Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 53:161-165, 1986). In this study, we examined the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to killing by intact neutrophils under aerobic conditions, under anaerobic conditions, and under aerobic conditions in the presence of the heme-protein inhibitor sodium cyanide. Intact neutrophils killed opsonized A. actinomycetemcomitans under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the kinetics of these reactions indicated that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. Oxidative mechanisms contributed significantly, and most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms was inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggested that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system participated in the oxidative process. We conclude that human neutrophils are capable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent pathways, and that most oxygen-dependent killing requires myeloperoxidase activity.
The binding of the neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) to microbial surfaces is believed to be the first step in its microbicidal activity. The MPO-H2O2-Cl- system is responsible for most oxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils. There appear to be three forms of MPO (MPO I, II, and III), all of which can kill this organism in the presence of H2O2 and chloride. In this study, we characterized the binding of native human neutrophil MPO to A. actinomycetemcomitans by an elution procedure dependent on the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Binding of native MPO was rapid and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 min. A proportion of binding under equilibrium conditions was saturable and highly avid, with a capacity of 4,500 sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 7.9 X 10(-10) M. At equal protein concentrations, more MPO III bound than MPO II, and more MPO II bound than MPO I. The high-avidity interaction was inhibitable with yeast mannan and with the serotype-defining mannan of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Binding was also partially reversible with yeast mannan. MPO bound to the high-avidity sites did not oxidize guaiacol but oxidized chloride, as detected by the chlorination of taurine. MPO bound to the high-avidity sites was incapable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans alone in the presence of H2O2 and Cl-, but potentiated killing when sufficient additional MPO was provided. The killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by the MPO-H2O2-Cl- system was inhibited by yeast mannan and a serotype-defining mannan of A. actinomycetemcomitans. We conclude that high-avidity binding of MPO to the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans is a mannan-specific interaction and that MPO bound to the high-avidity sites is essential but not alone sufficient to kill A. actinomycetemcomitans.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a fastidious, facultative gram-negative rod associated with endocarditis, certain forms of periodontal disease, and other focal infections. Human neutrophils have demonstrated bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and much of the oxygen-dependent killing has been attributed to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. However, the contribution of other neutrophil components to killing activity is obscure. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a major constituent of neutrophil-specific granules and is also found in mucosal secretions. In this report, we show that human lactoferrin is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Killing activity required an unsaturated (iron- and anion-free) molecule that produced a 2-log decrease in viability within 120 min at 37 degrees C at a concentration of 1.9 microM. Besides exhibiting concentration dependence, killing kinetics were affected by minor variations in temperature and pH. Magnesium, a divalent cation thought to stabilize lipopolysaccharide interactions on the surface of gram-negative organisms, enhanced lactoferrin killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while other cations, such as potassium and calcium, had no effect. Our data suggest that lactoferrin contributes to killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils and that it may also play a significant role in innate secretory defense against this potential periodontopathogen.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the antibiotic cefpodoxime on the gram-negative periodontopathic microorganism Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and its interaction with elements of the host immune system. Growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subinhibitory concentrations of cefpodoxime induced morphological changes in the bacteria, causing the organisms to grow as filaments rather than coccobacilli. Growth in cefpodoxime did not render these bacteria susceptible to killing by serum, nor did it abrogate the requirement for serum opsonins to support the bactericidal activity of neutrophils. Cefpodoxime enhanced the susceptibility of A. actinomycetemcomitans to the bactericidal activity of neutrophils. In the presence of suitable opsonins, neutrophils were able to kill four times as many cefpodoxime-induced A. actinomycetemcomitans filaments as untreated A. actinomycetemcomitans CFU. This effect was due to antibiotic actions on the bacterium and not on the neutrophil. At inhibitory concentrations, the bactericidal activities of cefpodoxime and neutrophils were additive, and cefpodoxime did not interfere with the normal functioning of the neutrophils. Concomitant with these morphological and functional changes, the expression of two outer membrane proteins (66 and 29 kDa) and one inner membrane protein (57 kDa) was decreased in A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in cefpodoxime. The concentration range over which cefpodoxime is effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans in vivo may be extended by the ability of subinhibitory concentrations to enhance the susceptibility of this organism to host immune defenses.
