antibacterial and anticancer compounds.
Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA–protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topoisomerase of L. donovani and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor interacting with both subunits of the enzyme. Niranthin interacts with DNA–protein binary complexes and thus stabilizes the ‘cleavable complex’ formation and subsequently inhibits the religation of cleaved strand. The compound inhibits the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes in infected cultured murine macrophages with limited cytotoxicity to the host cells and is effective against antimony-resistant Leishmania parasites by modulating upregulated P-glycoprotein on host macrophages. Importantly, besides its in vitro efficacy, niranthin treatment leads to a switch from a Th2- to a Th1-type immune response in infected BALB/c mice. The immune response causes production of nitric oxide, which results in almost complete clearance of the liver and splenic parasite burden after intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration of the drug. These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis.
antimony resistance; chemotherapy; Leishmania donovani; niranthin; topoisomerase
Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a putative topoisomerase with sequence similarity to the eukaryotic type IB topoisomerase from Vaccinia virus. Residues in the active site are conserved, notably Tyr292 which would be predicted to form the transient covalent bond to DNA.
The gene encoding the P. aeruginosa topoisomerase I was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The enzyme relaxes supercoiled DNA, while a mutant containing a Tyr292 to Phe substitution at the active site was found to be catalytically inert. This is consistent with the role of Tyr in forming the covalent intermediate. Like Vaccinia topoisomerase, the P. aeruginosa topoisomerase relaxes DNA in the absence of ATP, but unlike Vaccinia topoisomerase, P. aeruginosa topoisomerase does not relax supercoiled DNA without MgCl2 present. In addition, high concentration of NaCl is not able to substitute for MgCl2 as seen for Vaccinia topoisomerase. A truncated derivative of the topoisomerase lacking residues 1–98 relaxes DNA, with both full length and truncated enzyme exhibiting equivalent requirements for divalent cations and the ability to relax DNA to completion, suggesting a shared domain organization. DNA-binding assays suggest an only modest preference for the CCCTT pentameric sequence required for transesterification by Vaccinia topoisomerase IB.
P. aeruginosa encodes a functional topoisomerase with significant similarity to the type IB enzyme encoded by poxviruses. In contrast to the Vaccinia-encoded homolog, the P. aeruginosa-encoded enzyme requires divalent cations for catalytic activity, relaxes DNA to completion, and does not exhibit a strong preference for the pentameric sequence stringently required by the Vaccinia-encoded homolog. A comparison with the structure of poxviral topoisomerase in complex with DNA suggests that bacterial homologs of the eukaryotic type IB topoisomerase may exhibit a relaxed sequence preference due to the lack of conservation of certain residues involved in sequence-specific DNA contacts, and that interaction with an only modestly preferred sequence may result in suboptimal positioning of catalytic residues.
Topoisomerase II is critical for DNA replication, transcription and chromosome segregation and is a well validated target of anti-neoplastic drugs including the anthracyclines and epipodophyllotoxins. However, these drugs are limited by common tumor resistance mechanisms and side-effect profiles. Novel topoisomerase II-targeting agents may benefit patients who prove resistant to currently available topoisomerase II-targeting drugs or encounter unacceptable toxicities. Voreloxin is an anticancer quinolone derivative, a chemical scaffold not used previously for cancer treatment. Voreloxin is completing Phase 2 clinical trials in acute myeloid leukemia and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. This study defined voreloxin's anticancer mechanism of action as a critical component of rational clinical development informed by translational research.
Biochemical and cell-based studies established that voreloxin intercalates DNA and poisons topoisomerase II, causing DNA double-strand breaks, G2 arrest, and apoptosis. Voreloxin is differentiated both structurally and mechanistically from other topoisomerase II poisons currently in use as chemotherapeutics. In cell-based studies, voreloxin poisoned topoisomerase II and caused dose-dependent, site-selective DNA fragmentation analogous to that of quinolone antibacterials in prokaryotes; in contrast etoposide, the nonintercalating epipodophyllotoxin topoisomerase II poison, caused extensive DNA fragmentation. Etoposide's activity was highly dependent on topoisomerase II while voreloxin and the intercalating anthracycline topoisomerase II poison, doxorubicin, had comparable dependence on this enzyme for inducing G2 arrest. Mechanistic interrogation with voreloxin analogs revealed that intercalation is required for voreloxin's activity; a nonintercalating analog did not inhibit proliferation or induce G2 arrest, while an analog with enhanced intercalation was 9.5-fold more potent.
As a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, voreloxin is a toposiomerase II-targeting agent with a unique mechanistic signature. A detailed understanding of voreloxin's molecular mechanism, in combination with its evolving clinical profile, may advance our understanding of structure-activity relationships to develop safer and more effective topoisomerase II-targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer.
Type II topoisomerases regulate DNA supercoiling and chromosome segregation. They act as ATP-operated clamps that capture a DNA duplex and pass it through a transient DNA break in a second DNA segment via the sequential opening and closure of ATPase-, G-DNA- and C-gates. Here, we present the first ‘open clamp’ structures of a 3-gate topoisomerase II-DNA complex, the seminal complex engaged in DNA recognition and capture. A high-resolution structure was solved for a (full-length ParE-ParC55)2 dimer of Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV bound to two DNA molecules: a closed DNA gate in a B-A-B form double-helical conformation and a second B-form duplex associated with closed C-gate helices at a novel site neighbouring the catalytically important β-pinwheel DNA-binding domain. The protein N gate is present in an ‘arms-wide-open’ state with the undimerized N-terminal ParE ATPase domains connected to TOPRIM domains via a flexible joint and folded back allowing ready access both for gate and transported DNA segments and cleavage-stabilizing antibacterial drugs. The structure shows the molecular conformations of all three gates at 3.7 Å, the highest resolution achieved for the full complex to date, and illuminates the mechanism of DNA capture and transport by a type II topoisomerase.
DNA topoisomerases are highly exploited targets for antimicrobial drugs. The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to public health and necessitates the discovery of inhibitors that target topoisomerases in novel ways. However, the traditional assays for topoisomerase activity are not suitable for the high-throughput approaches necessary for drug discovery. In this study we validate a novel assay for screening topoisomerase inhibitors. A library of 960 compounds was screened against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and archaeal Methanosarcina mazei DNA topoisomerase VI. Several novel inhibitors were identified for both enzymes, and subsequently characterised in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors from the M. mazei topoisomerase VI screen were tested for their ability to inhibit Arabidopsis topoisomerase VI in planta. The data from this work present new options for antibiotic drug discovery and provide insight into the mechanism of topoisomerase VI.
The bacterial type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are validated targets for clinically useful quinolone antimicrobial drugs. A significant limitation to widely utilized quinolone inhibitors is the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria due to an altered DNA gyrase. To address this problem, we have used structure-based molecular docking to identify novel drug-like small molecules that target sites distinct from those targeted by quinolone inhibitors. A chemical ligand database containing approximately 140,000 small molecules (molecular weight, <500) was molecularly docked onto two sites of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase targeting (i) a previously unexplored structural pocket formed at the dimer interface of subunit A and (ii) a small region of the ATP binding pocket on subunit B overlapping the site targeted by coumarin and cyclothialidine drugs. This approach identified several small-molecule compounds that inhibited the DNA supercoiling activity of purified E. coli DNA gyrase. These compounds are structurally unrelated to previously identified gyrase inhibitors and represent potential scaffolds for the optimization of novel antibacterial agents that act on fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.
Emergence of the bi-subunit topoisomerase I in the kinetoplastid family (Trypanosoma and Leishmania) has brought a new twist in topoisomerase research related to evolution, functional conservation and preferential sensitivities to the specific inhibitors of type IB topoisomerase family. In the present study, we describe that naturally occurring flavones baicalein, luteolin and quercetin are potent inhibitors of the recombinant Leishmania donovani topoisomerase I. These compounds bind to the free enzyme and also intercalate into the DNA at a very high concentration (300 µM) without binding to the minor grove. Here, we show that inhibition of topoisomerase I by these flavones is due to stabilization of topoisomerase I–DNA cleavage complexes, which subsequently inhibit the religation step. Their ability to stabilize the covalent topoisomerase I–DNA complex in vitro and in living cells is similar to that of the known topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). However, in contrast to CPT, baicalein and luteolin failed to inhibit the religation step when the drugs were added to pre-formed enzyme substrate binary complex. This differential mechanism to induce the stabilization of cleavable complex with topoisomerase I and DNA by these selected flavones and CPT led us to investigate the effect of baicalein and luteolin on CPT-resistant mutant enzyme LdTOP1Δ39LS lacking 1–39 amino acids of the large subunit [B. B. Das, N. Sen, S. B. Dasgupta, A. Ganguly and H. K. Majumder (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 16335–16344]. Baicalein and luteolin stabilize duplex oligonucleotide cleavage with LdTOP1Δ39LS. This observation was further supported by the stabilization of in vivo cleavable complex by baicalein and luteolin with highly CPT-resistant L.donovani strain. Taken together, our data suggest that the interacting amino acid residues of topoisomerase I may be partially overlapping or different for flavones and CPT. This study illuminates new properties of the flavones and provide additional insights into the ligand binding properties of L.donovani topoisomerase I.
Reverse gyrase is a peculiar DNA topoisomerase, specific of thermophilic microorganisms, which induces positive supercoiling into DNA molecules in an ATP-dependent reaction. It is a modular enzyme and comprises an N-terminal helicase-like module fused to a C-terminal topoisomerase IA-like domain. The exact molecular mechanism of this unique reaction is not understood, and a fundamental mechanistic question is how its distinct steps are coordinated. We studied the cross-talk between the components of this molecular motor and probed communication between the DNA-binding sites and the different activities (DNA relaxation, ATP hydrolysis and positive supercoiling). We show that the isolated ATPase and topoisomerase domains of reverse gyrase form specific physical interactions, retain their own DNA binding and enzymatic activities, and when combined cooperate to achieve the unique ATP-dependent positive supercoiling activity. Our results indicate a mutual effect of both domains on all individual steps of the reaction. The C-terminal domain shows ATP-independent topoisomerase activity, which is repressed by the N-terminal domain in the full-length enzyme; experiments with the isolated domains showed that the C-terminal domain has stimulatory influence on the ATPase activity of the N-terminal domain. In addition, the two domains showed a striking reciprocal thermostabilization effect.
Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro.
Topoisomerase; Topoisomerase I; Topoisomerase II; camptothecin; etoposide; topoisomerase poison
DNA topoisomerase VI from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae is the prototype of a novel family of type II DNA topoisomerases that share little sequence similarity with other type II enzymes, including bacterial and eukaryal type II DNA topoisomerases and archaeal DNA gyrases. DNA topoisomerase VI relaxes both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA in the presence of ATP and has no DNA supercoiling activity. The native enzyme is a heterotetramer composed of two subunits, A and B, with apparent molecular masses of 47 and 60 kDa, respectively. Here wereport the overexpression in Escherichia coli and the purification of each subunit. The A subunit exhibits clusters of arginines encoded by rare codons in E.coli . The expression of this protein thus requires the co-expression of the minor E.coli arginyl tRNA which reads AGG and AGA codons. The A subunit expressed in E.coli was obtained from inclusion bodies after denaturation and renaturation. The B subunit was overexpressed in E.coli and purified in soluble form. When purified B subunit was added to the renatured A subunit, ATP-dependent relaxation and decatenation activities of the hyperthermophilic DNA topoisomerase were reconstituted. The reconstituted recombinant enzyme exhibits a specific activity similar to the enzyme purified from S.shibatae . It catalyzes transient double-strand cleavage of DNA and becomes covalently attached to the ends of the cleaved DNA. This cleavage is detected only in the presence of both subunits and in the presence of ATP or its non-hydrolyzable analog AMPPNP.
Dovitinib (TKI258/CHIR258) is a multi-kinase inhibitor in phase III development for the treatment of several cancers. Dovitinib is a benzimidazole-quinolinone compound that structurally resembles the bisbenzimidazole minor groove binding dye Hoechst 33258. Dovitinib bound to DNA as shown by its ability to increase the DNA melting temperature and by increases in its fluorescence spectrum that occurred upon the addition of DNA. Molecular modeling studies of the docking of dovitinib into an X-ray structure of a Hoechst 33258-DNA complex showed that dovitinib could reasonably be accommodated in the DNA minor groove. Because DNA binders are often topoisomerase I (EC 184.108.40.206) and topoisomerase II (EC 220.127.116.11) inhibitors, the ability of dovitinib to inhibit these DNA processing enzymes was also investigated. Dovitinib inhibited the catalytic decatenation activity of topoisomerase IIα. It also inhibited the DNA-independent ATPase activity of yeast topoisomerase II which suggested that it interacted with the ATP binding site. Using isolated human topoisomerase IIα, dovitinib stabilized the enzyme-cleavage complex and acted as a topoisomerase IIα poison. Dovitinib was also found to be a cellular topoisomerase II poison in human leukemia K562 cells and induced double-strand DNA breaks in K562 cells as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of H2AX. Finally, dovitinib inhibited the topoisomerase I-catalyzed relaxation of plasmid DNA and acted as a cellular topoisomerase I poison. In conclusion, the cell growth inhibitory activity and the anticancer activity of dovitinib may result not only from its ability to inhibit multiple kinases, but also, in part, from its ability to target topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II.
Dovitinib; Anticancer; DNA; Topoisomerase II; Topoisomerase I
The aminocatechol A-3253 is active against several pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus albidus, and Aspergillus niger. A-3253 interferes with both the in vitro biosynthesis of (1,3)-beta-glucan and the activity of topoisomerases I isolated from Candida spp. It is likely that one or more of the enzymes involved in glucan biosynthesis rather than topoisomerase I is the primary intracellular target of A-3253, since a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking topoisomerase I is as susceptible to A-3253 as cells containing wild-type levels of topoisomerase I. However, the interaction of A-3253 with topoisomerase I in vitro is of interest since the Candida topoisomerase is more susceptible to A-3253 than is the topoisomerase I isolated from human HeLa cells. A-3253 is both a reversible inhibitor of topoisomerase I catalysis and a reversible poison of topoisomerase I, and in both reactions the fungal topoisomerase I is more susceptible than the human topoisomerase I to A-3253. In contrast, an earlier study found that the human topoisomerase I is more susceptible than the fungal topoisomerase to camptothecin (J. M. Fostel, D. A. Montgomery, and L. L. Shen, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:2131-2138, 1992). Taken together with the response to camptothecin, the greater susceptibility of the Candida topoisomerase I to A-3253 suggests that there are structural differences between the human and fungal type I topoisomerases which can likely be exploited to allow for the development of antifungal agents which act against the fungal topoisomerase and which have minimal activity against the human enzyme.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in persons with impaired immune systems. Topoisomerase I is a potential target for novel antifungal agents; however, in order for this enzyme to be a therapeutically useful target, it needs to be demonstrated that the fungal and human topoisomerases differ sufficiently as to allow the fungal topoisomerase to be selectively targeted. To address this question, we isolated the topoisomerase I from C. albicans and compared its biochemical properties with those of the mammalian enzyme. Similar to other eukaryotic type I topoisomerases, the C. albicans type I topoisomerase has an apparent molecular mass of 102 kDa and covalently links to the 3' end of DNA, as shown after the reaction is interrupted by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Topoisomerase poisons such as camptothecin act by stabilizing the cleavage complex formed by the topoisomerase I and DNA. We observed that the C. albicans and mammalian type I topoisomerases differ in that the C. albicans cleavage complex is approximately 10-fold less sensitive to camptothecin than the mammalian cleavage complex is. In addition, we found that the antifungal agent eupolauridine can stabilize the cleavage complex formed by both the C. albicans and human topoisomerases and that the response of the C. albicans topoisomerase I to this drug is greater than that of the human enzyme. Thus, the topoisomerase I from C. albicans is sufficiently distinct from the human enzyme as to allow differential chemical targeting and will therefore make a good target for antifungal drug discovery.
Topoisomerase II is an essential enzyme that is required for a number of critical nuclear processes. All of the catalytic functions of topoisomerase II require the enzyme to generate a transient double-stranded break in the backbone of the double helix. To maintain genomic integrity during the cleavage event, topoisomerase II forms covalent bonds between active site tyrosyl residues and the newly generated 5′-DNA termini. In addition to the critical cellular functions of the type II enzyme, several important anticancer drugs kill cells by increasing levels of covalent topoisomerase II-DNA cleavage complexes. Due to the physiological importance of topoisomerase II and its role in cancer chemotherapy, several methods have been developed to monitor the in vitro DNA cleavage activity of the type II enzyme. The plasmid-based system described in this chapter quantifies enzyme-mediated double-stranded DNA cleavage by monitoring the conversion of covalently-closed supercoiled DNA to linear molecules. The assay is simple, straightforward, and does not require the use of radiolabeled substrates.
Topoisomerase II; plasmid DNA; supercoiled DNA; DNA cleavage; agarose gel electrophoresis; topoisomerase II-targeted agents
In the studies reported here we have used topoisomerase II as a model system for analyzing the factors that determine the sites of action for DNA-binding proteins in vivo. To localize topoisomerase II sites in vivo we used an inhibitor of the purified enzyme, the antitumor drug VM-26. This drug stabilizes an intermediate in the catalytic cycle, the cleavable complex, and substantially stimulates DNA cleavage by topoisomerase II. We show that lysis of VM-26 treated tissue culture cells with sodium dodecyl sulfate induces highly specific double-strand breaks in genomic DNA, and we present evidence indicating that these double-strand breaks are generated by topoisomerase II. Using indirect end labeling to map the cleavage products, we have examined the in vivo sites of action of topoisomerase II in the 87A7 heat shock locus, the histone repeat, and a tRNA gene cluster at 90BC. Our analysis reveals that chromatin structure, not sequence specificity, is the primary determinant in topoisomerase II site selection in vivo. We suggest that chromatin organization may provide a general mechanism for generating specificity in a wide range of DNA-protein interactions in vivo.