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1.  Beet yellows virus replicase and replicative compartments: parallels with other RNA viruses 
In eukaryotic virus systems, infection leads to induction of membranous compartments in which replication occurs. Virus-encoded subunits of the replication complex mediate its interaction with membranes. As replication platforms, RNA viruses use the cytoplasmic surfaces of different membrane compartments, e.g., endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, endo/lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. Closterovirus infections are accompanied by formation of multivesicular complexes from cell membranes of ER or mitochondrial origin. So far the mechanisms for vesicles formation have been obscure. In the replication-associated 1a polyprotein of Beet yellows virus (BYV) and other closteroviruses, the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains (1a central region (CR), 1a CR) is marginally conserved. Computer-assisted analysis predicts several putative membrane-binding domains in the BYV 1a CR. Transient expression of a hydrophobic segment (referred to here as CR-2) of the BYV 1a in Nicotiana benthamiana led to reorganization of the ER and formation of ~1-μm mobile globules. We propose that the CR-2 may be involved in the formation of multivesicular complexes in BYV-infected cells. This provides analogy with membrane-associated proteins mediating the build-up of “virus factories” in cells infected with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses (alpha-like viruses, picorna-like viruses, flaviviruses, and nidoviruses) and negative-strand RNA viruses (bunyaviruses).
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00038
PMCID: PMC3589766  PMID: 23508802
RNA virus replication; membrane vesicles; virus replication factory; endoplasmic reticulum modification; intracellular traffic
2.  Role of Rice Stripe Virus NSvc4 in Cell-to-Cell Movement and Symptom Development in Nicotiana benthamiana 
Our previous work has demonstrated that the NSvc4 protein of Rice stripe virus (RSV) functions as a cell-to-cell movement protein. However, the mechanisms whereby RSV traffics through plasmodesmata (PD) are unknown. Here we provide evidence that the NSvc4 moves on the actin filament and endoplasmic reticulum network, but not microtubules, to reach cell wall PD. Disruption of cytoskeleton using different inhibitors altered NSvc4 localization to PD, thus impeding RSV infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analyses and deletion mutagenesis experiment revealed that the N-terminal 125 amino acids (AAs) of the NSvc4 determine PD targeting and that a transmembrane domain spanning AAs 106–125 is critical for PD localization. We also found that the NSvc4 protein can localize to chloroplasts in infected cells. Analyses using deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal 73 AAs are essential for chloroplast localization. Furthermore, expression of NSvc4 from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector resulted in more severe disease symptoms than PVX alone in systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves. Expression of NSvc4 in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells did not elicit tubule formation, but instead resulted in punctate foci at the plasma membrane. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the movement mechanisms whereby RSV infects host plants.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2012.00269
PMCID: PMC3516811  PMID: 23233857
rice stripe virus; movement; chloroplast; tubules
3.  African Swine Fever Virus Structural Protein p54 Is Essential for the Recruitment of Envelope Precursors to Assembly Sites 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(8):4299-4313.
The assembly of African swine fever virus (ASFV) at the cytoplasmic virus factories commences with the formation of precursor membranous structures, which are thought to be collapsed cisternal domains recruited from the surrounding endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This report analyzes the role in virus morphogenesis of the structural protein p54, a 25-kDa polypeptide encoded by the E183L gene that contains a putative transmembrane domain and localizes at the ER-derived envelope precursors. We show that protein p54 behaves in vitro and in infected cells as a type I membrane-anchored protein that forms disulfide-linked homodimers through its unique luminal cysteine. Moreover, p54 is targeted to the ER membranes when it is transiently expressed in transfected cells. Using a lethal conditional recombinant, vE183Li, we also demonstrate that the repression of p54 synthesis arrests virus morphogenesis at a very early stage, even prior to the formation of the precursor membranes. Under restrictive conditions, the virus factories appeared as discrete electron-lucent areas essentially free of viral structures. In contrast, outside the assembly sites, large amounts of aberrant zipper-like structures formed by the unprocessed core polyproteins pp220 and pp62 were produced in close association to ER cisternae. Altogether, these results indicate that the transmembrane structural protein p54 is critical for the recruitment and transformation of the ER membranes into the precursors of the viral envelope.
doi:10.1128/JVI.78.8.4299-4313.2004
PMCID: PMC374266  PMID: 15047843
4.  The 64-Kilodalton Capsid Protein Homolog of Beet Yellows Virus Is Required for Assembly of Virion Tails 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(4):2377-2384.