The relative importance of several oxygen intermediates in fungicidal action against opsonized Aspergillus fumigatus conidia was investigated with monocytes from normal volunteers and patients with either chronic granulomatous disease or myeloperoxidase (MPO) deficiency. Results from experiments in which catalase, taurine, mannitol, or glucose-glucose oxidase were added to these phagocytes indicated that the MPO-hydrogen peroxide-halide system and an MPO-independent oxidative system exerted comparable conidiacidal activity. These findings offer a plausible explanation for the susceptibility of patients with chronic granulomatous disease to invasive Aspergillus infections; their phagocytes fail to generate hydrogen peroxide, a substrate necessary for both systems. Patients with MPO deficiency are not known to be predisposed to invasive aspergillosis, suggesting that an MPO-independent oxidative system may provide an alternative mechanism for the oxidative killing of Aspergillus spp.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride ion to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is used for microbial killing by phagocytic cells. Despite the important role of MPO in host defense, however, MPO deficiency is relatively common in humans, and most of these individuals are in good health. To define the in vivo role of MPO, we have generated by gene targeting mice having no MPO activity in their neutrophils and monocytes. The mice without MPO developed normally, were fertile, and showed normal clearance of intraperitoneal Staphylococcus aureus. However, they showed increased susceptibility to pneumonia and death following intratracheal infection with Candida albicans. Furthermore, the lack of MPO significantly enhanced the dissemination of intraperitoneally injected C. albicans into various organs during the first 7 days. Thus, MPO is important for early host defense against fungal infection, and the inability to generate HOCl cannot be compensated for by other oxygen-dependent systems in vivo in mice. The mutant mice serve as a model for studying pulmonary and systemic candidiasis.
The leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. We examined a potential mechanism for detoxification of this microbial product by the neutrophil myeloperoxidase system. Exposure to myeloperoxidase, H2O2, and a halide resulted in marked inactivation of leukotoxin, an effect which required each component of the myeloperoxidase system. Toxin inactivation was blocked by agents which inhibit heme enzymes (azide, cyanide) or degrade H2O2 (catalase). Reagent H2O2 could be replaced by the peroxide-generating enzyme system glucose oxidase plus glucose. The latter system, in fact, was more potent than reagent H2O2 in terms of the capacity to inactivate high concentrations of toxin. Toxin inactivation was complete within 1 to 2 min at 37 degrees C. These observations suggest a possible role for oxidative inactivation of leukotoxin by secretory products of neutrophils.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga spp. are gram-negative bacteria implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease (particularly in individuals with neutrophil defects) and life-threatening systemic infections. They are resistant to many antibiotics of microbial origin but are sensitive to the nonoxidative microbicidal action of neutrophils. These organisms are susceptible to the microbicidal effect of cathepsin G but are killed by two distinct mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to assess their sensitivity to the antibiotic effects of IIGGR and HPQYNQR, antimicrobial peptides derived from human neutrophil cathepsin G. The efficacies of the synthetic peptides IIGGR and HPQYNQR were tested by single-dose screening, dose-response, and kinetic assays against three representative strains (each) of A. actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga spp. and one strain of Eikenella corrodens. Strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive to IIGGR and HPQYNQR at equal concentrations (wt/vol), whereas strains of Capnocytophaga and E. corrodens were more sensitive to IIGGR than to HPQYNQR. These differential antibiotic effects occurred over both time and dose ranges too narrow to be of therapeutic significance but are consistent with the premise that cathepsin G kills these oral bacteria by two distinct mechanisms. Except for IVGGR, congeners of IIGGR, including AIGGR, IAGGR, IIAGR, IIGAR, IIGGA, IQGGR, ILGGR, and I-norleucyl-GGR (InLGGR), were microbicidal at 500 micrograms/ml. IIGGR-amide exhibited no antibiotic activity. The D-enantiomer of IIGGR, DIDIGGDR, was as potent as IIGGR itself. APQYNQR exhibited antibiotic activity but somewhat less than HPQYNQR. We conclude that charge distribution, but not chirality or net charge, is an important determinant in the antibiotic efficacy of IIGGR. Moreover, peptide antibiotics derived from cathepsin G may have therapeutic value against periodontal gram-negative, facultative bacteria.