Previous studies with a murine model have shown that immunization with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) induces two populations of anticryptococcal reactive CD4+ T cells. One population (TDH cells) transfers anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the other population (Tamp cells) amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response of given to recipient mice at the time of immunization of the recipient. Treatment of mice with cyclosporin A (CsA) ablates the induction of Tamp cells but not TDH cells. The present study focused on assessing the cytokines produced by spleen cells taken from CsA-treated and control (solvent-treated) mice at days 1, 2, 4, and 6 after immunization. Supernatants from the spleen cells cultured in vitro for 24 or 48 h in medium alone or with CneF, concanavalin A, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore were assessed for the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor. Spleen cells from CneF-CFA-treated mice produced IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 or IL-5, constitutively and in response to CneF, indicating that CneF-CFA induces a Th1 response. Tumor necrosis factor was not produced. Anticryptococcal TDH cells developed in spleens in which there were low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 (CsA-treated, immunized mice), whereas anticryptococcal Tamp cells along with TDH cells matured in spleens in which production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 was high (solvent-treated, immunized mice). The data also suggest that IL-2 and IFN-gamma produced by Tamp cells early after adoptive transfer are influential in the development of the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response that has been observed in Tamp cell-recipient mice.
Cell-mediated immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans can be detected by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to a culture filtrate antigen of C. neoformans. Recently, we have identified a population of cells in spleens of mice immunized with cryptococcal antigen that, when transferred to recipient mice at the time of immunization, amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response. If the cell donor mice are treated with cyclosporin A during induction of the anticryptococcal DTH response, the amplifier cells are not induced, whereas the cells which transfer DTH (TDH cells) are induced. The purpose of this study was to characterize the amplifier cells with respect to their surface and functional properties and, in so doing, determine whether or not the amplifier cells are analogous to long-lived memory cells. We demonstrated that the amplifier cells were nylon-wool-nonadherent, antigen-specific, CD4 (L3T4+ Lyt-2-) T lymphocytes which appear in the spleens of mice 5 days postimmunization with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen in complete Freund adjuvant. The amplifier T (Tamp) cells are not considered to be memory cells because they are relatively short-lived, being present 14 but not 18 days after the stimulating immunization. Moreover, the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response does not fulfill the criteria of the typical secondary immune (anamnestic) response in that the amplified response does not appear early relative to the appearance of the primary anticryptococcal DTH response, and it does not persist longer than the primary DTH response. We speculate that Tamp cells are not long-lived memory cells but rather act in a T-helper cell capacity to amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response.
Effects of both positive and negative regulatory T cells on cellular infiltration and cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal immune response were examined. Tamp cells, which are induced by cryptococcal antigen, significantly amplify the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response, whereas a cascade of T suppressor (Ts) cells inhibits the response and decreases the clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans during an infection. By using the gelatin sponge implantation model, we found that Tamp cells do not stimulate a significant increase in cellular infiltration into the sponges in response to cryptococcal antigen compared with that into delayed-type hypersensitivity-reactive sponges in immune control mice. However, Tamp cells do stimulate significant increases in the production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the antigen-injected sponges over the level of the representative cytokine in antigen-injected sponges from the immune control mice. Likewise, Ts1 cells, induced with cryptococcal antigen, do not significantly affect antigen-induced cellular infiltration into sponges in immune mice. In contrast, decreased levels of gamma interferon and IL-2 are observed in antigen-injected sponges from Ts1-cell-recipient, immunized mice compared with those of the positive immune controls. The presence of either Tamp or Ts1 cells in immunized mice stimulates increased production of IL-5 but not IL-4 over that of the positive immune controls.