The filamentous virion of the closterovirus Beet yellows virus (BYV) consists of a long body formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and a short tail composed of the minor capsid protein (CPm) and the virus-encoded Hsp70 homolog. By using nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we show here that the BYV 64-kDa protein (p64) is the fourth integral component of BYV virions. The N-terminal domain of p64 is exposed at the virion surface and is accessible to antibodies and mild trypsin digestion. In contrast, the C-terminal domain is embedded in the virion and is inaccessible to antibodies or trypsin. The C-terminal domain of p64 is shown to be homologous to CP and CPm. Mutation of the signature motifs of capsid proteins of filamentous RNA viruses in p64 results in the formation of tailless virions, which are unable to move from cell to cell. These results reveal the dual function of p64 in tail assembly and BYV motility and support the concept of the virion tail as a specialized device for BYV cell-to-cell movement.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.4.2377-2384.2003
PMCID: PMC141117  PMID: 12551975
5.  Two translocating hydrophilic segments of a nascent chain span the ER membrane during multispanning protein topogenesis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;179(7):1441-1452.
During protein integration into the endoplasmic reticulum, the N-terminal domain preceding the type I signal-anchor sequence is translocated through a translocon. By fusing a streptavidin-binding peptide tag to the N terminus, we created integration intermediates of multispanning membrane proteins. In a cell-free system, N-terminal domain (N-domain) translocation was arrested by streptavidin and resumed by biotin. Even when N-domain translocation was arrested, the second hydrophobic segment mediated translocation of the downstream hydrophilic segment. In one of the defined intermediates, two hydrophilic segments and two hydrophobic segments formed a transmembrane disposition in a productive state. Both of the translocating hydrophilic segments were crosslinked with a translocon subunit, Sec61α. We conclude that two translocating hydrophilic segment in a single membrane protein can span the membrane during multispanning topogenesis flanking the translocon. Furthermore, even after six successive hydrophobic segments entered the translocon, N-domain translocation could be induced to restart from an arrested state. These observations indicate the remarkably flexible nature of the translocon.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200707050
PMCID: PMC2373506  PMID: 18166653
6.  Dengue virus-induced modifications of host cell membranes. 
Journal of Virology  1975;16(4):1017-1026.
Enzymatic markers and electron microscopy were utilized to determine the cellular origin of the membrane types isolated from type 2 dengue virus-infected BHK cells by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. The results showed an apparent separation of plasma membrane, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum with increasing density. Virus-induced protein and RNA synthesis, as indicated by the incorporation of radiolabled precursors, was localized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Glycosylation, measured by the incorporation of radiolabeled glucosamine into membrane-associated proteins, was most active in the bands of intermediate and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of isolated membrane bands, radiolabeled in the presence of actinomycin D, after pulse inhibition by cycloheximide, revealed seven virus-specific proteins associated with all membrane fractions. Viral structural protein V-3, and nonstructural proteins NV-3 and NV-2, increased with decreasing density, whereas NV-5 and NV-4 remained constant. The viral capsid protein V-2 was depleted in the intermediate and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that these membranes may serve as the sites for viral maturation. NV-3 was the most prominent virus-specified protein found in the plasma membrane.
Images
PMCID: PMC354764  PMID: 1165590
7.  Multiple Determinants Direct the Orientation of Signal–Anchor Proteins: The Topogenic Role of the Hydrophobic Signal Domain 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;137(3):555-562.