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemoprotein, involved in the leukocyte mediated defense mechanism, and uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-) to produce hypochlorous acid. In human saliva and hypochloremic alkalosis syndrome occurring in breast fed infants, the MPO-H2O2 system functions in lower Cl- concentration (10-70 mM) compared to plasma levels (100 mM) as part of the antibacterial defense system. The impact of low Cl- concentration and exposure to high peroxynitrite (ONOO-) synthesized from cigarette smoke or oxidative stress on MPO function is still unexplored. Rapid mixing of ONOO- and MPO caused immediate formation of a transient intermediate MPO Compound II which then decayed to MPO-Fe (III). Double mixing of MPO with ONOO- followed by H2O2 caused immediate formation of Compound II followed by MPO heme depletion, a process that occured independent of ONOO- concentration. Peroxynitrite/H2O2-mediated MPO heme depletion was confirmed by HPLC analysis and in-gel heme staining showing 60-70% less heme content compared to the control. A non-reducing denaturing SDS PAGE showed no fragmentation or degradation of protein. Myeloperoxidase heme loss was completely prevented by pre-incubation of MPO with saturated amounts of Cl-. Chloride binding to the active site of MPO constrains ONOO- binding by filling the space directly above the heme moiety or by causing a protein conformational change that constricts the distal heme pocket, thus preventing ONOO- from binding to MPO heme iron. Peroxynitrite interaction with MPO may serve as a novel mechanism for modulating MPO catalytic activity, influencing the regulation of local inflammatory and infectious events in vivo.
Hydrogen peroxidase; hypohalous acid; inflammation; mammalian peroxidase; smoking
Reactive oxygen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), participate in neutrophil-mediated glomerulonephritis. However, the mechanism of H2O2 neptrotoxicity is unknown. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a neutrophil cationic enzyme that localizes in glomeruli, can react with H2O2 and halides to form highly reactive products. We tested the hypothesis that the MPO-H2O2-halide system may induce glomerular injury by infusing MPO followed by H2O2 in a chloride-containing solution into the renal artery of rats. Controls received MPO or H2O2 alone. MPO-H2O2-perfused rats developed significant proteinuria, endothelial cell swelling, and epithelial cell foot process effacement, whereas control kidneys were normal. In the presence of free 125I, MPO-H2O2-perfused rats incorporated large amounts of 125I, localized to the glomerular basement membrane and mesangium by autoradiography, into glomeruli. Glomerular iodination was greatly decreased or absent in controls. The MPO-H2O2-halide system causes glomerular injury and may be important in neutrophil-mediated glomerulonephritis.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether granule fractions of human neutrophils differentially kill Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga spp. Granule extracts were subjected to gel filtration, and seven fractions (designated A through G) were obtained. Under aerobic conditions at pH 7.0, representative strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were killed by fraction D and variably by fraction B. In contrast, the Capnocytophaga spp. were killed by fractions C, D, F, and G. Fractions A (containing lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and E (containing lysozyme) exerted little bactericidal activity under these conditions. Anaerobiosis had little effect on the bactericidal activity of fractions D and F but inhibited that of fractions B and C. Electrophoresis, zymography, determination of amino acid composition, and N-terminal sequence analysis revealed that fraction C contained elastase, proteinase 3, and azurocidin. Fraction D contained lysozyme, elastase, and cathepsin G. Subfractions of C and D containing elastase (subfraction C4), a mixture of elastase and azurocidin (subfraction C5), and cathepsin G (subfraction D9) were found to be bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of fraction D and subfraction D9 against A. actinomycetemcomitans was not inhibited by heat inactivation, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, or N-benzyloxycarbonylglycylleucylphenylalanylchloromethyl ketone. We conclude that (i) A. actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga spp. were sensitive to the bactericidal effects of different neutrophil granule components, (ii) both were sensitive to the bactericidal effects of neutral serine proteases, and (iii) the killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by cathepsin G-containing fractions was independent of oxygen and neutral serine protease activity.