Cryptococcosis, an increasingly important opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast-like organism Cryptococcus neoformans, is limited by an anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Gaining a thorough understanding of the complex anticryptococcal CMI response is essential for developing means of controlling infections with C. neoformans. The murine cryptococcosis model utilizing footpad swelling to cryptococcal antigen (delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]) has proven to be a valuable tool for studying the induction and regulation of the anticryptococcal CMI response, but this technique has limitations with regard to evaluating the role of the final effector cells recruited by an ongoing CMI response. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of cells and cytokines induced into the site of cryptococcal antigen deposition in C. neoformans-infected and -immunized mice compared with those for control mice. We used a gelatin sponge implant model to examine the cells and cytokines present at the site of an anticryptococcal DTH response. Sponges implanted in infected mice and injected with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) 24 h before assessment had significantly increased numbers of infiltrating leukocytes compared with saline-injected sponges in the same animals. Exaggerated influxes of neutrophils and mononuclear cells were the major contributors to the increase in total numbers of cells in the DTH-reactive sponges. The numbers of CD4+ and LFA-1+ cells were found to be significantly increased in the CneF-injected sponges of infected and immunized mice over the numbers in control sponges. The numbers of large granular lymphocytes were also increased in DTH-reactive sponges compared with control sponges. Gamma interferon, interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-5 are clearly relevant cytokines in the anticryptococcal CMI response, since they were produced in greater amounts in the CneF-injected sponges from C. neoformans-infected and -immunized mice than in control sponges. IL-4 was not associated with the expression of DTH to cryptococcal antigen. The gelatin sponge model is an excellent tool for studying cells and cytokines involved in specific CMI responses.
Cell-mediated immunity is the major protective mechanism against Cryptococcus neoformans. Delayed swelling reactions, i.e., delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), in response to an intradermal injection of specific antigen are used as a means of detecting a cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to the antigen. We have found previously that the presence of an anticryptococcal DTH response in mice is not always indicative of protection against a cryptococcal infection. Using one immunogen that induces a protective anticryptococcal CMI response and one that induces a nonprotective response, we have shown that mice immunized with the protective immunogen undergo a classical DTH response characterized by mononuclear cell and neutrophil infiltrates and the presence of gamma interferon and NO. In contrast, immunization with the nonprotective immunogen results in an influx of primarily neutrophils and production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at the DTH reaction site. Even when the anticryptococcal DTH response was augmented by blocking the down-regulator, CTLA-4 (CD152), on T cells in the mice given the nonprotective immunogen, the main leukocyte population infiltrating the DTH reaction site is the neutrophil. Although TNF-α is increased at the DTH reaction site in mice immunized with the nonprotective immunogen, it is unlikely that TNF-α activates the neutrophils, because the density of TNF receptors on the neutrophils is reduced below control levels. Uncoupling of DTH reactivity and protection has been demonstrated in other infectious-disease models; however, the mechanisms differ from our model. These findings stress the importance of defining the cascade of events occurring in response to various immunogens and establishing the relationships between protection and DTH reactions.
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, was used to explore further the induction, expression, and regulation of lymphoid cells involved in the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to cryptococcal antigen(s). We found that the induction of the cells responsible for DTH (TDH cells) was not affected by CsA, but their expression was inhibited in CsA-treated mice. The inhibition of expression of the TDH cells could not be attributed to the Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T (Ts) cells, even though the Ts cells were induced in CsA-treated mice. Instead, the suppressed expression of the TDH cells in CsA-treated mice was a direct effect of CsA or its products. Our studies with CsA also resulted in the first identification of a population of cells that significantly amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response. The amplifier cells were induced in mice that were given a primary immunizing dose of cryptococcal antigen in complete Freund adjuvant, and they amplified the anticryptococcal DTH response in recipient mice when they were transferred at the time of immunization of the recipient. The amplifier cell population was distinct from the TDH cells in that CsA inhibited the production of the amplifying cells but did not affect the induction of TDH cells. Amplification of the DTH response was a cell-mediated event, since cells but not serum from immunized mice mediated the amplified response in recipient mice. Thus, CsA enabled us to characterize anticryptococcal TDH and Ts cells further and to add to the immune cell circuit of the cryptococcal system a distinct population of cells that amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response.
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses defined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity to cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) can be either protective or nonprotective against an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. The protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal DTH responses are induced by different immunogens and have differing activated-T-cell profiles. This study examined the effects of blockade of the interaction between cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and its ligands B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on the anticryptococcal DTH responses and protection. We found that CTLA-4 blockade at the time of immunization with the immunogen that induces the protective response, CneF, in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or the immunogen that induces the nonprotective response, heat-killed cryptococcal cells (HKC), enhanced anticryptococcal DTH reactivity. In contrast, blocking CTLA-4 after the immune response was induced failed to enhance responses. Blockade of CTLA-4 in an infection model resulted in earlier development of the anticryptococcal CMI response than in control mice. Concomitant with increases in DTH reactivity in mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments at the time of immunization, there were decreases in cryptococcal CFU in lungs, spleens, and brains compared to controls. Blockade of CTLA-4 resulted in long-term protection, as measured by significantly increased survival times, only in mice given the protective immunogen, CneF-CFA. Anti-CTLA-4 treatment did not shift the response induced by the nonprotective immunogen, HKC, to a long-term protective one. Our data indicate that blockade of CTLA-4 interactions with its ligands may be useful in enhancing host defenses against C. neoformans.
