The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT3 regulates metabolic homeostasis during fasting and calorie restriction. We identified mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) as an acetylated protein and a possible target of SIRT3 in a proteomics survey in hepatic mitochondria from Sirt3−/− (SIRT3KO) mice. HMGCS2 is the rate-limiting step in β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and is hyperacetylated at lysines 310, 447, and 473 in the absence of SIRT3. HMGCS2 is deacetylated by SIRT3 in response to fasting in wild-type mice, but not in SIRT3KO mice. HMGCS2 is deacetylated in vitro when incubated with SIRT3 and in vivo by overexpression of SIRT3. Deacetylation of HMGCS2 lysines 310, 447, and 473 by incubation with wild-type SIRT3 or by mutation to arginine enhances its enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations show that in silico deacetylation of these three lysines causes conformational changes of HMGCS2 near the active site. Mice lacking SIRT3 show decreased β-hydroxybutyrate levels during fasting. Our findings show SIRT3 regulates ketone body production during fasting and provide molecular insight into how protein acetylation can regulate enzymatic activity.
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 21,2. Mice lacking both SIRT3 alleles appear phenotypically normal under basal conditions, but show marked hyperacetylation of several mitochondrial proteins3. We report that SIRT3 expression is upregulated during fasting in liver and brown adipose tissues. Livers from mice lacking SIRT3 show higher levels of fatty acid oxidation intermediate products and triglycerides during fasting associated with decreased levels of fatty acid oxidation when compared to wild-type mice. Mass spectrometry analysis of mitochondrial proteins shows that long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is hyperacetylated at lysine 42 in the absence of SIRT3. LCAD is deacetylated in wild-type mice under fasted conditions and by SIRT3 in vitro and in vivo, and hyperacetylation of LCAD reduces its enzymatic activity. Mice lacking SIRT3 exhibit hallmarks of fatty acid oxidation disorders during fasting including reduced ATP levels and intolerance to cold exposure. These findings identify acetylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and demonstrate that SIRT3 modulates mitochondrial intermediary metabolism and fatty acid utilization during fasting.
Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin, predominantly expressed in highly metabolic tissues. Germline ablation of Sirt3 has major metabolic consequences, including increased susceptibility to metabolic damage and oxidative stress after high fat feeding. In order to determine the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to these phenotypes, we generated muscle-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3skm−/−) and liver-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3hep−/−) knock-out mice. Despite a marked global hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, Sirt3skm−/− and Sirt3hep−/− mice did not manifest any overt metabolic phenotype under either chow or high fat diet conditions. Similarly, there was no evidence for increased oxidative stress in muscle or liver when Sirt3 was ablated in a tissue-specific manner. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial hyperacetylation induced by Sirt3-deletion in a tissue specific manner is not necessarily linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and does not recapitulate the metabolic abnormalities observed in the germline Sirt3 knock-out mice.
Aging is associated with various metabolic disorders that may have their origin in the liver, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Although well-characterized in models of caloric restriction, relatively little is known about the role of sirtuins and acetylation under conditions of caloric excess. Sirtuins are NAD (+)-dependent protein deacetylases that mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized within the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates acetylation levels of a diverse set of metabolic enzymes. When normal mice are fed a high fat diet they demonstrate reduced SIRT3 activity, impaired mitochondrial function, and hyperacetylation of a diverse set of proteins in their livers. Furthermore, SIRT3 knockout mice have signs of accelerated aging and cancer. Understanding SIRT3's biochemical function and regulation in the liver under conditions of caloric excess may potentially increase our understanding of the normal aging process and diseases associated with aging, such as diabetes, fatty liver disease, or cancer.
aging; metabolism; obesity; SIRT3; mitochondria
The Sir2 deacetylase regulates chromatin silencing and lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae1,2. In mice, deficiency for the Sir2 family member SIRT6 leads to a shortened lifespan and a premature ageing-like phenotype3. However, the molecular mechanisms of SIRT6 function are unclear. SIRT6 is a chromatin-associated protein3, but no enzymatic activity of SIRT6 at chromatin has yet been detected, and the identity of physiological SIRT6 substrates is unknown. Here we show that the human SIRT6 protein is an NAD+-dependent, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) deacetylase that modulates telomeric chromatin. SIRT6 associates specifically with telomeres, and SIRT6 depletion leads to telomere dysfunction with end-to-end chromosomal fusions and premature cellular senescence. Moreover, SIRT6-depleted cells exhibit abnormal telomere structures that resemble defects observed in Werner syndrome, a premature ageing disorder4,5. At telomeric chromatin, SIRT6 deacetylates H3K9 and is required for the stable association of WRN, the factor that is mutated in Werner syndrome4,5. We propose that SIRT6 contributes to the propagation of a specialized chromatin state at mammalian telomeres, which in turn is required for proper telomere metabolism and function. Our findings constitute the first identification of a physiological enzymatic activity of SIRT6, and link chromatin regulation by SIRT6 to telomere maintenance and a human premature ageing syndrome.