Neutrophils play a major role in defending the periodontium against infection by oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria, such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga spp. We examined the sensitivity of these bacteria to a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and highly purified individual defensin peptides (HNP-1, HNP-2, and HNP-3) isolated from human neutrophils. Whereas the Capnocytophaga spp. strains were killed significantly by the mixed human neutrophil peptides, the A. actinomycetemcomitans and E. corrodens strains were resistant. Killing was attributable to the defensins. The bactericidal activities of purified defensins HNP-1 and HNP-2 were equal, and both of these activities were greater than HNP-3 activity against strains of Capnocytophaga sputigena and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. The strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was more sensitive to defensin-mediated bactericidal activity than either C. sputigena or C. gingivalis was. The three human defensins were equipotent in killing C. ochracea. C. ochracea was killed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and over a broad pH range. Killing was most effective under hypotonic conditions but also occurred at physiologic salt concentrations. We concluded that Capnocytophaga spp. are sensitive to oxygen-independent killing by human defensins. Additional studies will be required to identify other components that may equip human neutrophils to kill A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. corrodens, and other oral gram-negative bacteria.
Ethylene formation from the thioethers, beta-methylthiopropionaldehyde (methional) and 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was found to be largely dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Conversion was less than 10% of normal when MPO-deficient PMNs were employed; formation by normal PMNs was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide, and cyanide, and a model system consisting of MPO, H2O2, chloride (or bromide) and EDTA was found which shared many of the properties of the predominant PMN system. MPO-independent mechanisms of ethylene formation were also identified. Ethylene formation from methional by phagocytosing eosinophils and by H2O2 in the presence or absence of catalase was stimulated by azide. The presence of MPO-independent, azide-stimulable systems in the PMN preparations was suggested by the azide stimulation of ethylene formation from methional when MPO-deficient leukocytes were employed. Ethylene formation by dye-sensitized photooxidation was also demonstrated and evidence obtained for the involvement of singlet oxygen (1O2). These findings are discussed in relation to the participation of H2O2, hydroxyl radicals, the superoxide anion and 1O2 in the formation of ethylene by PMNs and by the MPO model system.
We compared the sensitivities of oral and nonoral isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus segnis, H. aphrophilus, and H. paraphrophilus to the bactericidal action of reagent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Susceptibility to a range of H2O2 concentrations (10(-6) to 10(-3) M) was assessed by incubating bacterial suspensions for 1 h at 37 degrees C in the presence of H2O2 and plating on chocolate agar to determine the concentration of H2O2 that would produce a 50% reduction in CFU (50% lethal dose). As a group, A. actinomycetemcomitans was more resistant to H2O2 than the oral haemophili, and H. aphrophilus was much more sensitive than all other organisms tested. The range of 50% lethal dose values for A. actinomycetemcomitans was between 8.5 X 10(-5) and 10(-3) M H2O2 or above. In contrast, H. aphrophilus exhibited 50% lethal dose values from below 1 X 10(-6) to 3.4 X 10(-4) M H2O2. The resistance of A. actinomycetemcomitans to H2O2 may be sufficient to protect these organisms from direct H2O2-mediated killing by host phagocytes.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), H2O2, and chloride ions in the presence of bacteria form aldehydes and are bactericidal. The use of heat-inactivated MPO prevented both killing and aldehyde generation. Decarboxylation and deamination of carboxyl and amino group substrates arising from the bacterial surface may participate in the reaction which yields aldehydes. Bacterial contact was essential for killing. Decarboxylation and bactericidal activities were noted when physiological concentrations of chloride were used. When MPO was replaced with horseradish peroxidase (HPO) in the chloride medium, decarboxylation and bactericidal activities were no longer noted. In contrast, iodide functioned in the antimicrobial system with either MPO or HPO. The iodide concentrations required were at least sixfold greater than circulating blood iodide levels. Moreover, decarboxylation did not occur in the presence of iodide with either enzyme. Thus, both halides function in the MPO-H2O2 system but by different mechanisms. It is likely that in vivo under most conditions chloride is the functional halide and that generation of aldehydes is the mechanism responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the MPO-H2O2-chloride system.
Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in neutrophils (PMNs). To define whether chloride availability to PMNs affects their HOCl production and microbicidal capacity, we examined how extracellular chloride concentration affects killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) by normal neutrophils. PMN-mediated bacterial killing was strongly dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. Neutrophils in a chloride-deficient medium killed PsA poorly. However, as the chloride level was raised, the killing efficiency increased in a dose-dependent fashion. By using specific inhibitors to selectively block NADPH-oxidase, MPO and CFTR functions, neutrophil-mediated killing of PsA could be attributed to three distinct mechanisms: 1) CFTR-dependent and oxidant-dependent, 2) chloride-dependent but not CFTR- and oxidant-dependent, and 3) independent of any of the tested factors. Therefore, chloride anion is involved in both oxidant- and non-oxidant-mediated bacterial killing. We previously reported that neutrophils from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are defective in chlorination of ingested bacteria, suggesting that the chloride channel defect might impair the MPO-H2O2-chloride microbicidal function. Here, we compared the competence of killing PsA by neutrophils from normal donors and CF patients. The data demonstrate that the killing rate by CF neutrophils was significantly lower than that by normal neutrophils. CF neutrophils in a chloride-deficient environment had only 1/3 of the bactericidal capacity of normal neutrophils in a physiological chloride environment. These results suggest that CFTR-dependent chloride anion transport contributes significantly to killing PsA by normal neutrophils and, when defective as in CF, may compromise the ability to clear PsA.
The antimycobacterial role of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), one of the most abundant granule proteins in human eosinophils, was investigated. Our data indicate that purified EPO shows significant inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. On a molar basis, this activity was similar to that exhibited by neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and was both dose and time dependent. In contrast to the activity of MPO, which requires H2O2, EPO also exhibited anti-M. tuberculosis activity in the absence of exogenously added peroxide. Morphological evidence confirmed that the mechanism of action of EPO against mycobacteria differs from that of MPO. While MPO kills M. tuberculosis H37Rv exclusively in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, it does not induce morphological changes in the pathogen. In contrast, EPO-treated bacteria frequently had cell wall lesions and eventually underwent lysis, either in the presence or in the absence of H2O2.
Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacterium associated with severe forms of periodontitis. A leukotoxin, which belongs to the repeats-in-toxin family, is believed to be one of its virulence factors and to have an important role in the bacterium's pathogenicity. This toxin selectively kills human leukocytes by inducing apoptosis and lysis. Here, we report that leukotoxin-induced cell death of macrophages proceeded through a process that differs from the classical characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis. A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin-induced several cellular and molecular mechanisms in human macrophages that led to a specific and excessive pro-inflammatory response with particular secretion of both interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In addition, this pro-inflammatory cell death was inhibited by oxidized ATP, which indicates involvement of the purinergic receptor P2X7 in this process. This novel virulence mechanism of the leukotoxin may have an important role in the pathogenic potential of this bacterium and can be a target for future therapeutic agents.
A. actinomycetemcomitans; leukotoxin; macrophages; pro-inflammatory response; P2X7 receptor
Nitrotyrosine formation is a hallmark of vascular inflammation, with polymorphonuclear neutrophil–derived (PMN-derived) and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) being shown to catalyze this posttranslational protein modification via oxidation of nitrite (NO2–) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2•). Herein, we show that MPO concentrates in the subendothelial matrix of vascular tissues by a transcytotic mechanism and serves as a catalyst of ECM protein tyrosine nitration. Purified MPO and MPO released by intraluminal degranulation of activated human PMNs avidly bound to aortic endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans in both cell monolayer and isolated vessel models. Cell-bound MPO rapidly transcytosed intact endothelium and colocalized abluminally with the ECM protein fibronectin. In the presence of the substrates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and NO2–, cell and vessel wall–associated MPO catalyzed nitration of ECM protein tyrosine residues, with fibronectin identified as a major target protein. Both heparin and the low–molecular weight heparin enoxaparin significantly inhibited MPO binding and protein nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) formation in both cultured endothelial cells and rat aortic tissues. MPO–/– mice treated with intraperitoneal zymosan had lower hepatic NO2Tyr/tyrosine ratios than did zymosan-treated wild-type mice. These data indicate that MPO significantly contributes to NO2Tyr formation in vivo. Moreover, transcytosis of MPO, occurring independently of leukocyte emigration, confers specificity to nitration of vascular matrix proteins.
d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme that uses a d-amino acid as a substrate. We hypothesized that DAO may protect against bacterial infection, because hydrogen peroxide is one of the most important molecules in the antibacterial defense systems in mammals. We show here that DAO suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a manner that depended on the concentration of DAO and d-amino acid in vitro. Addition of catalase abolished the bacteriostatic activity of DAO. Although DAO plus d-Ala showed less bactericidal activity, addition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) greatly enhanced the bactericidal activity of DAO. Furthermore, DAO was able to utilize bacterial lysate, which contains d-Ala derived from peptidoglycan; this could produce hydrogen peroxide with, in the presence of myeloperoxidase, formation of hypochlorous acid. This concerted reaction of DAO and MPO led to the bactericidal action. In vivo experiments showed that DAO−/− (mutant) mice were more susceptible to S. aureus infection than were DAO+/+ (wild-type) mice. These results suggest that DAO, together with myeloperoxidase, may play an important role in antibacterial systems in mammals.
Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. These structures are composed of a network of chromatin strands associated with a variety of neutrophil-derived proteins including the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Studies into the mechanisms leading to the formation of NETs indicate a complex process that differs according to the stimulus. With some stimuli an active nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is required. However, assigning specific reactive oxygen species involved downstream of the oxidase is a difficult task and definitive proof for any single oxidant is still lacking. Pharmacological inhibition of MPO and the use of MPO-deficient neutrophils indicate active MPO is required with phorbol myristate acetate as a stimulus but not necessarily with bacteria. Reactive oxidants and MPO may also play a role in NET-mediated microbial killing. MPO is present on NETs and maintains activity at this site. Therefore, MPO has the potential to generate reactive oxidants in close proximity to trapped microorganisms and thus effect microbial killing. This brief review discusses current evidence for the involvement of reactive oxidants and MPO in NET formation and their potential contribution to NET antimicrobial activity.
superoxide; hydrogen peroxide; hypochlorous acid
The heme-containing peroxidase family comprises eight members in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of heme-containing peroxidases are not well understood. Phagocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) utilizes chloride and bromide, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to generate hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid, potent oxidizing species that are known to kill invading pathogens. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a new member of the heme-containing peroxidase family; VPO1 is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system, lung, liver, pancreas, and spleen. However, functional roles of VPO1 have not been defined. In this report, we demonstrate the capacity for VPO1 to catalyze the formation of hypohalous acids, and characterize its enzymatic properties. VPO1, like MPO but unlike lactoperoxidase, is able to generate hypochlorous acid, hypobromous acid, and hypothiocyanous acid in the presence of H2O2. Under physiological pH and concentrations of halides (100 µM KBr, 100 µM KSCN, and 100 mM NaCl), VPO1 utilizes approximately 45% of H2O2 for the generation of hypobromous acid, 35% for hypothiocyanous acid, and 18% for hypochlorous acid. The specific activity of VPO1 is ~10- to 70-fold lower than that of MPO, depending on the specific substrate. These studies demonstrate that the enzymatic properties and substrate specificity of VPO1 are similar to MPO; however, significantly lower catalytic rate constants of VPO1 relative to MPO suggest the possibility of other physiologic roles for this novel heme-containing peroxidase.