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been shown to be essential in acquired protection against Cryptococcus neoformans. Induction of a protective anticryptococcal CMI response includes increases in dendritic cells (DC) and activated CD4+ T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLN). During the expression phase, activated CD4+ T cells accumulate at a peripheral site where cryptococcal antigen is injected, resulting in a classical delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Induction of a nonprotective anticryptococcal CMI response results in no significant increases in the numbers of DC or activated CD4+ T cells in DLN. This study focuses on examining the role of TNF-α in induction of protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal CMI responses. We found that neutralization of TNF-α at the time of immunization with the protective immunogen (i) reduces the numbers of Langerhans cells, myeloid and lymphoid DC, and activated CD4+ T cells in DLN and (ii) diminishes the total numbers of cells, the numbers of activated CD4+ T cells, and amount of gamma interferon at the DTH reaction site. Although TNF-α neutralization during induction of the nonprotective CMI response had little effect on cellular and cytokine parameters measured, it did cause a reduction in footpad swelling when mice received challenge in the footpad. Our findings show that TNF-α functions during induction of the protective CMI response by influencing the accumulation of all three DC subsets into DLN. Without antigen stimulated DC in DLN, activated CD4+ T cells are not induced and thus not available for the expression phase of the CMI response.
Mice immunized with two different cryptococcal antigen preparations, one a soluble culture filtrate antigen (CneF) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and the other heat-killed Cryptococcus neoformans cells (HKC), develop two different profiles of activated T cells. CneF-CFA induces CD4+ T cells responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and for amplification of the anticryptococcal DTH response, whereas HKC induce CD4+ and CD8+ T cells involved in anticryptococcal DTH reactivity and activated T cells which directly kill C. neoformans cells. The main purpose of this study was to assess the level of protection afforded by each of the two different T-cell profiles against challenge with viable C. neoformans cells, thereby identifying which activated T-cell profile provides better protection. CBA/J mice immunized with CneF-CFA had significantly better protective responses, based on better clearance of C. neoformans from tissues, on longer survival times, and on fewer and smaller lesions in the brain, than HKC-immunized mice or control mice similarly infected with C. neoformans. Both immunization protocols induced an anticryptococcal DTH response, but neither induced serum antibodies to glucuronoxylmannan, so the protection observed in the CneF-CFA immunized mice was due to the activated T-cell profile induced by that protocol. HKC-immunized mice, which displayed no greater protection than controls, did not have the amplifier cells. Based on our findings, we propose that the protective anticryptococcal T cells are the CD4+ T cells which have been shown to be responsible for DTH reactivity and/or the CD4+ T cells which amplify the DTH response and which have been previously shown to produce high levels of gamma interferon and interleukin 2. Our results imply that there are protective and nonprotective cell-mediated immune responses and highlight the complexity of the immune response to C. neoformans antigens.
To assess the effects of cryptococcal antigen-induced immunosuppression on a Cryptococcus neoformans infection, CBA/J mice were injected intravenously with saline or suppressive doses of cryptococcal antigen (CneF) at weekly intervals and were then infected with viable C. neoformans cells. By the second week after infection, the cryptococcal antigen-injected mice had suppressed anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses compared with the responses of the saline-treated, infected control mice. In addition, the immunosuppressed mice had higher numbers of cryptococcal CFU cultured from their lungs, livers, spleens, lymph nodes, and brains than did the control animals. A direct correlation of suppression of the anticryptococcal DTH response and reduced clearance of cryptococci from tissues was also observed after mice were given a single intravenous injection of CneF and infected. To determine whether or not the cryptococcal antigen was specifically reducing the clearance of C. neoformans or had a more generalized effect, mice were injected with saline or suppressive doses of CneF, infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and then followed daily for 7 days for the clearance of L. monocytogenes from spleens and on day 7 for DTH reactivity to Listeria antigen. There were no differences between the saline- and CneF-treated mice with respect to anti-Listeria DTH responses or clearance of L. monocytogenes from spleens, indicating that CneF was not altering natural resistance mechanisms responsible for early clearance of L. monocytogenes, nor was the CneF influencing the induction of the acquired immune response which was responsible for the late clearance of the bacteria. Together, these data indicate that the specific suppression of this cell-mediated immune response induced by cryptococcal antigen reduces the ability of the animals to eliminate the homologous organism (C. neoformans) but not a heterologous infectious agent, such as L. monocytogenes.