A member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, SIRT3 is identified as one of major mitochondrial deacetylase located in mammalian mitochondria responsible for deacetylation of several metabolic enzymes and components of oxidative phosphorylation. Regulation of protein deacetylation by SIRT3 is important for mitochondrial metabolism, cell survival and longevity. In this study, we identified one of the Complex II subunits, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (SdhA) subunit, as a novel SIRT3 substrate in SIRT3 knock-out mice. Several acetylated Lys residues were mapped by tandem mass spectrometry and we determined the role of acetylation on Complex II activity in SIRT3 knock-out mice. In agreement with SIRT3 dependent activation of Complex I, we observed that deacetylation of SdhA subunit increased the Complex II activity in wild type mice. In addition, we treated K562 cell lines with nicotinamide and kaempferol to inhibit deacetylase activity of SIRT3 and stimulate SIRT3 expression, respectively. Stimulation of SIRT3 expression decreased acetylation of the SdhA subunit and increased Complex II activity in kaempherol-treated cells compared to control and nicotinamide treated cells. Evaluation of acetylated residues in SdhA crystal structure from porcine and chicken suggest that acetylation of the hydrophilic surface of SdhA may control the substrate entry to the active site of the protein and regulate the enzyme activity. Our findings constitute the first evidence for the regulation of Complex II activity by the reversible acetylation of the SdhA subunit as a novel substrate of the NAD+- dependent deacetylase, SIRT3.
Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation is a known consequence of sustained ethanol consumption and has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms underlying this altered acetylome, however, remain unknown. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is reported to be the major regulator of mitochondrial protein deacetylation and remains a central focus for studies on protein acetylation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced mitochondrial acetylation, we employed a model for ALD in both wild-type (WT) and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice using a proteomics and bioinformatics approach. Here, WT and SIRT3 KO groups were compared in a mouse model of chronic ethanol consumption, revealing pathways relevant to ALD, including lipid and fatty acid metabolism, antioxidant response, amino acid biosynthesis and the electron-transport chain, each displaying proteins with altered acetylation. Interestingly, protein hyperacetylation resulting from ethanol consumption and SIRT3 ablation suggests ethanol-induced hyperacetylation targets numerous biological processes within the mitochondria, the majority of which are known to be acetylated through SIRT3-dependent mechanisms. These findings reveal overall increases in 91 mitochondrial targets for protein acetylation, identifying numerous critical metabolic and antioxidant pathways associated with ALD, suggesting an important role for mitochondrial protein acetylation in the pathogenesis of ALD.
Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6), a mammalian Sir2 (silent information regulator-2) ortholog, is an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that modulates chromatin structure and genomic stability. Sirt6 knockout cells demonstrate genomic instability, and a deficiency of Sirt6 in mice leads to an aging phenotype early in life. Some nuclear sirtuins, such as Sirt7, localize to the nucleolus, and others, such as Sirt1, are mainly found in the nucleoplasm, with a minor population in the nucleolus. However, Sirt6 has been reported to be a nucleoplasmic protein that is excluded from the nucleolus. Because of the importance of a protein’s localization to its interactions and functions, we evaluated Sirt6 sub-cellular localization, expression and functions throughout the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Our results showed that during interphase, Sirt6 was mostly localized to the nucleus, although it was not absent from the nucleolus. Sirt6 was enriched in the nucleolus in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, while S phase nucleoli were almost entirely free of Sirt6. During mitosis, the Sirt6 expression level was increased, and while Sirt6 was not associated with condensed chromosomes, it partially co-localized with mitotic spindles. Cells overexpressing Sirt6 had a lower proliferation rate with a lower percentage of cells in mitosis. These findings suggest roles for Sirt6 in the nucleolus and in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.
Sirt6; Sirtuin; nucleolus; cell cycle; mitosis
Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD-dependent deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that are involved in metabolism, stress responses and longevity. SIRT3 is localized to mitochondria, where it deacetylates and activates a number of enzymes involved in fuel oxidation and energy production.