Heme-containing peroxidase; Vascular peroxidase 1; Hypohalous acid; Hypothiocyanous acid; Kinetics
Previously we have shown that human neutrophils treated with conditioned medium from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (sCM) in the presence of antisera have amoebicidal properties for Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic free-living amoeba. The data now presented show that neutrophils which lack myeloperoxidase (MPO) but have a normal oxygen-dependent respiratory burst could not be altered by sCM to express the amoebicidal activity. Catalase inhibited this amoebicidal activity of sCM-treated neutrophils. Various components and products of the neutrophils were examined for effects on naegleriae. A granule extract was found to have no effect at concentrations up to 100-fold that which killed Salmonella minnesota R595. Hydrogen peroxide appeared to have little effect even at 100 microM. However, in the presence of MPO, H2O2 was amoebicidal at 2.5 microM. The generation of amoebicidal activity required the presence of chloride ions. Azide inhibited the effects of the MPO-H2O2-Cl- system. Arginine, a scavenger of hypochlorite, significantly depressed the ability of sCM-treated neutrophils to kill amoebae and also prevented the amoebicidal properties of the MPO-H2O2-halide system. These results suggest that the MPO-H2O2-halide system is important in the killing of naegleriae by sCM-treated neutrophils and that hypochlorite may be the amoebicidal agent.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative bacterium which has been associated with severe oral and nonoral infections. This study examined its occurrence in the oral cavities of 10 normal juveniles, 11 normal adults, 10 juvenile periodontitis patients, and 12 adult periodontitis patients. Four deep periodontal pockets and two normal periodontal sites were sampled in the diseased patients, and six normal periodontal sites were sampled in the healthy individuals. In all subjects samples were obtained from the cheek, tongue, and saliva. Samples from a total of 172 normal periodontal sites, 83 deep periodontal pockets, 42 cheek mucosae, 42 tongue dorsa, and 42 salivas were examined. Isolation was performed by using a medium for selective isolation of A. actinomycetemcomitans (Trypticase soy agar [BBL Microbiology Systems] supplemented with 10% serum and 75 μg of bacitracin per ml). The carrier rates were 20% for normal juveniles, 36% for normal adults, 50% for adult periodontitis patients, and 90% for juvenile periodontitis patients. A. actinomycetemcomitans was on average recovered in about fivefold-higher numbers from infected deep periodontal pockets than from infected normal subgingival areas. Samples of periodontal pockets generally contained 100-fold-more cells of A. actinomycetemcomitans than did samples of the cheek, tongue, and saliva. A. actinomycetemcomitans is commonly isolated from patients with juvenile periodontitis, often isolated from patients with adult periodontitis, and occasionally isolated from normal juveniles and adults. Its primary oral ecological niche appears to be dental plaque and periodontal pockets.
We investigated the effects of the antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ) on the cytolytic action of the neutrophil myeloperoxidase–hydrogen peroxide–chloride anion system (MPO/H2O2/Cl−). In this system, myeloperoxidase catalyses the conversion of H2O2 and CI− to the cytotoxic agent HOCl. Stimulated neutrophils can release MPO into the extracellular environment and then may cause tissue injury through direct endothelial cells lysis. We showed that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were capable of taking up active MPO. In presence of H2O2 (10−4 M), this uptake was accompanied by cell lysis. The cytolysis was estimated by the release of 51Cr from HUVEC and expressed as an index of cytotoxicity (IC). Dose dependent protection was obtained for CAZ concentrations ranging from 10−5 to 10−3 M;this can be attributed to inactivation of HOCl by the drug. This protection is comparable to that obtained with methionine and histidine, both of which are known to neutralize HOCl. This protection by CAZ could also be attributed to inactivation of H2O2, but when cytolysis was achieved with H2O2 or
O2- generating enzymatic systems, no protection by CAZ was observed. Moreover, the peroxidation activity of MPO (action on H2O2) was not affected by CAZ, while CAZ prevented the chlorination activity of MPO (chlorination of monochlorodimedon). So, we concluded that CAZ acts via HOCl inactivation. These antioxidant properties of CAZ may be clinically useful in pathological situations where excessive activation of neutrophils occurs, such as in sepsis.