The orientation of signal–anchor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is largely determined by the charged residues flanking the apolar, membrane-spanning domain and is influenced by the folding properties of the NH2-terminal sequence. However, these features are not generally sufficient to ensure a unique topology. The topogenic role of the hydrophobic signal domain was studied in vivo by expressing mutants of the asialoglycoprotein receptor subunit H1 in COS-7 cells. By replacing the 19-residue transmembrane segment of wild-type and mutant H1 by stretches of 7–25 leucine residues, we found that the length and hydrophobicity of the apolar sequence significantly affected protein orientation. Translocation of the NH2 terminus was favored by long, hydrophobic sequences and translocation of the COOH terminus by short ones. The topogenic contributions of the transmembrane domain, the flanking charges, and a hydrophilic NH2-terminal portion were additive. In combination these determinants were sufficient to achieve unique membrane insertion in either orientation.
PMCID: PMC2139883  PMID: 9151664
8.  Leader Proteinase of the Beet Yellows Closterovirus: Mutation Analysis of the Function in Genome Amplification 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(20):9766-9770.
The beet yellows closterovirus leader proteinase (L-Pro) possesses a C-terminal proteinase domain and a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. It was found that although L-Pro is not essential for basal-level replication, deletion of its N-terminal domain resulted in a 1,000-fold reduction in RNA accumulation. Mutagenic analysis of the N-terminal domain revealed its structural flexibility except for the 54-codon-long, 5′-terminal element in the corresponding open reading frame that is critical for efficient RNA amplification at both RNA and protein levels.
PMCID: PMC112412  PMID: 11000252
9.  Functional Specialization and Evolution of Leader Proteinases in the Family Closteroviridae 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(24):12153-12160.
Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; another closterovirus), P-Pro proteinase of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; a crinivirus), and HC-Pro proteinase of Tobacco etch virus (a potyvirus). Each foreign proteinase efficiently processed the chimeric BYV polyprotein in vitro. However, only L1 and P-Pro, not L2 and HC-Pro, were able to rescue the amplification of the chimeric BYV variants. The combined expression of L1 and L2 resulted in an increased RNA accumulation compared to that of the parental BYV. Remarkably, this L1-L2 chimera exhibited reduced invasiveness and inability to move from cell to cell. Similar analyses of the BYV hybrids, in which only the papain-like domain of L-Pro was replaced with those derived from L1, L2, P-Pro, and HC-Pro, also revealed functional specialization of these domains. In subcellular-localization experiments, distinct patterns were observed for the leader proteinases of BYV, CTV, and LIYV. Taken together, these results demonstrated that, in addition to a common proteolytic activity, the leader proteinases of closteroviruses possess specialized functions in virus RNA amplification, virus invasion, and cell-to-cell movement. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that functionally distinct L1 and L2 of CTV originated by a gene duplication event.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.24.12153-12160.2001
PMCID: PMC116111  PMID: 11711606
10.  Transmembrane and Coiled-Coil Domain Family 1 Is a Novel Protein of the Endoplasmic Reticulum 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85206.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane network in eukaryotic cells comprising the nuclear envelope, the rough ER, and the smooth ER. The ER has multiple critical functions and a characteristic structure. In this study, we identified a new protein of the ER, TMCC1 (transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 1). The TMCC family consists of at least 3 putative proteins (TMCC1–3) that are conserved from nematode to human. We show that TMCC1 is an ER protein that is expressed in diverse human cell lines. TMCC1 contains 2 adjacent transmembrane domains near the C-terminus, in addition to coiled-coil domains. TMCC1 was targeted to the rough ER through the transmembrane domains, whereas the N-terminal region and C-terminal tail of TMCC1 were found to reside in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the cytosolic region of TMCC1 formed homo- or hetero-dimers or oligomers with other TMCC proteins and interacted with ribosomal proteins. Notably, overexpression of TMCC1 or its transmembrane domains caused defects in ER morphology. Our results suggest roles of TMCC1 in ER organization.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085206
PMCID: PMC3891740  PMID: 24454821
11.  Membrane Orientation of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E5 Oncoprotein ▿  
Journal of Virology  2009;84(4):1696-1703.
The E5 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 is a small, hydrophobic protein that localizes predominantly to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To define the orientation of E5 in these membranes, we employed a differential, detergent permeabilization technique that makes use of the ability of low concentrations of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane and saponin to permeabilize all cellular membranes. We then generated a biologically active E5 protein that was epitope tagged at both its N and C termini and determined the accessibility of these termini to antibodies in the presence and absence of detergents. In both COS cells and human ectocervical cells, the C terminus of E5 was exposed to the cytoplasm, whereas the N terminus was restricted to the lumen of the ER. Finally, the deletion of the E5 third transmembrane domain (and terminal hydrophilic amino acids) resulted in a protein with its C terminus in the ER lumen. Taken together, these topology findings are compatible with a model of E5 being a 3-pass transmembrane protein and with studies demonstrating its C terminus interacting with cytoplasmic proteins.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01968-09
PMCID: PMC2812368  PMID: 19955310
12.  The Transmembrane Domains of the prM and E Proteins of Yellow Fever Virus Are Endoplasmic Reticulum Localization Signals 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(22):12591-12602.
The immature flavivirus particle contains two envelope proteins, prM and E, that are associated as a heterodimer. Virion morphogenesis of the flaviviruses occurs in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, suggesting that there should be accumulation of the virion components in this compartment. This also implies that ER localization signals must be present in the flavivirus envelope proteins. In this work, we looked for potential subcellular localization signals in the yellow fever virus envelope proteins. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis of the subcellular localization of the E protein in yellow fever virus-infected cells indicated that this protein accumulates in the ER. Similar results were obtained with cells expressing only prM and E. Chimeric proteins containing the ectodomain of CD4 or CD8 fused to the transmembrane domains of prM or E were constructed, and their subcellular localization was studied by confocal immunofluorescence and by analyzing the maturation of their associated glycans. Although a small fraction was detected in the ER-to-Golgi intermediate and Golgi compartments, these chimeric proteins were located mainly in the ER. The C termini of prM and E form two antiparallel transmembrane α-helices. Interestingly, the first transmembrane passage contains enough information for ER localization. Taken altogether, these data indicate that, besides their role as membrane anchors, the transmembrane domains of yellow fever virus envelope proteins are ER retention signals. In addition, our data show that the mechanisms of ER retention of the flavivirus and hepacivirus envelope proteins are different.
doi:10.1128/JVI.78.22.12591-12602.2004
PMCID: PMC525104  PMID: 15507646
13.  Golgi Network Targeting and Plasma Membrane Internalization Signals in Vaccinia Virus B5R Envelope Protein 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(8):3771-3780.
The vaccinia virus B5R type I integral membrane protein accumulates in the Golgi network, from where it becomes incorporated into the envelope of extracellular virions. Our objective was to determine the domains of B5R responsible for Golgi membrane targeting in the absence of other viral components. Fusion of an enhanced green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of B5R allowed imaging of the chimeric protein without altering intracellular trafficking and Golgi network localization in transfected cells. Deletion or swapping of B5R domains with corresponding regions of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which is targeted to the plasma membrane, indicated that (i) the N-terminal extracellular domain of B5R had no specific role in Golgi apparatus localization, (ii) the transmembrane domain of B5R was sufficient for exiting the endoplasmic reticulum, and (iii) removal of the cytoplasmic tail impaired Golgi network localization and increased the accumulation of B5R in the plasma membrane. Further experiments demonstrated that the cytoplasmic tail mediated internalization of B5R from the plasma membrane, suggesting a retrieval mechanism. Mutagenesis revealed residues required for Golgi membrane localization and efficient plasma membrane retrieval of the B5R protein: a tyrosine at residue 310 and two adjacent leucines at residues 315 and 316.
PMCID: PMC111886  PMID: 10729152
14.  The geminivirus BL1 movement protein is associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived tubules in developing phloem cells. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(5):3726-3733.
Plant viruses encode movement proteins that are essential for systemic infection of their host but dispensable for replication and encapsidation. BL1, one of the two movement proteins encoded by the bipartite geminivirus squash leaf curl virus, was immunolocalized to unique approximately 40-nm tubules that extended up to and across the walls of procambial cells in systemically infected pumpkin leaves. These tubules were not found in procambial cells from pumpkin seedlings inoculated with BL1 mutants that are defective in movement. The tubules also specifically stained with antisera to binding protein (BiP), indicating that they were derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Independent confirmation of this endoplasmic reticulum association was obtained by subcellular fractionation studies in which BL1 was localized to fractions that contained both endoplasmic reticulum membranes and BiP. Thus, squash leaf curl virus appears to recruit the endoplasmic reticulum as a conduit for cell-to-cell movement of the viral genome.
PMCID: PMC191522  PMID: 9094647
15.  Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of short-lived transmembrane proteins 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2008;181(7):1095-1105.
Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a short-lived transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200804053
PMCID: PMC2442213  PMID: 18573918
16.  Deletions into an NH2-terminal hydrophobic domain result in secretion of rotavirus VP7, a resident endoplasmic reticulum membrane glycoprotein 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1985;101(6):2199-2209.
Rotavirus, a non-enveloped reovirus, buds into the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transiently acquires a membrane. The structural glycoprotein, VP7, a 38-kD integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), presumably transfers to virus in this process. The gene for VP7 potentially encodes a protein of 326 amino acids which has two tandem hydrophobic domains at the NH2-terminal, each preceded by an in- frame ATG codon. A series of deletion mutants constructed from a full- length cDNA clone of the Simian 11 rotavirus VP7 gene were expressed in COS 7 cells. Products from wild-type, and mutants which did not affect the second hydrophobic domain of VP7, were localized by immunofluorescence to elements of the ER only. However, deletions affecting the second hydrophobic domain (mutants 42-61, 43-61, 47-61) showed immunofluorescent localization of VP7 which coincided with that of wheat germ agglutinin, indicating transport to the Golgi apparatus. Immunoprecipitable wild-type protein, or an altered protein lacking the first hydrophobic sequence, remained intracellular and endo-beta-N- acetylglucosaminidase H sensitive. In contrast, products of mutants 42- 61, 43-61, and 47-61 were transported from the ER, and secreted. Glycosylation of the secreted molecules was inhibited by tunicamycin, resistant to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H digestion and therefore of the N-linked complex type. An unglycosylated version of VP7 was also secreted. We suggest that the second hydrophobic domain contributes to a positive signal for ER location and a membrane anchor function. Secretion of the mutant glycoprotein implies that transport can be constitutive with the destination being dictated by an overriding compartmentalization signal.
PMCID: PMC2113985  PMID: 2999159
17.  mrtl - a translation/localization regulatory protein encoded within the human c-myc locus and distributed throughout the endoplasmic and nucleoplasmic reticular network 
Journal of cellular biochemistry  2008;105(4):1092-1108.
mrtl (myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor) is a previously uncharacterized protein synthesized from the first open reading frame contained within the human c-myc P0 transcript, ~800 nucleotides upstream of the Myc coding sequence. The mrtl protein, 114 amino acids in length, is projected to contain an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a highly charged C-terminal interaction domain with homology to numerous RNA-binding proteins. Using monoclonal antibodies raised against the hydrophilic C-terminal domain, endogenous mrtl was visualized in human breast tumor cell lines and primary mammary epithelial cells at the nuclear envelope and contiguous endoplasmic/nucleoplasmic reticulum. mrtl colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with translation initiation factor eIF2αand the 40S ribosomal protein RACK1, and appears capable of binding specifically to the c-myc RNA. Inducible ectopic overexpression of wild-type mrtl interferes with the function of endogenous mrtl, which results in loss of Myc from the nucleus. Furthermore, treatment of cells with a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain displaces endogenous mrtl and causes a dramatic reduction in total cellular Myc protein levels. Together with our previous work demonstrating complete loss of tumorigenicity in association with ectopic expression of the c-myc P0 5′-UTR (containing the mrtl coding sequence), these results suggest that mrtl may serve an important function in regulating Myc translation and localization to the nucleus, perhaps ultimately contributing to the role of the c-myc locus in oncogenesis.
doi:10.1002/jcb.21909
PMCID: PMC2587529  PMID: 18816594
mrtl; c-myc; ORF1; nucleoplasmic reticulum; translational regulation; nuclear localization; breast epithelial cells
18.  The reticulons: a family of proteins with diverse functions 
Genome Biology  2007;8(12):234.
The reticulon family is a diverse group of proteins that mostly localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and may be important in neurodegenerative diseases.
The reticulon family is a large and diverse group of membrane-associated proteins found throughout the eukaryotic kingdom. All of its members contain a carboxy-terminal reticulon homology domain that consists of two hydrophobic regions flanking a hydrophilic loop of 60-70 amino acids, but reticulon amino-terminal domains display little or no similarity to each other. Reticulons principally localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, and there is evidence that they influence endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi trafficking, vesicle formation and membrane morphogenesis. However, mammalian reticulons have also been found on the cell surface and mammalian reticulon 4 expressed on the surface of oligodendrocytes is an inhibitor of axon growth both in culture and in vivo. There is also growing evidence that reticulons may be important in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The diversity of structure, topology, localization and expression patterns of reticulons is reflected in their multiple, diverse functions in the cell.
doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-12-234
PMCID: PMC2246256  PMID: 18177508
19.  St, a Truncated Envelope Protein Derived from the S Protein of Duck Hepatitis B Virus, Acts as a Chaperone for the Folding of the Large Envelope Protein 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(9):5346-5352.
Envelope proteins of hepadnaviruses undergo a unique folding mechanism which results in the posttranslational translocation of 50% of the large envelope protein (L) chains across the endoplasmic reticulum. This mechanism is essential for the eventual positioning of the receptor-binding domain on the surface of the virus particle and in duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is dependent on the small (S) envelope protein as part of the assembly process. In this study, we report the identification of a third envelope protein, St, derived from the S protein and carrying functions previously attributed to S. Antibody mapping and mutagenesis studies indicated St to be C terminally truncated, spanning the N-terminal transmembrane domain (TM1) plus the adjacent cysteine loop. We have previously shown that the mutation of two conserved polar residues in TM1 of S (SAA) eliminates L translocation and assembly. A plasmid expressing a functional equivalent of St was able to rescue assembly, demonstrating that this assembly defect is due to mutations of the corresponding residues in St and not in S per se. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that St directly affects L protein cellular localization. These results indicate that St acts as a viral chaperone for L folding, remaining associated with the DHBV envelope upon secretion. The presence of St at a molar ratio of half that of L suggests that it is St which regulates L translocation to 50%.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.9.5346-5352.2005
PMCID: PMC1082741  PMID: 15827149
20.  Rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NSP4 alters plasma membrane permeability in mammalian cells. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(12):9458-9465.
The endoplasmic reticulum-localized transmembrane glycoprotein NSP4 of rotavirus is a key protein involved in rotavirus cytopathology. We have used a dual-recombinant vaccinia virus system to express NSP4 in monkey kidney epithelial cells at a level comparable to that observed during rotavirus infection. Expression of NSP4 results in loss of plasma membrane integrity, which can be demonstrated by release of both 51Cr and lactate dehydrogenase into the medium. The cytotoxic behavior of NSP4 is dose dependent, and morphological analysis reveals gross changes to cell ultrastructure, indicative of cell death. Thus, intracellular expression of a single rotavirus protein which localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has profound effects on the stability of the plasma membrane and cell viability. Analysis of NSP4 deletion mutants indicates that a membrane-proximal region located within the cytoplasmic domain may mediate cytotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC230251  PMID: 9371607
21.  Quality Control in the Secretory Pathway: The Role of Calreticulin, Calnexin and BiP in the Retention of Glycoproteins with C-Terminal Truncations 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1997;8(10):1943-1954.
Unlike properly folded and assembled proteins, most misfolded and incompletely assembled proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells and degraded without transport to the Golgi complex. To analyze the mechanisms underlying this unique sorting process and its fidelity, the fate of C-terminally truncated fragments of influenza hemagglutinin was determined. An assortment of different fragments was generated by adding puromycin at low concentrations to influenza virus-infected tissue culture cells. Of the fragments generated, <2% was secreted, indicating that the system for detecting defects in newly synthesized proteins is quite stringent. The majority of secreted species corresponded to folding domains within the viral spike glycoprotein. The retained fragments acquired a partially folded structure with intrachain disulfide bonds and conformation-dependent antigenic epitopes. They associated with two lectin-like endoplasmic reticulum chaperones (calnexin and calreticulin) but not BiP/GRP78. Inhibition of the association with calnexin and calreticulin by the addition of castanospermine significantly increased fragment secretion. However, it also caused association with BiP/GRP78. These results indicated that the association with calnexin and calreticulin was involved in retaining the fragments. They also suggested that BiP/GRP78 could serve as a backup for calnexin and calreticulin in retaining the fragments. In summary, the results showed that the quality control system in the secretory pathway was efficient and sensitive to folding defects, and that it involved multiple interactions with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones.
PMCID: PMC25647  PMID: 9348535
22.  Interaction between Parasitophorous Vacuolar Membrane-associated GRA3 and Calcium Modulating Ligand of Host Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum in the Parasitism of Toxoplasma gondii 
A monoclonal antibody against Toxoplasma gondii of Tg556 clone (Tg556) blotted a 29 kDa protein, which was localized in the dense granules of tachyzoites and secreted into the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) after infection to host cells. A cDNA fragment encoding the protein was obtained by screening a T. gondii cDNA expression library with Tg556, and the full-length was completed by 5'-RACE of 2,086 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 669 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 222 amino acids homologous to the revised GRA3 but not to the first reported one. The polypeptide has 3 hydrophobic moieties of an N-terminal stop transfer sequence and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD) in posterior half of the sequence, a cytoplasmic localization motif after the second TMD and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrival motif in the C-terminal end, which suggests GRA3 as a type III transmembrane protein. With the ORF of GRA3, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in HeLa cDNA expression library, which resulted in the interaction of GRA3 with calcium modulating ligand (CAMLG), a type II transmembrane protein of ER. The specific binding of GRA3 and CAMLG was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. The localities of fluorescence transfectionally expressed from GRA3 and CAMLG plasmids were overlapped completely in HeLa cell cytoplasm. In immunofluorescence assay, GRA3 and CAMLG were shown to be co-localized in the PVM of host cells. Structural binding of PVM-inserted GRA3 to CAMLG of ER suggested the receptor-ligand of ER recruitment to PVM during the parasitism of T. gondii.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2008.46.4.209
PMCID: PMC2612604  PMID: 19127325
Toxoplasma gondii; GRA3; cDNA sequence; yeast two-hybrid; CAMLG; PVM-ER interaction
23.  Receptor activity of rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS28. 
Journal of Virology  1989;63(11):4553-4562.
Rotavirus morphogenesis involves the budding of subviral particles through the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membrane of infected cells. During this process, particles acquire the outer capsid proteins and a transient envelope. Previous immunocytochemical and biochemical studies have suggested that a rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein, NS28, encoded by genome segment 10, is a transmembrane RER protein and that about 10,000 Mr of its carboxy terminus is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the RER. We have used in vitro binding experiments to examine whether NS28 serves as a receptor that binds subviral particles and mediates the budding process. Specific binding was observed between purified simian rotavirus SA11 single-shelled particles and RER membranes from SA11-infected monkey kidney cells and from SA11 gene 10 baculovirus recombinant-infected insect cells. Membranes from insect cells synthesizing VP1, VP4, NS53, VP6, VP7, or NS26 did not possess binding activity. Comparison of the binding of single-shelled particles to microsomes from infected monkey kidney cells and from insect cells indicated that a membrane-associated component(s) from SA11-infected monkey kidney cells interfered with binding. Direct evidence showing the interaction of NS28 and its nonglycosylated 20,000-Mr precursor expressed in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and single-shelled particles was obtained by cosedimentation of preformed receptor-ligand complexes through sucrose gradients. The domain on NS28 responsible for binding also was characterized. Reduced binding of single-shelled particles to membranes was seen with membranes treated with (i) a monoclonal antibody previously shown to interact with the C terminus of NS28, (ii) proteases known to cleave the C terminus of NS28, and (iii) the Enzymobead reagent. VP6 on single-shelled particles was suggested to interact with NS28 because (i) a monoclonal antibody to the subgroup I epitope on VP6 reduced particle binding, (ii) a purified polyclonal antiserum raised against recombinant baculovirus-produced VP6 reduced ligand binding, and (iii) a monoclonal antibody to a conserved epitope on VP6 augmented ligand binding. These experimental data provide support for the hypothesized receptor role of NS28 before the budding stage of rotavirus morphogenesis.
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PMCID: PMC251088  PMID: 2552139
24.  Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Localization of Viral Particles during Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(15):9991-10002.
During infection, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) particles localize transiently to the cytosolic surfaces of mitochondria. To understand the molecular basis and significance of this localization, we analyzed the targeting and membrane insertion properties of the viral proteins. ORF1 of BNYVV RNA-2 encodes the 21-kDa major coat protein, while ORF2 codes for a 75-kDa minor coat protein (P75) by readthrough of the ORF1 stop codon. Bioinformatic analysis highlighted a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) as well as a major (TM1) and two minor (TM3 and TM4) transmembrane regions in the N-terminal part of the P75 readthrough domain. Deletion and gain-of-function analyses based on the localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions showed that the MTS was able to direct a reporter protein to mitochondria but that the protein was not persistently anchored to the organelles. GFP fused either to MTS and TM1 or to MTS and TM3-TM4 efficiently and specifically associated with mitochondria in vivo. The actual role of the individual domains in the interaction with the mitochondria seemed to be determined by the folding of P75. Anchoring assays to the outer membranes of isolated mitochondria, together with in vivo data, suggest that the TM3-TM4 domain is the membrane anchor in the context of full-length P75. All of the domains involved in mitochondrial targeting and anchoring were also indispensable for encapsidation, suggesting that the assembly of BNYVV particles occurs on mitochondria. Further data show that virions are subsequently released from mitochondria and accumulate in the cytosol.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.15.9991-10002.2005
PMCID: PMC1181617  PMID: 16014959
25.  Determinants in the Maturation of Rubella Virus P200 Replicase Polyprotein Precursor 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(12):6457-6469.
Rubella virus (RUBV), a positive-strand RNA virus, replicates its RNA within membrane-associated replication complexes (RCs) in the cytoplasm of infected cells. RNA synthesis is mediated by the nonstructural proteins (NSPs) P200 and its cleavage products, P150 and P90 (N and C terminal within P200, respectively), which are processed by a protease residing at the C terminus of P150. In this study of NSP maturation, we found that early NSP localization into foci appeared to target the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. During maturation, P150 and P90 likely interact within the context of P200 and remain in a complex after cleavage. We found that P150-P90 interactions were blocked by mutational disruption of an alpha helix at the N terminus (amino acids [aa] 36 to 49) of P200 and that these mutations also had an effect on NSP targeting, processing, and membrane association. While the P150-P90 interaction also required residues 1700 to 1900 within P90, focus formation required the entire RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (aa 1700 to 2116). Surprisingly, the RUBV capsid protein (CP) rescued RNA synthesis by several alanine-scanning mutations in the N-terminal alpha helix, and packaged replicon assays showed that rescue could be mediated by CP in the virus particle. We hypothesize that CP rescues these mutations as well as internal deletions of the Q domain within P150 and mutations in the 5′ and 3′ cis-acting elements in the genomic RNA by chaperoning the maturation of P200. CP's ability to properly target the otherwise aggregated plasmid-expressed P200 provides support for this hypothesis.
doi:10.1128/JVI.06132-11
PMCID: PMC3393564  PMID: 22491463

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