In this study, we performed a proteomic screen to identify SIRT3 interacting proteins and identified several subunits of complex II and V of the electron transport chain. Two subunits of complex II (also known as succinate dehydrogenase, or SDH), SDHA and SDHB, interacted specifically with SIRT3. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 13 acetylation sites on SDHA, including six novel acetylated residues. SDHA is hyperacetylated in SIRT3 KO mice and SIRT3 directly deacetylates SDHA in a NAD-dependent manner. Finally, we found that SIRT3 regulates SDH activity both in cells and in murine brown adipose tissue.
Our study identifies SDHA as a binding partner and substrate for SIRT3 deacetylase activity. SIRT3 loss results in decreased SDH enzyme activity, suggesting that SIRT3 may be an important physiological regulator of SDH activity.
In mammals, Sirt1, a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, functions as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deactylase, and has important physiological roles, including the regulation of glucose metabolism, cell survival, and mitochondrial respiration. The initial investigations of Sirt1 deficient mice have revealed a phenotype that includes a reduced lifespan, small size, and an increased frequency of abnormal sperm. We have now performed a detailed analysis of the molecular and functional effects of Sirt1 deficiency in the germ line of Sirt1 knock-out (−/−) mice. We find that Sirt1 deficiency markedly attenuates spermatogenesis, but not oogenesis. Numbers of mature sperm and spermatogenic precursors, as early as d15.5 of development, are significantly reduced (∼2-10-fold less; P≤0.004) in numbers in Sirt1−/− mice, whereas Sirt1 deficiency did not effect the efficiency oocyte production following superovulation of female mice. Furthermore, the proportion of mature sperm with elevated DNA damage (∼7.5% of total epididymal sperm; P = 0.02) was significantly increased in adult Sirt1−/− males. Analysis of global gene expression by microarray analysis in Sirt1 deficient testis revealed dysregulated expression of 85 genes, which were enriched (P<0.05) for genes involved in spermatogenesis and protein sumoylation. To assess the function of Sirt1 deficient germ cells, we compared the efficiency of generating embryos and viable offspring in in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments using gametes from Sirt1−/− and sibling Sirt1+/− mice. While viable animals were derived in both Sirt1−/− X wild type and Sirt1−/− X Sirt1−/− crosses, the efficiency of producing both 2-cell zygotes and viable offspring was diminished when IVF was performed with Sirt1−/− sperm and/or oocytes. Together, these data support an important role for Sirt1 in spermatogenesis, including spermatogenic stem cells, as well as germ cell function.
Genetic deletion of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) results in increased mitochondrial superoxide, a tumor permissive environment, and mammary tumor development. MnSOD contains a nutrient- and ionizing radiation (IR)-dependent reversible acetyl-lysine that is hyperacetylated in Sirt3−/− livers at 3 months of age. Livers of Sirt3−/− mice exhibit decreased MnSOD activity, but not immunoreactive protein, relative to wild-type livers. Re-introduction of wild-type, but not deacetylation null Sirt3, into Sirt3−/− MEFs deacetylated lysine and restored MnSOD activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of MnSOD lysine 122 to an arginine, mimicking deacetylation (lenti-MnSODK122-R), increased MnSOD activity when expressed in MnSOD−/− MEFs, suggesting acetylation directly regulates function. Furthermore, infection of Sirt3−/− MEFs with lenti-MnSODK122-R inhibited in vitro immortalization by an oncogene (Ras), inhibited IR-induced genomic instability, and decreased mitochondrial superoxide. Finally, IR was unable to induce MnSOD deacetylation or activity in Sirt3−/− livers and these irradiated livers displayed significant IR-induced cell damage and micro-vacuolization in their hepatocytes.
MnSOD; Sirt3; Mitochondria; Acetylation; Carcinogenesis
The sirtuins are a protein family named after the first identified member, S. cerevisiae Sir2p. Sirtuins are protein deacetylases whose activity is dependent on NAD+ as a cosubstrate. They are structurally defined by two central domains that together form a highly conserved catalytic center, which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl moiety from acetyllysine to NAD+, yielding nicotinamide, the unique metabolite O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and deacetylated lysine. One or more sirtuins are present in virtually all species from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of sirtuins. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, sirtuins can be grouped into over a dozen classes and subclasses. Humans, like most vertebrates, have seven sirtuins: SIRT1-SIRT7. These function in diverse cellular pathways, regulating transcriptional repression, aging, metabolism, DNA damage responses and apoptosis. We show that these seven sirtuins arose early during animal evolution. Conserved residues cluster around the catalytic center of known sirtuin family members.
