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1.  Efficacy and adverse events of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis 
Critical Care  2014;18(3):R102.
Introduction
Theoretically, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) achieves all goals of a lung-protective ventilatory mode and seems ideal for the treatment of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, its effects on mortality and adverse clinical outcomes remain uncertain given the paucity of high-quality studies in this area. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of HFOV in adults with ARDS.
Methods
We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through February 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials of HFOV in adult ARDS patients. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study methods, clinical and physiological outcomes and adverse events. The primary outcome was 30-day or hospital mortality. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Mortality, oxygenation and adverse effects of HFOV were compared to those of conventional mechanical ventilation. A random-effects model was applied for meta-analysis.
Results
A total of five trials randomly assigning 1,580 patients met inclusion criteria. Pooled data showed that HFOV significantly improved oxygenation on day one of therapy (four studies; 24% higher; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 40%; P <0.01). However, HFOV did not reduce mortality risk (five studies; risk ratio (RR) 1.04; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.31; P = 0.71) and two early terminated studies suggested a harmful effect of HFOV in ARDS (two studies; RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.62; P <0.01). Safety profiles showed that HFOV was associated with a trend toward increased risk of barotrauma (five studies; RR 1.19; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.72; P = 0.34) and unfavorable hemodynamics (five studies; RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.39; P = 0.12).
Conclusions
HFOV improved oxygenation in adult patients with ARDS; however, it did not confer a survival benefit and might cause harm in the era of lung-protective ventilation strategy. The evidence suggests that HFOV should not be a routine practice in ARDS and further studies specifically selecting patients for this ventilator mode should be pursued.
doi:10.1186/cc13880
PMCID: PMC4075239  PMID: 24886674
2.  High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669] 
Critical Care  2005;9(4):R430-R439.
Introduction
To compare the safety and efficacy of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with conventional mechanical ventilation (CV) for early intervention in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multi-centre randomized trial in four intensive care units was conducted.
Methods
Patients with ARDS were randomized to receive either HFOV or CV. In both treatment arms a priority was given to maintain lung volume while minimizing peak pressures. CV ventilation strategy was aimed at reducing tidal volumes. In the HFOV group, an open lung strategy was used. Respiratory and circulatory parameters were recorded and clinical outcome was determined at 30 days of follow up.
Results
The study was prematurely stopped. Thirty-seven patients received HFOV and 24 patients CV (average APACHE II score 21 and 20, oxygenation index 25 and 18 and duration of mechanical ventilation prior to randomization 2.1 and 1.5 days, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in survival without supplemental oxygen or on ventilator, mortality, therapy failure, or crossover. Adjustment by a priori defined baseline characteristics showed an odds ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.22–2.97) for survival without oxygen or on ventilator, and an odds ratio for mortality of 1.15 (95% CI 0.43–3.10) for HFOV compared with CV. The response of the oxygenation index (OI) to treatment did not differentiate between survival and death. In the HFOV group the OI response was significantly higher than in the CV group between the first and the second day. A post hoc analysis suggested that there was a relatively better treatment effect of HFOV compared with CV in patients with a higher baseline OI.
Conclusion
No significant differences were observed, but this trial only had power to detect major differences in survival without oxygen or on ventilator. In patients with ARDS and higher baseline OI, however, there might be a treatment benefit of HFOV over CV. More research is needed to establish the efficacy of HFOV in the treatment of ARDS. We suggest that future studies are designed to allow for informative analysis in patients with higher OI.
doi:10.1186/cc3737
PMCID: PMC1269459  PMID: 16137357
3.  The initial Mayo Clinic experience using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adult patients: a retrospective study 
Background
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was introduced in our institution in June 2003. Since then, there has been no protocol to guide the use of HFOV, and all decisions regarding ventilation strategies and settings of HFOV were made by the treating intensivist. The aim of this study is to report our first year of experience using HFOV.
Methods
In this retrospective study, we reviewed all 14 adult patients, who were consecutively ventilated with HFOV in the intensive care units of a tertiary medical center, from June 2003 to July 2004.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 56 years, 10 were males, and all were whites. The first day median APACHE II score and its predicted hospital mortality were 35 and 83%, respectively, and the median SOFA score was 11.5. Eleven patients had ARDS, two unilateral pneumonia with septic shock, and one pulmonary edema. Patients received conventional ventilation for a median of 1.8 days before HFOV. HFOV was used 16 times for a median of 3.2 days. Improvements in oxygenation parameters were observed after 24 hours of HFOV (mean PaO2/FIO2 increased from 82 to 107, P < 0.05; and the mean oxygenation index decreased from 42 to 29; P < 0.05). In two patients HFOV was discontinued, in one because of equipment failure and in another because of severe hypotension that was unresponsive to fluids. No change in mean arterial pressure, or vasopressor requirements was noted after the initiation of HFOV. Eight patients died (57 %, 95% CI: 33–79); life support was withdrawn in six and two suffered cardiac arrest.
Conclusion
During our first year of experience, HFOV was used as a rescue therapy in very sick patients with refractory hypoxemia, and improvement in oxygenation was observed after 24 hours of this technique. HFOV is a reasonable alternative when a protective lung strategy could not be achieved on conventional ventilation.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-6-2
PMCID: PMC1456987  PMID: 16464246
4.  Bench-to-bedside review: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Critical Care  2006;10(6):240.
Mechanical ventilation is the cornerstone of therapy for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Paradoxically, mechanical ventilation can exacerbate lung damage – a phenomenon known as ventilator-induced lung injury. While new ventilation strategies have reduced the mortality rate in patients with ARDS, this mortality rate still remains high. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an unconventional form of ventilation that may improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, while limiting further lung injury associated with high ventilatory pressures and volumes delivered during conventional ventilation. HFOV has been used for almost two decades in the neonatal population, but there is more limited experience with HFOV in the adult population. In adults, the majority of the published literature is in the form of small observational studies in which HFOV was used as 'rescue' therapy for patients with very severe ARDS who were failing conventional ventilation. Two prospective randomized controlled trials, however, while showing no mortality benefit, have suggested that HFOV, compared with conventional ventilation, is a safe and effective ventilation strategy for adults with ARDS. Several studies suggest that HFOV may improve outcomes if used early in the course of ARDS, or if used in certain populations. This review will summarize the evidence supporting the use of HFOV in adults with ARDS.
doi:10.1186/cc5096
PMCID: PMC1794464  PMID: 17184554
5.  Effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on esophageal and transpulmonary pressures in moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Annals of Intensive Care  2016;6(1):84.
Background
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has not been shown to be beneficial in the management of moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is uncertainty about the actual pressure applied into the lung during HFOV. We therefore performed a study to compare the transpulmonary pressure (PL) during conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and different levels of mean airway pressure (mPaw) during HFOV.
Methods
This is a prospective randomized crossover study in a university teaching hospital. An esophageal balloon catheter was used to measure esophageal pressures (Pes) at end inspiration and end expiration and to calculate PL. Measurements were taken during ventilation with CMV (CMVpre) after which patients were switched to HFOV with three 1-h different levels of mPaw set at +5, +10 and +15 cm H2O above the mean airway pressure measured during CMV. Patients were thereafter switched back to CMV (CMVpost).
Results
Ten patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS were included. We demonstrated a linear increase in Pes and PL with the increase in mPaw during HFOV. Contrary to CMV, PL was always positive during HFOV whatever the level of mPaw applied but not associated with improvement in oxygenation. We found significant correlations between mPaw and Pes.
Conclusion
HFOV with high level of mPaw increases transpulmonary pressures without improvement in oxygenation.
doi:10.1186/s13613-016-0181-1
PMCID: PMC5005229  PMID: 27577052
6.  Is high-frequency oscillatory ventilation more effective and safer than conventional protective ventilation in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Critical Care  2014;18(3):R111.
Introduction
Comprehensively evaluating the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is important to allow clinicians who are using or considering this intervention to make appropriate decisions.
Methods
To find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFOV with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) as an initial treatment for adult ARDS patients, we searched electronic databases (including PubMed, MedLine, Springer Link, Elsevier Science Direct, ISI web of knowledge, and EMBASE) with the following terms: “acute respiratory distress syndrome”, “acute lung injury”, and “high frequency oscillation ventilation”. Additional sources included reference lists from the identified primary studies and relevant meta-analyses. Two investigators independently screened articles and extracted data. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models.
Results
We included 6 RCTs with a total of 1,608 patients in this meta-analysis. Compared with CMV, HFOV did not significantly reduce the mortality at 30 or 28 days. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.051 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.813 to 1.358). ICU mortality was also not significantly reduced in HFOV group, with a pooled RR of 1.218 (95% CI 0.925 to 1.604). The pooled effect sizes of HFOV for oxygenation failure, ventilation failure and duration of mechanical ventilation were 0.557 (95% CI 0.351 to 0.884), 0.892 (95% CI 0.435 to 1.829) and 0.079 (95% CI −0.045 to 0.203), respectively. The risk of barotrauma and hypotension were similar between the CMV group and HFOV group, with a RR of 1.205 (95% CI 0.834 to 1.742) and a RR of 1.326 (95% CI 0.271 to 6.476), respectively.
Conclusions
Although HFOV seems not to increase the risk of barotrauma or hypotension, and reduces the risk of oxygenation failure, it does not improve survival in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.
doi:10.1186/cc13900
PMCID: PMC4095578  PMID: 24887179
7.  High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is an effective treatment for severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome with refractory hypoxemia 
Background and purpose
Early or primary application of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been recently suggested not to offer benefit to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the rescue effects of HFOV on severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) with hypoxemia refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether severe PARDS children would benefit from HFOV when oxygenation deteriorated on CMV and to identify any potential risk factors related to mortality.
Patients and methods
In a retrospective and observational study, 48 children with severe PARDS between January 2009 and July 2015 were divided into two groups: 26 in HFOV group and 22 in CMV group. Data regarding demographic, underlying conditions, arterial blood gases and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed.
Results
The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspiration oxygen (FiO2) ratio and PaO2 improved significantly during HFOV, whereas arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygenation index decreased. There was no statistical difference in the in-hospital mortality between the groups (P=0.367). The odds ratio of survival in HFOV group was 2.74 (95% confidence interval 0.52 to 14.58, P=0.237). The pediatric intensive care unit length of stay and total ventilation duration were longer in HFOV group (P=0.048 and P=0.000, respectively). Vasoactive agents were used more frequently in HFOV group (P=0.007). The incidence of new air leak was similar between the two groups (P=0.674). The presence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and heavier body weight were identified as predictors of mortality in the HFOV group (P=0.006 and P=0.020, respectively).
Conclusion
HFOV as an efficient alternative therapy could significantly improve hypoxemia and promote CO2 removal in severe PARDS children when oxygenation progressively worsens on CMV.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S115884
PMCID: PMC5077263  PMID: 27799777
pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome; high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; mechanical ventilation; children
8.  High-frequency oscillation ventilation for hypercapnic failure of conventional ventilation in pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):201.
Introduction
High-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV) is regarded as particularly lung protective. Recently, HFOV has been shown to be not beneficial for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients in general. Due to its special physical effects, it could be beneficial, however, in inhomogeneous ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of HFOV on PaCO2 removal in hypercapnic patients with ARDS of pulmonary origin.
Methods
Between October 2010 and June 2014 patients with ARDS of pulmonary origin with PaO2/FiO2 ratio >60 mmHg, but respiratory acidosis (pH <7.26) under optimized protective ventilation were switched to HFOV, using moderate airway pressure (adopting the mean airway pressure of the prior ventilation). Data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively; PaCO2 and pH before, 1 h and 24 h after the start of HFOV were compared.
Results
Twenty-six patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio 139 ± 49 and respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 68 ± 12 mmHg) were put on HFOV after 17 ± 22 h of conventional ventilation. Mean airway pressure was 19 cm H2O (15 to 28). PaCO2 decreased significantly: after 1 hour the mean difference was −14 ± 10 mmHg; P <0.01 and after 24 hours −17 ± 12 mmHg; P <0.01; n = 24. CO2 clearance improved in all but two patients; in those, extracorporeal lung support was initiated. Oxygenation remained unchanged after 1 h and slightly increased after 24 h. No complications related to HFOV were observed. Twenty-two patients improved and could be weaned from HFOV. Twenty patients (77%) were alive on day 30.
Conclusions
HFOV could be a useful alternative in patients with ARDS of pulmonary origin with hypercapnic failure of lung-protective conventional ventilation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0935-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0935-4
PMCID: PMC4438528  PMID: 25929255
9.  Physiological predictors of survival during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Critical Care  2013;17(2):R40.
Introduction
Data that provide clinical criteria for the identification of patients likely to respond to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are scarce. Our aim was to describe physiological predictors of survival during HFOV in adults with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted to a respiratory failure center in the United Kingdom.
Methods
Electronic records of 102 adults treated with HFOV were reviewed retrospectively. We used logistic regression and receiving-operator characteristics curve to test associations with oxygenation and mortality.
Results
Patients had severe ARDS with a mean (SD) Murray's score of 2.98 (0.7). Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio and oxygenation index improved only in survivors. The earliest time point at which the two groups differed was at three hours after commencing HFOV. An improvement of >38% in PaO2/FiO2 occurring at any time within the first 72 hours, was the best predictor of survival at 30 days (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83, sensitivity 93%, specificity 78% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 4.3). These patients also had a 3.5 fold greater reduction in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2). Multivariate analysis showed that HFOV was more effective in younger patients, when instituted early, and in patients with milder respiratory acidosis.
Conclusions
HFOV is effective in improving oxygenation in adults with ARDS, particularly when instituted early. Changes in PaO2/FiO2 during the first three hours of HFOV can identify those patients more likely to survive.
doi:10.1186/cc12550
PMCID: PMC3733430  PMID: 23497577
10.  Moderately high frequency ventilation with a conventional ventilator allows reduction of tidal volume without increasing mean airway pressure 
Background
The aim of this study was to explore if positive-pressure ventilation delivered by a conventional ICU ventilator at a moderately high frequency (HFPPV) allows a safe reduction of tidal volume (VT) below 6 mL/kg in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and at a lower mean airway pressure than high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV).
Methods
This is a prospective study. In eight pigs (median weight 34 [29,36] kg), ARDS was induced by pulmonary lavage and injurious ventilation. The animals were ventilated with a randomized sequence of respiratory rates: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, followed by HFOV at 5 Hz. At each step, VT was adjusted to allow partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) to stabilize between 57 and 63 mmHg. Data are shown as median [P25th,P75th].
Results
After lung injury, the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio was 92 [63,118] mmHg, pulmonary shunt 26 [17,31]%, and static compliance 11 [8,14] mL/cmH2O. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 [10,17] cmH2O. At 30 breaths/min, VT was higher than 6 (7.5 [6.8,10.2]) mL/kg, but at all higher frequencies, VT could be reduced and PaCO2 maintained, leading to reductions in plateau pressures and driving pressures. For frequencies of 60 to 150/min, VT progressively fell from 5.2 [5.1,5.9] to 3.8 [3.7,4.2] mL/kg (p < 0.001). There were no detrimental effects in terms of lung mechanics, auto-PEEP generation, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Mean airway pressure was maintained constant and was increased only during HFOV.
Conclusions
During protective mechanical ventilation, HFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe ARDS swine model safely allows further tidal volume reductions. This strategy also allowed decreasing airway pressures while maintaining stable PaCO2 levels.
doi:10.1186/2197-425X-2-13
PMCID: PMC4512987  PMID: 26266914
Mechanical ventilation; Acute lung injury; Critical care unit; Protective ventilation; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; High-frequency ventilation
11.  Volumetric Xenon-CT Imaging of Conventional and High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation 
Academic radiology  2009;16(6):718-725.
Rationale and Objectives
For mechanical ventilation of patients with pulmonary injuries it has been proposed that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) offers advantages over conventional ventilation (CV), however, these advantages have been difficult to quantify. We used volumetric, dynamic imaging of Xenon (Xe) washout of the canine lung during both HFOV and CV to compare regional ventilation in the two modalities.
Materials and Methods
Three anesthetized, mechanically ventilated animals were studied, each at three different ventilator settings. Imaging was performed on an experimental Toshiba 256-slice scanner at 80 kV, 250 mAs, and 0.5 sec scans, yielding 12.8 cm of Z-axis coverage. Repeated images were acquired at increasing intervals between 1 and 10 seconds for 90 seconds during HFOV, and using retrospective respiratory gating to end-expiration for 60 seconds during CV.
Image series were analyzed to quantify regional specific ventilation (sV̇) from the regional density washout time constants.
Results
High quality, high-resolution regional ventilation maps were obtained during both CV and HFOV. Overall ventilation decreased at smaller tidal volume, as expected. Regional sV̇ was more uniform during HFOV compared to CV but the underlying distribution of lung aeration was similar.
Conclusions
High-resolution volumetric ventilation maps of the lung may be obtained with the 256-slice multidetector CT scanner. There is a marked difference in the distribution of regional ventilation between CV and HFOV, with a significant gravitational ventilation gradient in CV that was not present during HFOV. This technique may be useful in exploring the mechanisms by which HFOV improves gas exchange.
doi:10.1016/j.acra.2008.12.003
PMCID: PMC2705624  PMID: 19268611
regional ventilation; computed tomography; mechanical ventilation; gas exchange; canine
12.  Extracorporeal Lung Support Technologies – Bridge to Recovery and Bridge to Lung Transplantation in Adult Patients 
Executive Summary
For cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and progressive chronic respiratory failure, the first choice or treatment is mechanical ventilation. For decades, this method has been used to support critically ill patients in respiratory failure. Despite its life-saving potential, however, several experimental and clinical studies have suggested that ventilator-induced lung injury can adversely affect the lungs and patient outcomes. Current opinion is that by reducing the pressure and volume of gas delivered to the lungs during mechanical ventilation, the stress applied to the lungs is eased, enabling them to rest and recover. In addition, mechanical ventilation may fail to provide adequate gas exchange, thus patients may suffer from severe hypoxia and hypercapnea. For these reasons, extracorporeal lung support technologies may play an important role in the clinical management of patients with lung failure, allowing not only the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also buying the lungs the time needed to rest and heal.
Objective
The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal lung support technologies in the improvement of pulmonary gas exchange and the survival of adult patients with acute pulmonary failure and those with end-stage chronic progressive lung disease as a bridge to lung transplantation (LTx). The application of these technologies in primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after LTx is beyond the scope of this review and is not discussed.
Clinical Applications of Extracorporeal Lung Support
Extracorporeal lung support technologies [i.e., Interventional Lung Assist (ILA) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)] have been advocated for use in the treatment of patients with respiratory failure. These techniques do not treat the underlying lung condition; rather, they improve gas exchange while enabling the implantation of a protective ventilation strategy to prevent further damage to the lung tissues imposed by the ventilator. As such, extracorporeal lung support technologies have been used in three major lung failure case types:
As a bridge to recovery in acute lung failure – for patients with injured or diseased lungs to give their lungs time to heal and regain normal physiologic function.
As a bridge to LTx – for patients with irreversible end stage lung disease requiring LTx.
As a bridge to recovery after LTx – used as lung support for patients with PGD or severe hypoxemia.
Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion and Assessment
Recently, the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs ex-vivo has been introduced into clinical practice as a method of improving the rate of donor lung utilization. Generally, about 15% to 20% of donor lungs are suitable for LTx, but these figures may increase with the use of ex-vivo lung perfusion. The ex-vivo evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs is currently performed at the Toronto General Hospital (TGH) and preliminary results have been encouraging (Personal communication, clinical expert, December 17, 2009). If its effectiveness is confirmed, the use of the technique could lead to further expansion of donor organ pools and improvements in post-LTx outcomes.
Extracorporeal Lung support Technologies
ECMO
The ECMO system consists of a centrifugal pump, a membrane oxygenator, inlet and outlet cannulas, and tubing. The exchange of oxygen and CO2 then takes place in the oxygenator, which delivers the reoxygenated blood back into one of the patient’s veins or arteries. Additional ports may be added for haemodialysis or ultrafiltration.
Two different techniques may be used to introduce ECMO: venoarterial and venovenous. In the venoarterial technique, cannulation is through either the femoral artery and the femoral vein, or through the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein. In the venovenous technique cannulation is through both femoral veins or a femoral vein and internal jugular vein; one cannula acts as inflow or arterial line, and the other as an outflow or venous line. Venovenous ECMO will not provide adequate support if a patient has pulmonary hypertension or right heart failure. Problems associated with cannulation during the procedure include bleeding around the cannulation site and limb ischemia distal to the cannulation site.
ILA
Interventional Lung Assist (ILA) is used to remove excess CO2 from the blood of patients in respiratory failure. The system is characterized by a novel, low-resistance gas exchange device with a diffusion membrane composed of polymethylpentene (PMP) fibres. These fibres are woven into a complex configuration that maximizes the exchange of oxygen and CO2 by simple diffusion. The system is also designed to operate without the help of an external pump, though one can be added if higher blood flow is required. The device is then applied across an arteriovenous shunt between the femoral artery and femoral vein. Depending on the size of the arterial cannula used and the mean systemic arterial pressure, a blood flow of up to 2.5 L/min can be achieved (up to 5.5 L/min with an external pump). The cannulation is performed after intravenous administration of heparin.
Recently, the first commercially available extracorporeal membrane ventilator (NovaLung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) was approved for clinical use by Health Canada for patients in respiratory failure. The system has been used in more than 2,000 patients with various indications in Europe, and was used for the first time in North America at the Toronto General Hospital in 2006.
Evidence-Based Analysis
The research questions addressed in this report are:
Does ILA/ECMO facilitate gas exchange in the lungs of patients with severe respiratory failure?
Does ILA/ECMO improve the survival rate of patients with respiratory failure caused by a range of underlying conditions including patients awaiting LTx?
What are the possible serious adverse events associated with ILA/ECMO therapy?
To address these questions, a systematic literature search was performed on September 28, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2005 to September 28, 2008. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established.
Inclusion Criteria
Studies in which ILA/ECMO was used as a bridge to recovery or bridge to LTx
Studies containing information relevant to the effectiveness and safety of the procedure
Studies including at least five patients
Exclusion Criteria
Studies reporting the use of ILA/ECMO for inter-hospital transfers of critically ill patients
Studies reporting the use of ILA/ECMO in patients during or after LTx
Animal or laboratory studies
Case reports
Outcomes of Interest
Reduction in partial pressure of CO2
Correction of respiratory acidosis
Improvement in partial pressure of oxygen
Improvement in patient survival
Frequency and severity of adverse events
The search yielded 107 citations in Medline and 107 citations in EMBASE. After reviewing the information provided in the titles and abstracts, eight citations were found to meet the study inclusion criteria. One study was then excluded because of an overlap in the study population with a previous study. Reference checking did not produce any additional studies for inclusion. Seven case series studies, all conducted in Germany, were thus included in this review (see Table 1).
Also included is the recently published CESAR trial, a multicentre RCT in the UK in which ECMO was compared with conventional intensive care management. The results of the CESAR trial were published when this review was initiated. In the absence of any other recent RCT on ECMO, the results of this trial were considered for this assessment and no further searches were conducted. A literature search was then conducted for application of ECMO as bridge to LTx patients (January, 1, 2005 to current). A total of 127 citations on this topic were identified and reviewed but none were found to have examined the use of ECMO as bridge to LTx.
Quality of Evidence
To grade the quality of evidence, the grading system formulated by the GRADE working group and adopted by MAS was applied. The GRADE system classifies the quality of a body of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low according to four key elements: study design, study quality, consistency across studies, and directness.
Results
Trials on ILA
Of the seven studies identified, six involved patients with ARDS caused by a range of underlying conditions; the seventh included only patients awaiting LTx. All studies reported the rate of gas exchange and respiratory mechanics before ILA and for up to 7 days of ILA therapy. Four studies reported the means and standard deviations of blood gas transfer and arterial blood pH, which were used for meta-analysis.
Fischer et al. reported their first experience on the use of ILA as a bridge to LTx. In their study, 12 patients at high urgency status for LTx, who also had severe ventilation refractory hypercapnea and respiratory acidosis, were connected to ILA prior to LTx. Seven patients had a systemic infection or sepsis prior to ILA insertion. Six hours after initiation of ILA, the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood significantly decreased (P < .05) and arterial blood pH significantly improved (P < .05) and remained stable for one week (last time point reported). The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood improved from 71 mmHg to 83 mmHg 6 hours after insertion of ILA. The ratio of PaO2/FiO2 improved from 135 at baseline to 168 at 24 hours after insertion of ILA but returned to baseline values in the following week.
Trials on ECMO
The UK-based CESAR trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness and cost of ECMO therapy for severe, acute respiratory failure. The trial protocol were published in 2006 and details of the methods used for the economic evaluation were published in 2008. The study itself was a pragmatic trial (similar to a UK trial of neonatal ECMO), in which best standard practice was compared with an ECMO protocol. The trial involved 180 patients with acute but potentially reversible respiratory failure, with each also having a Murray score of ≥ 3.0 or uncompensated hypercapnea at a pH of < 7.2. Enrolled patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either conventional ventilation treatment or ECMO while on ventilator. Conventional management included intermittent positive pressure ventilation, high frequency oscillatory ventilation, or both. As a pragmatic trial, a specific management protocol was not followed; rather the treatment centres were advised to follow a low volume low pressure ventilation strategy. A tidal volume of 4 to 8 mL/kg body weight and a plateau pressure of < 30 cm H2O were recommended.
Conclusions
ILA
Bridge to recovery
No RCTs or observational studies compared ILA to other treatment modalities.
Case series have shown that ILA therapy results in significant CO2 removal from arterial blood and correction of respiratory acidosis, as well as an improvement in oxygen transfer.
ILA therapy enabled a lowering of respiratory settings to protect the lungs without causing a negative impact on arterial blood CO2 and arterial blood pH.
The impact of ILA on patient long-term survival cannot be determined through the studies reviewed.
In-hospital mortality across studies ranged from 20% to 65%.
Ischemic complications were the most frequent adverse events following ILA therapy.
Leg amputation is a rare but possible outcome of ILA therapy, having occurred in about 0.9% of patients in these case series. New techniques involving the insertion of additional cannula into the femoral artery to perfuse the leg may lower this rate.
Bridge to LTx
The results of one case series (n=12) showed that ILA effectively removes CO2 from arterial blood and corrects respiratory acidosis in patients with ventilation refractory hypercapnea awaiting a LTx
Eight of the 12 patients (67%) awaiting a LTx were successfully transplanted and one-year survival for those transplanted was 80%
Since all studies are case series, the grade of the evidence for these observations is classified as “LOW”.
ECMO
Bridge to recovery
Based on the results of a pragmatic trial and an intention to treat analysis, referral of patient to an ECMO based centre significantly improves patient survival without disability compared to conventional ventilation. The results of CESAR trial showed that:
For patients with information about disability, survival without severe disability was significantly higher in ECMO arm
Assuming that the three patients in the conventional ventilation arm who did not have information about severe disability were all disabled, the results were also significant.
Assuming that none of these patients were disabled, the results were at borderline significance
A greater, though not statistically significant, proportion of patients in ECMO arm survived.
The rate of serious adverse events was higher among patients in ECMO group
The grade of evidence for the above observations is classified as “HIGH”.
Bridge to LTx
No studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified.
There is no accurate data on the use of ECMO in patients awaiting LTx.
Economic Analysis
The objective of the economic analysis was to determine the costs associated with extracorporeal lung support technologies for bridge to LTx in adults. A literature search was conducted for which the target population was adults eligible for extracorporeal lung support. The primary analytic perspective was that of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC). Articles published in English and fitting the following inclusion criteria were reviewed:
Full economic evaluations including cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA), cost-utility analyses (CUA), cost-benefit analyses (CBA);
Economic evaluations reporting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) i.e. cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY), life years gained (LYG), or cost per event avoided; and
Studies in patients eligible for lung support technologies for to lung transplantation.
The search yielded no articles reporting comparative economic analyses.
Resource Use and Costs
Costs associated with both ILA and ECMO (outlined in Table ES-1) were obtained from the University Health Network (UHN) case costing initiative (personal communication, UHN, January 2010). Consultation with a clinical expert in the field was also conducted to verify resource utilization. The consultant was situated at the UHN in Toronto. The UHN has one ECMO machine, which cost approximately $100,000. The system is 18 years old and is used an average of 3 to 4 times a year with 35 procedures being performed over the last 9 years. The disposable cost per patient associated with ECMO is, on average, $2,200. There is a maintenance cost associated with the machine (not reported by the UHN), which is currently absorbed by the hospital’s biomedical engineering department.
The average capital cost of an ILA device is $7,100 per device, per patient, while the average cost of the reusable pump $65,000. The UHN has performed 16 of these procedures over the last 2.5 years. Similarly, there is a maintenance cost not that was reported by UHN but is absorbed by the hospital’s biomedical engineering department.
Resources Associated with Extracorporeal Lung Support Technologies
Hospital costs associated with ILA were based on the average cost incurred by the hospital for 11 cases performed in the FY 07/08 (personal communication, UHN, January 2010). The resources incurred with this hospital procedure included:
Device and disposables
OR transplant
Surgical ICU
Laboratory work
Medical imaging
Pharmacy
Clinical nutrition
Physiotherapy
Occupational therapy
Speech and language pathology
Social work
The average length of stay in hospital was 61 days for ILA (range: 5 to 164 days) and the average direct cost was $186,000 per case (range: $19,000 to $552,000). This procedure has a high staffing requirement to monitor patients in hospital, driving up the average cost per case.
PMCID: PMC3415698  PMID: 23074408
13.  Late Outcomes of a Randomized Trial of High-Frequency Oscillation in Neonates 
The New England journal of medicine  2014;370(12):1121-1130.
BACKGROUND
Results from an observational study involving neonates suggested that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), as compared with conventional ventilation, was associated with superior small-airway function at follow-up. Data from randomized trials are needed to confirm this finding.
METHODS
We studied 319 adolescents who had been born before 29 weeks of gestation and had been enrolled in a multicenter, randomized trial that compared HFOV with conventional ventilation immediately after birth. The trial involved 797 neonates, of whom 592 survived to hospital discharge. We compared follow-up data from adolescents who had been randomly assigned to HFOV with follow-up data from those who had been randomly assigned to conventional ventilation, with respect to lung function and respiratory health, health-related quality of life, and functional status, as assessed with the use of questionnaires completed when the participants were 11 to 14 years of age. The primary outcome was forced expiratory flow at 75% of the expired vital capacity (FEF75).
RESULTS
The HFOV group had superior results on a test of small-airway function (z score for FEF75, −0.97 with HFOV vs. −1.19 with conventional therapy; adjusted difference, 0.23 [95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.45]). There were significant differences in favor of HFOV in several other measures of respiratory function, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, diffusing capacity, and impulse-oscillometric findings. As compared with the conventional-therapy group, the HFOV group had significantly higher ratings from teachers in three of eight school subjects assessed, but there were no other significant differences in functional outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS
In a randomized trial involving children who had been born extremely prematurely, those who had undergone HFOV, as compared with those who had received conventional ventilation, had superior lung function at 11 to 14 years of age, with no evidence of poorer functional outcomes. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1309220
PMCID: PMC4090580  PMID: 24645944
14.  A comparison of clinical efficacy between high frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional ventilation with lung volume recruitment in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial 
Purpose:
To determine the efficacy of lung volume recruitment maneuver (LVRM) with high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) on oxygenation, hemodynamic alteration, and clinical outcomes when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation (CV) in children with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Materials:
We performed a randomized controlled trial and enrolled pediatric patients who were diagnosed to have severe ARDS upon pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. LVRM protocol combined with HFOV or conventional mechanical ventilation was used. Baseline characteristic data, oxygenation, hemodynamic parameters, and clinical outcomes were recorded.
Results:
Eighteen children with severe ARDS were enrolled in our study. The primary cause of ARDS was pneumonia (91.7%). Their mean age was 47.7 ± 61.2 (m) and body weight was 25.3 ± 27.1 (kg). Their initial pediatric risk of mortality score 3 and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction were 12 ± 9.2 and 15.9 ± 12.8, respectively. The initial mean oxygen index was 24.5 ± 10.4, and mean PaO2/FiO2 was 80.6 ± 25. There was no difference in oxygen parameters at baseline the between two groups. There was a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 (119.2 ± 41.1, 49.6 ± 30.6, P = 0.01*) response after 1 h of LVRM with HFOV compare to CV. Hemodynamic and serious complications were not significantly affected after LVRM. The overall PICU mortality of our severe ARDS at 28 days was 16.7%. Three patients in CV with LVRM group failed to wean oxygen requirement and were cross-over to HFOV group.
Conclusions:
HFOV combined with LVRM in severe pediatric ARDS had superior oxygenation and tended to have better clinical effect over CV. There is no significant effect on hemodynamic parameters. Moreover, no serious complication was noted.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.175940
PMCID: PMC4810936  PMID: 27076706
Conventional ventilation; high frequency oscillatory ventilation; lung volume recruitment maneuver; oxygenation
15.  Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist allows for maximization of oscillatory frequencies: a large-animal model of respiratory distress 
BMC Anesthesiology  2008;8:7.
Background
Although the minimization of the applied tidal volume (VT) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) reduces the risk of alveolar shear stress, it can also result in insufficient CO2-elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that in a model of acute respiratory distress (ARDS) the application of high oscillatory frequencies requires the combination of HFOV with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) in order to maintain or reestablish normocapnia.
Methods
After induction of ARDS in eight female pigs (56.5 ± 4.4 kg), a recruitment manoeuvre was performed and intratracheal mean airway pressure (mPaw) was adjusted 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point (Plow) of the pressure-volume curve. All animals were ventilated with oscillatory frequencies ranging from 3–15 Hz. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 60 cmH2O. At each frequency gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements were obtained with a clamped and de-clamped av-ECLA. Whenever the av-ECLA was de-clamped, the oxygen sweep gas flow through the membrane lung was adjusted aiming at normocapnia.
Results
Lung recruitment and adjustment of the mPaw above Plow resulted in a significant improvement of oxygenation (p < 0.05). Compared to lung injury, oxygenation remained significantly improved with rising frequencies (p < 0.05). Normocapnia during HFOV was only maintained with the addition of av-ECLA during frequencies of 9 Hz and above.
Conclusion
In this animal model of ARDS, maximization of oscillatory frequencies with subsequent minimization of VT leads to hypercapnia that can only be reversed by adding av-ECLA. When combined with a recruitment strategy, these high frequencies do not impair oxygenation
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-8-7
PMCID: PMC2588559  PMID: 19014575
16.  Sustained inflation and incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a large porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome 
BMC Anesthesiology  2006;6:8.
Background
To compare the effect of a sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on oxygenation and hemodynamics in a large porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Methods
Severe lung injury (Ali) was induced in 18 healthy pigs (55.3 ± 3.9 kg, mean ± SD) by repeated saline lung lavage until PaO2 decreased to less than 60 mmHg. After a stabilisation period of 60 minutes, the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (Pressure controlled ventilation; PCV): FIO2 = 1.0, PEEP = 5 cmH2O, VT = 6 ml/kg, respiratory rate = 30/min, I:E = 1:1; group 2 (High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; HFOV): FIO2 = 1.0, Bias flow = 30 l/min, Amplitude = 60 cmH2O, Frequency = 6 Hz, I:E = 1:1. A sustained inflation (SI; 50 cmH2O for 60s) followed by an incremental mean airway pressure (mPaw) trial (steps of 3 cmH2O every 15 minutes) were performed in both groups until PaO2 no longer increased. This was regarded as full lung inflation. The mPaw was decreased by 3 cmH2O and the animals reached the end of the study protocol. Gas exchange and hemodynamic data were collected at each step.
Results
The SI led to a significant improvement of the PaO2/FiO2-Index (HFOV: 200 ± 100 vs. PCV: 58 ± 15 and TAli: 57 ± 12; p < 0.001) and PaCO2-reduction (HFOV: 42 ± 5 vs. PCV: 62 ± 13 and TAli: 55 ± 9; p < 0.001) during HFOV compared to lung injury and PCV. Augmentation of mPaw improved gas exchange and pulmonary shunt fraction in both groups, but at a significant lower mPaw in the HFOV treated animals. Cardiac output was continuously deteriorating during the recruitment manoeuvre in both study groups (HFOV: TAli: 6.1 ± 1 vs. T75: 3.4 ± 0.4; PCV: TAli: 6.7 ± 2.4 vs. T75: 4 ± 0.5; p < 0.001).
Conclusion
A sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial in HFOV improved oxygenation at a lower mPaw than during conventional lung protective ventilation. HFOV but not PCV resulted in normocapnia, suggesting that during HFOV there are alternatives to tidal ventilation to achieve CO2-elimination in an "open lung" approach.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-6-8
PMCID: PMC1526714  PMID: 16792808
17.  Open lung approach associated with high-frequency oscillatory or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation improves respiratory function and minimizes lung injury in healthy and injured rats 
Critical Care  2010;14(5):R183.
Introduction
To test the hypothesis that open lung (OL) ventilatory strategies using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) or controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) compared to CMV with lower positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improve respiratory function while minimizing lung injury as well as systemic inflammation, a prospective randomized study was performed at a university animal laboratory using three different lung conditions.
Methods
Seventy-eight adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) uninjured (UI), (2) saline washout (SW), and (3) intraperitoneal/intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Within each group, animals were further randomized to (1) OL with HFOV, (2) OL with CMV with "best" PEEP set according to the minimal static elastance of the respiratory system (BP-CMV), and (3) CMV with low PEEP (LP-CMV). They were then ventilated for 6 hours. HFOV was set with mean airway pressure (PmeanHFOV) at 2 cm H2O above the mean airway pressure recorded at BP-CMV (PmeanBP-CMV) following a recruitment manoeuvre. Six animals served as unventilated controls (C). Gas-exchange, respiratory system mechanics, lung histology, plasma cytokines, as well as cytokines and types I and III procollagen (PCI and PCIII) mRNA expression in lung tissue were measured.
Results
We found that (1) in both SW and LPS, HFOV and BP-CMV improved gas exchange and mechanics with lower lung injury compared to LP-CMV, (2) in SW; HFOV yielded better oxygenation than BP-CMV; (3) in SW, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression was lower during BP-CMV and HFOV compared to LP-CMV, while in LPS inflammatory response was independent of the ventilatory mode; and (4) PCIII mRNA expression decreased in all groups and ventilatory modes, with the decrease being highest in LPS.
Conclusions
Open lung ventilatory strategies associated with HFOV or BP-CMV improved respiratory function and minimized lung injury compared to LP-CMV. Therefore, HFOV with PmeanHFOV set 2 cm H2O above the PmeanBP-CMV following a recruitment manoeuvre is as beneficial as BP-CMV.
doi:10.1186/cc9291
PMCID: PMC3219289  PMID: 20946631
18.  High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and short-term outcome in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery: a propensity score analysis 
Critical Care  2011;15(5):R259.
Introduction
Experience with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) after congenital cardiac surgery is limited despite evidence about reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance after the Fontan procedure. HFOV is recommended in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between commencement of HFOV on the day of surgery and length of mechanical ventilation, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and mortality in neonates and infants with respiratory distress following cardiac surgery.
Methods
A logistic regression model was used to develop a propensity score, which accounted for the probability of being switched from conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) to HFOV on the day of surgery. It included baseline characteristics, type of procedure and postoperative variables, and was used to match each patient with HFOV with a control patient, in whom CMV was used exclusively. Length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and mortality rates were compared in the matched set.
Results
Overall, 3,549 neonates and infants underwent cardiac surgery from January 2001 through June 2010, 120 patients were switched to HFOV and matched with 120 controls. After adjustment for the delay to sternal closure, duration of renal replacement therapy, occurrence of pulmonary hypertension and year of surgery, the probability of successful weaning over time and the probability of ICU delivery over time were significantly higher in patients with HFOV, adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 1.63, 1.17 to 2.26 (P = 0.004). and 1.65, 95% confidence intervals: 1.20 to 2.28 (P = 0.002) respectively. No association was found with mortality.
Conclusions
When commenced on the day of surgery in neonates and infants with respiratory distress following cardiac surgery, HFOV was associated with shorter lengths of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay than CMV.
doi:10.1186/cc10521
PMCID: PMC3334810  PMID: 22035562
19.  Rescue Therapy in Adult and Pediatric Patients with H1N1 Influenza Infection: A Tertiary Center ICU Experience from April-October, 2009 
Critical care medicine  2010;38(11):2103-2107.
Objective
Severe respiratory failure is a well recognized complication of pandemic H1N1 influenza infection. Limited data regarding the efficacy of rescue therapies including high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) have been previously reported in the setting of H1N1 influenza infection in the United States.
Design
Retrospective, single center cohort study.
Setting
Pediatric, cardiac, surgical, and medical intensive care units in a single tertiary care center in the United States.
Patients
127 consecutive patients with confirmed Influenza A infection requiring hospitalization between April 1, 2009 and October 31, 2009.
Interventions
Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data.
Measurements and main results
The number of ICU admissions appears inversely related to age with 69% of admissions less than 20 years of age. Median duration of ICU care was 10.0 days [4.0, 24.0], and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 8.0 days [0.0, 23.5]. Rescue therapy (HFOV or ECMO) was utilized in 36% (12/33) of ICU patients. The severity of respiratory impairment was determined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) and oxygenation index (OI). HFOV at 24-hours resulted in improvements in median P/F (71 [58, 93] vs. 145 [126, 185]; P<0.001), OI (27 [20, 30] vs. 18 [12, 25]; P=0.016), and FiO2 (100 [70, 100] vs. 45 [40, 55]; P<0.001). ECMO resulted in anticipated improvement in parameters of oxygenation at both 2- hours and 24-hours after initiation of therapy. Despite the severity of oxygenation impairment, overall survival for both rescue therapies was 75% (9/12), 80% (4/5) for HFOV alone, and 71% (5/7) for HFOV + ECMO.
Conclusion
In critically ill adult and pediatric patients with H1N1 infection and severe lung injury, the utilization of HFOV and ECMO can result in significant improvements in P/F ratio, OI, and FiO2. However, the impact on mortality is less certain.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181f268f1
PMCID: PMC3739437  PMID: 20711068
influenza; acute respiratory distress syndrome; H1N1; mechanical ventilation; high frequency oscillatory ventilation; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); hypoxemia; respiratory failure; lung injury
20.  An Assessment of H1N1 Influenza-Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Severity after Adjustment for Treatment Characteristics 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e18166.
Pandemic influenza caused significant increases in healthcare utilization across several continents including the use of high-intensity rescue therapies like extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). The severity of illness observed with pandemic influenza in 2009 strained healthcare resources. Because lung injury in ARDS can be influenced by daily management and multiple organ failure, we performed a retrospective cohort study to understand the severity of H1N1 associated ARDS after adjustment for treatment. Sixty subjects were identified in our hospital with ARDS from “direct injury” within 24 hours of ICU admission over a three month period. Twenty-three subjects (38.3%) were positive for H1N1 within 72 hours of hospitalization. These cases of H1N1-associated ARDS were compared to non-H1N1 associated ARDS patients. Subjects with H1N1-associated ARDS were younger and more likely to have a higher body mass index (BMI), present more rapidly and have worse oxygenation. Severity of illness (SOFA score) was directly related to worse oxygenation. Management was similar between the two groups on the day of admission and subsequent five days with respect to tidal volumes used, fluid balance and transfusion practices. There was, however, more frequent use of “rescue” therapy like prone ventilation, HFOV or ECMO in H1N1 patients. First morning set tidal volumes and BMI were significantly associated with increased severity of lung injury (Lung injury score, LIS) at presentation and over time while prior prescription of statins was protective. After assessment of the effect of these co-interventions LIS was significantly higher in H1N1 patients. Patients with pandemic influenza-associated ARDS had higher LIS both at presentation and over the course of the first six days of treatment when compared to non-H1N1 associated ARDS controls. The difference in LIS persisted over the duration of observation in patients with H1N1 possibly explaining the increased duration of mechanical ventilation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018166
PMCID: PMC3064596  PMID: 21464952
21.  Right over left ventricular end-diastolic area relevance to predict hemodynamic intolerance of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in patients with severe ARDS 
Background
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) does not improve the prognosis of ARDS patients despite an improvement in oxygenation. This paradox may partly be explained by HFOV hemodynamic side-effects on right ventricular function. Our goal was to study the link between HFOV and hemodynamic effects and to test if the pre-HFOV right over left ventricular end-diastolic area (RVEDA/LVEDA) ratio, as a simple parameter of afterload-related RV dysfunction, could be used to predict HFOV hemodynamic intolerance in patients with severe ARDS.
Methods
Twenty-four patients were studied just before and within 3 h of HFOV using transthoracic echocardiography and transpulmonary thermodilution.
Results
Before HFOV, the mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 89 ± 23. The number of patients with a RVEDA/LVEDA ratio >0.6 significantly increased after HFOV [11 (46 %) vs. 17 (71 %)]. Although HFOV did not significantly decrease the arterial pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse pressure), it significantly decreased the cardiac index (CI) by 13 ± 18 % and significantly increased the RVEDA/LVEDA ratio by 14 ± 11 %. A significant correlation was observed between pre-HFOV RVEDA/LVEDA ratio and CI diminution after HFOV (r = 0.78; p < 0.0001). A RVEDA/LVEDA ratio superior to 0.6 resulted in a CI decrease >15 % during HFOV with a sensitivity of 80 % (95 % confidence interval 44–98 %) and a specificity of 79 % (confidence interval 49–95 %).
Conclusion
The RVEDA/LVEDA ratio measured just before HFOV predicts the hemodynamic intolerance of this technique in patients with severe ARDS. A high ratio under CMV raises questions about the use of HFOV in such patients.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01167621
doi:10.1186/s13613-015-0068-6
PMCID: PMC4573736  PMID: 26380993
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; Hemodynamic monitoring; Acute right ventricular dysfunction; Echocardiography; Transpulmonary thermodilution
22.  Ultrastructural Study of Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells by High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:240659.
Alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECIIs) containing lamellar bodies (LBs) are alveolar epithelial stem cells that have important functions in the repair of lung structure and function after lung injury. The ultrastructural changes in AECIIs after high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with a high lung volume strategy or conventional ventilation were evaluated in a newborn piglet model with acute lung injury (ALI). After ALI with saline lavage, newborn piglets were randomly assigned into five study groups (three piglets in each group), namely, control (no mechanical ventilation), conventional ventilation for 24 h, conventional ventilation for 48 h, HFOV for 24 h, and HFOV for 48 h. The lower tissues of the right lung were obtained to observe the AECII ultrastructure. AECIIs with reduced numbers of microvilli, decreased LBs electron density, and vacuole-like LBs deformity were commonly observed in all five groups. Compared with conventional ventilation groups, the decrease in numbers of microvilli and LBs electron density, as well as LBs with vacuole-like appearance and polymorphic deformity, was less severe in HFOV with high lung volume strategy groups. AECIIs were injured during mechanical ventilation. HFOV with a high lung volume strategy resulted in less AECII damage than conventional ventilation.
doi:10.1155/2013/240659
PMCID: PMC3872375  PMID: 24386636
23.  Hepatic effects of lung-protective pressure-controlled ventilation and a combination of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and extracorporeal lung assist in experimental lung injury 
Summary
Background
Ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can lead to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic effects of strategies using high airway pressures either in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) or in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with an arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA).
Material/Methods
Pietrain pigs underwent induction of lung injury by saline lavage. Ventilation was continued for 24 hours either as PCV with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg and PEEP 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve or as HFOV (≥12 Hz) with a mean tracheal airway pressure 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point combined with arteriovenous ECLA (HFOV+ECLA). Fluids and norepinephrine stabilized the circulation. The indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were determined repeatedly. Finally, liver neutrophils were counted and liver cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL).
Results
Aspartate aminotransferase increased in the PCV group about three-fold and in the HFOV+ECLA group five-fold (p<0.001). Correspondingly, creatine kinase increased about two-fold and four-fold, respectively (p<0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase was increased in the HFOV+ECLA group (p<0.028). The number of neutrophils infiltrating the liver tissue and the apoptotic index were low.
Conclusions
High airway pressure PCV and HFOV with ECLA in the treatment of lavage-induced lung injury in pigs did not cause liver dysfunction or damage. The detected elevation of enzymes might be of extrahepatic origin.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881974
PMCID: PMC3539465  PMID: 21959601
acute respiratory distress syndrome; positive-pressure respiration; high-frequency oscillation ventilation; arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist; liver dysfunction; liver function tests
24.  High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children: a single-center experience of 53 cases 
Critical Care  2005;9(3):R274-R279.
Introduction
The present article reports our experience with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in pediatric patients who deteriorated on conventional mechanical ventilation.
Methods
The chart records of 53 consecutively HFOV-treated patients from 1 January 1998 to 1 April 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters of demographic data, cause of respiratory insufficiency, Pediatric Index of Mortality score, oxygenation index and PaCO2 were recorded and calculated at various time points before and after the start of HFOV, along with patient outcome and cause of death.
Results
The overall survival rate was 64%. We observed remarkable differences in outcome depending on the cause of respiratory insufficiency; survival was 56% in patients with diffuse alveolar disease (DAD) and was 88% in patients with small airway disease (SAD). The oxygenation index was significantly higher before and during HFOV in DAD patients than in SAD patients. The PaCO2 prior to HFOV was higher in SAD patients compared with DAD patients and returned to normal values after the initiation of HFOV.
Conclusion
HFOV rescue therapy was associated with a high survival percentage in a selected group of children. Patients with DAD primarily had oxygenation failure. Future studies are necessary to evaluate whether the outcome in this group of patients may be improved if HFOV is applied earlier in the course of disease. Patients with SAD primarily had severe hypercapnia and HFOV therapy was very effective in achieving adequate ventilation.
doi:10.1186/cc3520
PMCID: PMC1175892  PMID: 15987401
25.  High Frequency Oscillation and Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Pediatric Respiratory Failure 
Pediatric pulmonology  2013;49(7):707-715.
Summary
Background
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are frequently used in acute lung injury (ALI) refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with APRV and HFOV in refractory pediatric ALI, and to identify factors associated with survival.
Methods
We analyzed 104 patients with hypoxemia refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either APRV or HFOV. Demographics, oxygenation index (OI), and PaO2/FiO2 (PF ratio) were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation (NCV) and for every 12 hr after transition.
Results
Relative to APRV, patients on HFOV were younger and had more significant lung disease evidenced by higher OI (28.5 [18.6, 36.2] vs. 21.0 [15.5, 30.0], P = 0.008), lower PF ratios (73 [59,94] vs. 99 [76,131], P = 0.002), and more frequent use of inhaled nitric oxide. In univariate analysis, HFOV was associated with more frequent neuromuscular blockade. Forty-one of 104 patients died on NCV (39.4%). Survivors demonstrated improvement in OI 24 hr after transition to NCV, whereas non-survivors did not (12.9 [8.9, 20.9] vs. 28.1 [17.6, 37.1], P < 0.001). After controlling for immunocompromised status, number of vasopressors, and OI before transition, mode of NCV was not associated with mortality.
Conclusions
In a heterogeneous PICU population with hypoxemia refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to NCV, improvement in oxygenation at 24 hr was associated with survival. Immunocompromised status, number of vasopressor infusions, and the OI before transition to NCV were independently associated with survival.
doi:10.1002/ppul.22853
PMCID: PMC4092114  PMID: 23853049
mechanical ventilation; high frequency oscillatory ventilation; airway pressure release ventilation; acute respiratory distress syndrome; acute lung injury; pediatric

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