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that a high dose of cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) administered intravenously induces a complex suppressor cell cascade which down-regulates the cell-mediated immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans antigens. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine whether a suppressor cell induced by immunization is required for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. Our approach to this problem was to immunize CBA/J mice with CneF emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and then 6 days later to collect spleen cells from the immunized mice and adoptively transfer these cells along with C. neoformans-specific second-order suppressor T cells (Ts2) to naive syngeneic recipients at the time of footpad challenge of the recipients with CneF. To establish which populations of cells in the spleens of immunized mice play a suppressive role, mass cytolysis with specific antibodies and complement was performed before the spleen cells were transferred to naive animals. Since the phenotype of the cells responsible for the transfer of the cryptococcal DTH response had not been completely determined, we first demonstrated that the cells responsible for DTH were L3T4+ Lyt-2- cells. Subsequently, we established that a Thy-1+ L3T4- Lyt-2+ I-J+ cell population induced by immunization was required along with C. neoformans-specific Ts2 cells for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal DTH response. In addition, we demonstrated that the suppressor cells in the immune cell population were derived from cyclophosphamide-sensitive precursors. These data indicate that a third suppressor cell population is required for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal DTH response. As in the azobenzenearsonate and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl hapten suppressor models, the Ts2 cells in the circuit mediate their effects through this third suppressor component. Since the mode of induction and the phenotype of the third C. neoformans-specific suppressor cells are similar to those reported for Ts3 cells in other antigen-specific suppression models, we referred to this third suppressor cell in the C. neoformans-specific suppressor cell cascade as a Ts3 cell.
Early inflammatory responses, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and cytokine profiles were studied in mice infected by the pulmonary route with either a highly virulent isolate (NU-2) or a weakly virulent isolate (184A) of Cryptococcus neoformans. After infection, NU-2 remained in the lungs and the capsule became more pronounced during the first 24 h, whereas 184A induced an immediate inflammatory reaction and was rapidly cleared from the lungs. Cryptococcal antigen (GXM) appeared in sera early after infection with NU-2 and increased over the entire observation period. There was no detectable GXM in sera from 184A-infected mice. Both C. neoformans isolates induced anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune responses, but the responses had different profiles. DTH in NU-2-infected mice appeared at day 15 after infection and waned by day 21, whereas DTH in 184A-infected mice was present by day 5 and continued to increase. T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (interleukin 2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) were made by spleen cells early after infection with either isolate. NU-2-infected mice lost their ability to produce these cytokines, but 184A-infected mice retained it. IL-4, a Th2 cytokine, was not detected in infected mice. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 was made by spleen cells early but not later after infection with the highly virulent isolate and was not produced by spleen cells from 184A-infected mice. IL-10-deficient mice survived an NU-2 infection significantly longer than wild-type mice, suggesting that IL-10 is important in down-regulating the protective immune response. The induction of anergy appears to be responsible for the inability of NU-2-infected mice to control a C. neoformans infection.
Immunizing CBA/J mice with intact Cryptococcus neoformans cells or with a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) induces an anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Recently, it has been shown that two phenotypically different T-cell populations are responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity in mice immunized with intact cryptococcal cells, whereas only one of those populations is present in mice immunized with soluble cryptococcal antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The purpose of this study was to determine if differences occur with regard to direct anticryptococcal activity between T-lymphocyte-enriched populations from mice immunized with intact viable or dead cryptococcal cells and similar cell populations from mice immunized with the soluble cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen, CneF, emulsified in CFA. The percentage of lymphocytes which form conjugates with C. neoformans and the percentage of cryptococcal growth inhibition in vitro are greater with T-lymphocyte-enriched populations from mice sublethally infected with C. neoformans or from mice immunized with intact heat-killed cryptococcal cells in the presence or absence of CFA than with lymphocyte populations from mice immunized with CneF-CFA. Enhanced anticryptococcal activity of T lymphocytes could be induced by immunizing mice with heat-killed C. neoformans cells of serotype A, B, C, or D as well as by immunizing with a similar preparation of an acapsular C. neoformans mutant but not by immunizing with CFA emulsified with CneF prepared from any one of the C. neoformans isolates. These data indicate that the soluble cryptococcal culture filtrate antigens do not induce the same array of functional T lymphocytes as whole cryptococcal cells.
Mice immunized with peritoneal exudate cells (PEC; used as antigen-presenting cells [APC]) that are pulsed ex vivo with cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide, a glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), exhibit increased survival times and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions when they are infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. These responses are GXM specific. The present study revealed that GXM-APC immunization enhanced development of anticryptococcal type-1 cytokine responses (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) in mice infected with C. neoformans. The enhancement was not GXM specific, because immunization with GXM-APC and immunization with APC alone had similar effects. GXM-APC (or APC) immunization caused small increases in the expression of type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5), but the increases were not always statistically significant. IL-10 levels were not regulated by immunization with GXM-APC or APC. GXM-APC prepared with PEC harvested from mice injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) enhanced type-1 cytokine responses, while GXM-APC prepared with PEC induced with incomplete Freund's adjuvant were ineffective. The CFA-induced PEC had an activated phenotype characterized by increased numbers of F4/80+ cells that expressed CD40, B7-1, and B7-2 on their membranes. The immunomodulatory activity of the CFA-induced APC population was not attributed to their production of IL-12 because GXM-APC prepared with peritoneal cells harvested from IL-12 knockout mice or their wild-type counterparts were equally effective in augmenting the type-1 response. Blocking of IL-12 in the recipients of GXM-APC early after APC infusion revealed that early induction of IL-12 secretion was not responsible for the immunomodulatory response elicited by GXM-APC. These data, considered together with previously reported data, reveal that the protective activity of GXM-APC immunization involves both antigen-specific and nonspecific activities of GXM-APC.
Cell-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in host defenses against Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans. Therefore, the identification of cryptococcal antigens capable of producing T-cell-mediated responses, such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, may be useful in the development of immune-based strategies to control cryptococcosis. In order to characterize DTH-producing antigens, culture supernatants from the unencapsulated Cap-67 strain were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. After further fractionation by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a purified protein with an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa was found to produce DTH, as evidenced by increased footpad swelling in mice immunized with culture supernatants, relative to unimmunized mice. The 20-amino-acid N-terminal sequence of the 25-kDa protein was used to search data of the C. neoformans Genome Project. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, a DNA probe was used to screen a λ cDNA library prepared from strain B3501. Clones were isolated containing the full-length gene (d25), which showed homology with a number of polysaccharide deacetylases from fungi and bacteria. The recombinant d25 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was similar to the natural one in DTH-producing activity. Moreover, immunization with either the natural or the recombinant protein prolonged survival and decreased fungal burden in mice challenged with the highly virulent C. neoformans strain H99. In conclusion, we have described the first cryptococcal gene whose product, a 25-kDa extracellular polysaccharide deacetylase, has been shown to induce protective immunity responses.
We previously demonstrated that mannoprotein (MP) from Cryptococcus neoformans (CnMP) stimulates interleukin-12 production by human monocytes, thus fostering a T-helper type 1 (Th1) protective anticryptococcal response. In this paper we show that CnMP was also able to induce a Candida albicans-directed protective Th1 response. This was demonstrated for mice immunized with CnMP by induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to C. albicans MP (CaMP) as well as induction of gamma interferon production by CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells stimulated in vitro with CaMP. CnMP-immunized mice were also partially protected from lethal systemic challenge with C. albicans, as shown by prolonged median survival times and decreased fungal burden in the kidney. Much evidence supports the validity of these cross-reactive and functional Th1 responses: (i) a non-cross-reactive C. albicans antigen, such as enolase, did not produce a DTH response to CaMP; (ii) passive adoptive transfer of T cells primed with CnMP induced a DTH reaction; (iii) C. neoformans extract elicited a DTH response to CaMP; and (iv) a monoclonal antibody (7H6) directed against a major and immunodominant T-cell-stimulatory 65-kDa MP (MP65) of C. albicans also recognized discrete 100-kDa constituents of C. neoformans extracts, as well as secretory constituents of the fungus. These results suggest the presence of common Th1 antigenic determinants in the mannoproteic material of C. neoformans and C. albicans epitopes, which should be considered in devising common strategies for immunoprophylactic or immunotherapeutic control of the fungi.
Using a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) in a murine model, we have demonstrated previously that a cascade of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells and soluble factors function in suppressing the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In addition, we have successfully hybridized the C. neoformans-specific, first-order T-suppressor (Ts1) cell and have established that the culture supernatant (hTsF1) from this hybridoma induces second-order T-suppressor (Ts2) cells in vivo. Here we report the in vitro induction of expression-phase suppressor cells. The suppressor cells were induced by culturing nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells from naive mice with hTsF1 in the absence of CneF. Nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells similarly cultured with supernatants from the BW5147 thymoma cells, the fusion partners of the hybridoma, did not significantly suppress the cryptococcal DTH response. The suppressor cells were designated Ts2 cells based on their similarities in function, specificity, and phenotype, i.e. L3T4-, Lyt-2+, and I-J+, to the in vivo-induced Ts2 cells. By employing the in vitro culture technique, we demonstrated that the precursors of the functional Ts2 cells were L3T4- Lyt-1-2+ I-J- cells. The induction of Ts2 cells was not associated with [3H]thymidine incorporation; therefore, we concluded that hTsF1 induces the Lyt-2+ I-J- cells to differentiate into Lyt-2+ I-J+ functional Ts2 cells without a significant amount of proliferation. From the results of this study, a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of the DTH response to CneF was achieved. The in vitro culture technique will allow for further detailed studies of the interactions between the various cell populations and the Ts1 cell-derived soluble factor during the induction of Ts2 cells.
When mice are vaccinated with a culture filtrate from Cryptococcus neoformans (CneF), they mount a protective cell-mediated immune response as detected by dermal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to CneF. We have identified a gene (DHA1) whose product accounts at least in part for the DTH reactivity. Using an acapsular mutant (Cap-67) of C. neoformans strain B3501, we prepared a culture filtrate (CneF-Cap67) similar to that used for preparing the commonly used skin test antigen made with C. neoformans 184A (CneF-184A). CneF-Cap67 elicited DTH in mice immunized with CneF-184A. Deglycosylation of CneF-Cap67 did not diminish its DTH activity. Furthermore, size separation by either chromatography or differential centrifugation identified the major DTH activity of CneF-Cap67 to be present in fractions that contained proteins of approximately 19 to 20 kDa. Using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences derived from the 20-kDa band, oligonucleotide primers were designed, two of which produced a 776-bp amplimer by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using RNA from Cap-67 to prepare cDNA for the template. The amplimer was used as a probe to isolate clones containing the full-length DHA1 gene from a phage genomic library prepared from strain B3501. The full-length cDNA was obtained by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR. Analysis of DHA1 revealed a similarity between the deduced open reading frame and that of a developmentally regulated gene from Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom) associated with fruiting-body formation. Also, the gene product contained several amino acid sequences identical to those determined biochemically from the purified 20-kDa peptide encoded by DHA1. Recombinant DHA1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to elicit DTH reactions similar to those elicited by CneF-Cap67 in mice immunized against C. neoformans. Thus, DHA1 is the first gene to be cloned from C. neoformans whose product has been shown to possess immunologic activity.
A single intraperitoneal injection of the monovalent synthetic antigen, tyrosinated trimethylaminoaniline [tyr(TMA)] in Freund's complete adjuvant induces an antiidiotypic second-order T suppressor (Ts2) cell population 6 wk later. This population was able to suppress TMA- specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses when adoptively transferred into normal syngeneic recipients. However, they failed to function intrinsically. The inability of the Ts2 to function intrinsically was not caused by compensating idiotype-negative T cells that mediate DTH. Rather, this paradoxical observation was found to be caused by the absence or loss of function of a critical modulatory T cell population in the suppressor cell-bearing mice. This cell is functionally active in normal mice immunized for DTH responses and is sensitive to cyclophosphamide treatment. In addition, this cell type bears idiotype on its surface and is Thy-1+ and Lyt-1-,2+. It was demonstrated that by adoptively transferring the activated modulatory T cells from normal mice into tyr(TMA)-immune recipients, it was possible to observe suppressor cell function intrinsically. The potential importance of modulatory T cell function in the regulation of antibody and DTH responses is discussed.
Cell-mediated immunity is an important aspect of host resistance against Cryptococcus neoformans. Using a CBA/J murine model, we demonstrated that injection of cryptococcal antigen (CneF) at dosages sufficient to stimulate the antigenemia observed in cryptococcosis patients induces specific T-cell-mediated suppression of the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. The purpose of this study was to establish whether Lyt 1+, first-order T-suppressor (Ts1) cells block the induction of T cells responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity (TDH cells) or whether they function by inducing Lyt 2+, efferent suppressor (Ts2) cells. In one set of experiments, suppression was observed when Ts1 cells were adoptively transferred to recipient animals the day before, the day of, or the day after immunization; however, when Ts1 cells were transferred after TDH cells were present, no suppression occurred. In other experiments, putative TDH cells from lymph nodes (LN) or spleens were adoptively transferred from mice after immunization or after a suppressive dose of CneF or adoptive transfer of Ts1 cells and immunization. Delayed-type hypersensitivity could not be transferred with LN or spleen cells from mice receiving the suppressive dose of CneF or the Ts1 cells, even when the LN or spleen cells were treated with anti-Lyt 2.1 antibody and complement to remove any Ts2 cells. Delayed-type hypersensitivity was readily transferred with LN or spleen cells from immunized mice whether the cells were or were not treated with anti-Lyt 2 and complement. Furthermore, the cells in the tolerized LN cell pools responsible for suppression of TDH cell induction were Lyt 1+ 2-, I-J+ cells, which is the phenotype of the Ts1 cells. Taken together, these data indicate that Ts1 cells inhibit the induction of TDH cells. This finding, coupled with the previous demonstration that Ts1 cells or a Ts1 cell-derived soluble factor (TsF1) induces Ts2 cells, establishes that the cryptococcal Ts1 cells are bifunctional in the suppressive pathway.
The adoptive transfer of resistance to Listeria monocytogenes can be significantly enhanced by in vitro incubation of primed murine spleen cells with concanavalin A (ConA) before transfer into syngeneic recipients. The level of transferred resistance, as measured by clearance of infectious organisms, can approach that observed in actively immunized mice. When delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses of passive transfer recipients were compared, there was no difference in the level of hypersensitivity exhibited by mice receiving either nonstimulated or ConA-stimulated, Listeria-immune spleen cells. In addition, the level of these adoptively transferred responses never approached the level of DTH observed in actively immunized mice. This inability of ConA-stimulated cells to enhance passive DTH in recipient mice was not dependent on the antigenic preparation of Listeria used to elicit the DTH response. Transfer of cultured, ConA-stimulated, Listeria-immune spleen cells did not lead either to specific or to nonspecific suppression of DTH responsiveness in actively immunized mice. These results indicate the possible existence of antigen-specific T-cells subpopulations which, after stimulation with ConA, exhibit differing efficiencies when responding in assays of cell-mediated immunity.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses served in this study as an experimental model for the analysis of genetic regulations of T-cell responses. Educated irradiated cells from H-2b mice mediated responses in syngeneic recipients, whereas mice of the a, d, f, k, and s haplotypes were nonresponders to poly(LTyr,LGlu)-poly(DLAla)-- poly(LLys)[(T,G)-A--L]. These results suggest that cell-mediated immune responsiveness to (T,G)-A--L is linked to the H-2 complex, as was shown for humoral responses. Educated irradiated T cells of F1 hybrids between high and low responders mediated DTH responses, which indicates that the gene(s) controlling the DTH responses is dominant. To analyze the genetic defect in DTH responses to (T,G)-A--L, we separated the T- cell activation phase from the effector phase that was determined in recipient mice. Two types of nonresponders were observed: (a) When lymphocytes of the a or k haplotypes were educated in a syngeneic environment and then transferred into hybrids between the parental (nonresponder x responder) F1 recipients, DTH responses could have been manifested. (b) On the other hand, no DTH responses could be mediated by transferring educated cells of the H-2s or H-2f origin into the appropriate F1 recipients. In addition, irradiated F1 cells that had been activated to (T,G)-A--L could not mediate DTH responses in both types of nonresponder recipients. These results suggest that T cells of H-2k or H-2a mice can be activated to generate DTH responses to (T,G)-A- -L and that the defect in these mouse strains is expressed in another cell population needed for the manifestation of the DTH reaction in the recipient mice. In contrast, T cells of H-2s and H-2f origin cannot be activated to (T,G)-A--L and, thus, fail to manifest DTH responses.
In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively transferred DTH to types IV and I collagen to normal recipients; T cell-depleted spleen cells failed to transfer immunity. Periodate-treated type IV collagen did not elicit DTH in mice sensitized to type I collagen; however, mice sensitized with type IV collagen displayed significant DTH when challenged with periodate- treated type IV collagen. Furthermore, treatment of type IV collagen with a mixed glycosidase or alpha-glucosidase before challenge eliminated the DTH response in type I collagen-sensitized mice; beta- galactosidase treatment of type IV collagen had no effect on this response. Mice sensitized with type IV collagen, however, displayed significant DTH when challenged with these glycosidase-treated antigens. Antibodies produced to types I and IV collagen by repeated immunizations were specific for the sensitizing antigen and did not react with other connective tissue antigens. These studies indicate that a CMI response to type I collagen recognizes similar antigenic determinants on the type IV collagen molecule. These cross-reacting determinants are dependent on conformation and contain carbohydrates, particularly glucose residues.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the azobenzenearsonate (ABA) hapten can be readily induced in A/J mice injecting ABA-coupled syngeneic spleen cells subcutaneously. To further characterize this T- cell-dependent immunological phenomenon, the effect of passively administered anti-cross-reactive idiotype common to anti-ABA antibodies of A/J mice (CRI) antibodies on the development of ABA-specific DTH was investigated. Animals given daily injections (of minute amounts) of anti-CRI antibodies subsequent to immunization with ABA-coupled cells show significant reduction of ABA specific responses. This inhibition is antigen specific and requires the intact immunoglobulin molecule, as F(ab')2 treatments were ineffective in suppressing the reaction. Investigations of the mechanism of the anti-CRI-induced suppression of ABA DTH revealed that the observed suppression is a result of the activation of suppressor cells. Spleen cells taken from animals which received anti-CRI antibodies were able to adoptively transfer suppression to naive recipients. This suppression was shown to be mediated by T cells, as anti-Thy1.2 plus complement completely abrogated the transfer of suppression. In addition, animals pretreated with low doses of cyclophosphamide were not suppressed by the administration of anti-CRI antibodies. The genetic restriction of anti- CRI-induced suppression was demonstrated. Antibodies to the major cross- reactive idiotype, (CRI) associated with anti-ABA antibodies in A/J mice were unable to suppress the development of DTH to ABA in BALB/c mice (H-2d, Igh-1a). Such antibodies were, however, fully active in suppressing ABA DTH in the allotype-congenic C.AL-20 strain which has an allotype (Igh-1d) similar to that of A/J (Igh-1e) on a BALB/c background, and which produces humoral antibodies with the CRI.
BALB/c mice injected intradermally with 10(5) or higher doses of formaldehyde-fixed promastigotes (FFP) of Leishmania major developed strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to leishmanial antigens injected into the hind footpad 3 to 10 days later. The DTH peaked 15 to 18 h after footpad injection and disappeared by 48 h. This specific DTH correlated with the homing of 51Cr-labeled syngeneic bone marrow cells and the infiltration of proliferating cells to the site of antigen administration. Spleen cells from FFP-sensitized mice also gave significant proliferative response to FFP in vitro. The DTH was adoptively transferable by Lyt-1+2-L3T4+ T cells and was H-2 restricted. DTH could be substantially enhanced by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide or pertussigen. Such DTH enhancement was accompanied by concomitant exacerbation of disease progression after L. major infection. Mice injected intravenously with FFP developed substantial immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis but specifically suppressed DTH reactivity. Treatment of mice with pertussigen before intravenous immunization, however, abolished the protection and reversed the suppression of DTH. These results therefore demonstrate that the early-appearing type of DTH is not involved in host protection but that it actually facilitates disease progression in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further evidence, which also shows the nonspecific nature of this disease exacerbation, is provided by local cell transfer experiments. Splenic T cells from mice sensitized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or FFP induced significantly larger lesions compared with normal T cells when they were transferred into the footpad together with specific antigen and L. major promastigotes.