deacetylase; evolution; molecular phylogeny; SIR2; sirtuin
FoxO transcription factors and sirtuin family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including stress responses and longevity. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans sirtuin SIR-2.4—homolog of mammalian SIRT6 and SIRT7 proteins—promotes DAF-16–dependent transcription and stress-induced DAF-16 nuclear localization. SIR-2.4 is required for resistance to multiple stressors: heat shock, oxidative insult, and proteotoxicity. By contrast, SIR-2.4 is largely dispensable for DAF-16 nuclear localization and function in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Although acetylation is known to regulate localization and activity of mammalian FoxO proteins, this modification has not been previously described on DAF-16. We find that DAF-16 is hyperacetylated in sir-2.4 mutants. Conversely, DAF-16 is acetylated by the acetyltransferase CBP-1, and DAF-16 is hypoacetylated and constitutively nuclear in response to cbp-1 inhibition. Surprisingly, a SIR-2.4 catalytic mutant efficiently rescues the DAF-16 localization defect in sir-2.4 null animals. Acetylation of DAF-16 by CBP-1 in vitro is inhibited by either wild-type or mutant SIR-2.4, suggesting that SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 acetylation indirectly, by preventing CBP-1-mediated acetylation under stress conditions. Taken together, our results identify SIR-2.4 as a critical regulator of DAF-16 specifically in the context of stress responses. Furthermore, they reveal a novel role for acetylation, modulated by the antagonistic activities of CBP-1 and SIR-2.4, in modulating DAF-16 localization and function.
Sensing and responding appropriately to environmental insults is a challenge facing all organisms. In the roundworm C. elegans, the FoxO protein DAF-16 moves to the nucleus in response to stress, where it regulates gene expression and plays a key role in ensuring organismal survival. In this manuscript, we characterize SIR-2.4 as a novel factor that promotes DAF-16 function during stress. SIR-2.4 is a member of a family of proteins called sirtuins, some of which promote increased lifespan in model organisms. Worms lacking SIR-2.4 show impaired DAF-16 nuclear recruitment, DAF-16–dependent gene expression, and survival in response to a variety of stressors. SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 by indirectly affecting levels of a modification called acetylation on DAF-16. Overall, our work has revealed SIR-2.4 to be a key new factor in stress resistance and DAF-16 regulation in C. elegans. Future studies will address whether mammalian SIR-2.4 homologs SIRT6 and SIRT7 act similarly towards mammalian FoxO proteins.
Macrophage activation and infiltration into resident tissues is known to mediate local inflammation and is a hallmark feature of metabolic syndrome. Members of the sirtuin family of proteins regulate numerous physiological processes, including those involved in nutrient regulation and the promotion of longevity. However, the important role that SIRT1, the leading sirtuin family member, plays in immune response remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT1 modulates the acetylation status of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB and thus plays a pivotal role in regulating the inflammatory, immune, and apoptotic responses in mammals. Using a myeloid cell-specific SIRT1 knockout (Mac-SIRT1 KO) mouse model, we show that ablation of SIRT1 in macrophages renders NF-κB hyperacetylated, resulting in increased transcriptional activation of proinflammatory target genes. Consistent with increased proinflammatory gene expression, Mac-SIRT1 KO mice challenged with a high-fat diet display high levels of activated macrophages in liver and adipose tissue, predisposing the animals to development of systemic insulin resistance and metabolic derangement. In summary, we report that SIRT1, in macrophages, functions to inhibit NF-κB-mediated transcription, implying that myeloid cell-specific modulation of this sirtuin may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation and its associated diseases.
Members of the Sirtuin (SIRT) family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases promote longevity in multiple organisms. Deficiency of mammalian SIRT6 leads to shortened lifespan and an aging-like phenotype in mice, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that SIRT6 functions at chromatin to attenuate NF-κB signaling. SIRT6 interacts with the NF-κB RELA subunit and deacetylates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) at NF-κB target gene promoters. In SIRT6-deficient cells, hyperacetylation of H3K9 at these target promoters is associated with increased RELA promoter occupancy, and enhanced NF-κB-dependent modulation of gene expression, apoptosis and cellular senescence. Computational genomics analyses revealed increased activity of NF-κB-driven gene expression programs in multiple Sirt6-deficient tissues in vivo. Moreover, haploinsufficiency of RelA rescues the early lethality and degenerative syndrome of Sirt6-deficient mice. We propose that SIRT6 attenuates NF-κB signaling via H3K9 deacetylation at chromatin, and hyperactive NF-κB signaling may contribute to premature and normal aging.
Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that is dynamically regulated by the activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases. The human and mouse genomes encode 18 different lysine deacetylases (KDACs) which are key regulators of many cellular processes. Identifying substrates of KDACs and pinpointing the regulated acetylation sites on target proteins may provide important information about the molecular basis of their functions. Here we apply quantitative proteomics to identify endogenous substrates of the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) by comparing site-specific acetylation in wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts to Sirt3 knockout cells. We confirm Sirt3-regulated acetylation of several mitochondrial proteins in human cells by comparing acetylation in U2OS cells overexpressing Sirt3 to U2OS cells in which Sirt3 expression was reduced by shRNA. Our data demonstrate that ablation of Sirt3 significantly increases acetylation at dozens of sites on mitochondrial proteins. Substrates of Sirt3 are implicated in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results imply broader regulatory roles of Sirt3 in the mitochondria by modulating acetylation on diverse substrates. The experimental strategy described here is generic and can be applied to identify endogenous substrates of other lysine deacetylases.
Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), a major mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, targets various mitochondrial proteins for lysine deacetylation and regulates important cellular functions such as energy metabolism, aging, and stress response. In this study, we identified the human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a DNA repair enzyme that excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) from damaged genome, as a new target protein for Sirt3. We found that Sirt3 physically associated with OGG1 and deacetylated this DNA glycosylase and that deacetylation by Sirt3 prevented the degradation of the OGG1 protein and controlled its incision activity. We further showed that regulation of the acetylation and turnover of OGG1 by Sirt3 played a critical role in repairing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, protecting mitochondrial integrity, and preventing apoptotic cell death under oxidative stress. We observed that following ionizing radiation, human tumor cells with silencing of Sirt3 expression exhibited deteriorated oxidative damage of mtDNA, as measured by the accumulation of 8-oxoG and 4977 common deletion, and showed more severe mitochondrial dysfunction and underwent greater apoptosis in comparison with the cells without silencing of Sirt3 expression. The results reported here not only reveal a new function and mechanism for Sirt3 in defending the mitochondrial genome against oxidative damage and protecting from the genotoxic stress-induced apoptotic cell death but also provide evidence supporting a new mtDNA repair pathway.
Sirt3; OGG1; mitochondria; DNA repair; apoptosis
Acetylation is increasingly recognized as an important metabolic regulatory post-translational protein modification, yet the metabolic consequence of mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation is unknown. We find that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in mice and downregulation of the major mitochondrial protein deacetylase SIRT3. Mice lacking SIRT3 (SIRT3KO) placed on a HFD show accelerated obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and steatohepatitis compared to wild-type (wt) mice. The lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 is highly induced in SIRT3KO mice, and its deletion rescues both wt and SIRT3KO mice from HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We further identify a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SIRT3 gene that is suggestive of a genetic association with the metabolic syndrome. This polymorphism encodes a point-mutation in the SIRT3 protein, which reduces its overall enzymatic efficiency. Our findings show loss of SIRT3 and dysregulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation contribute to the metabolic syndrome.
Recently the function of the sirtuin family, named after their homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), has received a lot of attention, as their beneficial impact on longevity was linked to their effects on metabolic control. All sirtuins require nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for their deacetylase or ADP-ribosyl transferase activity, linking their function tightly to cellular energy levels. SIRT1, the founding member of the sirtuin family, modulates many aspects of glucose and lipid homeostasis in almost all key metabolic tissues. Other members including SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT4 are also implicated in various metabolic processes. Here, we review the recent data related to the role of sirtuins in the control of metabolic homeostasis and possible underlying molecular mechanisms.
sirtuin; NAD+; deacetylase; ADP-ribosyl transferase; metabolic homeostasis; metabolic disorders
Sirt5, localized in the mitochondria, is a member of sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirt5 was shown to deacetylate and activate carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1. Most recently, Sirt5 was reported to be the predominant protein desuccinylase and demalonylase in the mitochondria because the ablation of Sirt5 enhanced the global succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In order to determine the physiological role of Sirt5 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated a germline Sirt5 deficient (Sirt5−/−) mouse model and performed a thorough metabolic characterization of this mouse line. Although a global protein hypersuccinylation and elevated serum ammonia during fasting were observed in our Sirt5−/− mouse model, Sirt5 deficiency did not lead to any overt metabolic abnormalities under either chow or high fat diet conditions. These observations suggest that Sirt5 is likely to be dispensable for the metabolic homeostasis under the basal conditions.
Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that can extend the lifespan of several lower model organisms including yeast, worms and flies. The seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1 to SIRT7, have emerged as key metabolic sensors that directly link environmental signals to mammalian metabolic homeostasis and stress response. Recent studies have shed light on the critical roles of sirtuins in mammalian energy metabolism in response to nutrient signals. This review focuses on the involvement of two nuclear sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT6, and three mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5, in regulation of diverse metabolic processes.
sirtuins; energy metabolism; aging; nutrients
Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated metabolism, induce specific changes in these acyl modifications. These data suggest that protein acylation, beyond protein acetylation, contributes to the overall metabolic regulatory network and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.
It has become increasing clear that alterations in cellular metabolism have a key role in the generation and maintenance of cancer. Some of the metabolic changes can be attributed to the activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we show that the mitochondrial sirtuin, SirT3, acts as a tumor suppressor via its ability to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulate hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) or tumor cell lines expressing SirT3 short-hairpin RNA exhibit a greater potential to proliferate, and augmented HIF-1α protein stabilization and transcriptional activity in hypoxic conditions. SirT3 knockdown increases tumorigenesis in xenograft models, and this is abolished by giving mice the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, overexpression of SirT3 inhibits stabilization of HIF-1α protein in hypoxia and attenuates increases in HIF-1α transcriptional activity. Critically, overexpression of SirT3 decreases tumorigenesis in xenografts, even when induction of the sirtuin occurs after tumor initiation. These data suggest that SirT3 acts to suppress the growth of tumors, at least in part through its ability to suppress ROS and HIF-1α.
SirT3; ROS; HIF; mitochondria; hypoxia
Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1–SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.
aging; diabetic nephropathy; sirtuin; SIRT1 (sirtuin 1); AGE, advanced glycation end-product; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; AngII, angiotensin II; AT1R, angiotensin type 1 receptor; Atg, autophagy-related gene; BMAL1, brain and muscle ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator)-like 1; Bnip3, BCL2/adenovirus E1V 19-kDa interacting protein 3; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CR, calorie restriction; CRP, C-reactive protein; COX2, cyclo-oxygenase 2; α-ENaC, epithelial Na+ channel α-subunit; eNOS, endothelial NO synthase; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FOXO, forkhead box O; FXR, farnesoid X receptor; H3K9, histone H3 Lys9; H3K9me3, H3K9 trimethylation; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; Idh2, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; LC3, light chain 3; LXR, liver X receptor; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1; Mn-SOD, manganese superoxide dismutase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; PER2, Period 2; PGC-1α, PPAR-γ co-activator-1α; PKC, protein kinase C; PPAR, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor; PTP1B, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B; RAS, renin–angiotensin system; ROS, reactive oxygen species; Sir2, silent information regulator 2; SIRT1 etc., sirtuin 1 etc., SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; SREBP, sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor α; UUO, unilateral ureteral obstruction; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1; WFR, Wistar fatty diabetic rat
Accumulating evidence suggests that reversible protein acetylation may be a major regulatory mechanism that rivals phosphorylation. With the recent cataloging of thousands of acetylation sites on hundreds of proteins comes the challenge of identifying the acetyltransferases and deacetylases that regulate acetylation levels. Sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that are implicated in genome maintenance, metabolism, cell survival, and lifespan. SIRT3 is the dominant protein deacetylase in mitochondria and emerging evidence suggests that SIRT3 may control major pathways by deacetylation of central metabolic enzymes. Here, to identify potential SIRT3 substrates, we have developed an unbiased screening strategy that involves a novel acetyl-lysine analog (thiotrifluoroacetyl-lysine), SPOT-peptide libraries, machine learning, and kinetic validation. SPOT peptide libraries based on known and potential mitochondrial acetyl-lysine sites were screened for SIRT3 binding, then analyzed using machine learning to establish binding trends. These trends were then applied to the mitochondrial proteome as a whole to predict binding affinity of all lysine sites within human mitochondria. Machine learning prediction of SIRT3 binding correlated with steady-state kinetic kcat/Km values for 24 acetyl-lysine peptides that possessed a broad range of predicted binding. Thus, SPOT peptide-binding screens and machine learning prediction provides an accurate and efficient method to evaluate sirtuin substrate specificity from a relatively small learning set. These analyses suggest potential SIRT3 substrates involved in several metabolic pathways such as the urea cycle, ATP synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation.