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1.  Effects of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells on the amplified anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(1):29-35.
Cell-mediated immunity is an important host resistance mechanism against Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is down-regulated by a cascade of antigen-specific T suppressor (Ts) cells. Recently, we have identified a population of CD4 T cells that up-regulate the anticryptococcal DTH response (Tamp cells). The Tamp cells are found in the spleens of donor mice at 6 days after immunization with cryptococcal antigen, and they amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response when transferred to syngeneic recipients at the time of immunization of the recipients. In this study, we determined the effects of C. neoformans-specific Ts cells on the induction of the Tamp cells in the Tamp cell-donor mice and on the induction and expression of the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response in the Tamp cell-recipient mice. When cryptococcal-specific Ts1 cells were given at the time of immunization of the Tamp cell-donor mice, induction of Tamp cells was inhibited. In contrast, when Ts1 cells were given at the time of adoptive transfer of Tamp cells, the recipients displayed amplified DTH responses, indicating that Ts1 cells do not affect the Tamp cells' function once the Tamp cells have been produced. C. neoformans-specific Ts2 cells given at the time of either immunization or footpad challenge of the Tamp cell-recipient mice did not alter, to any measurable extent, the amplified DTH response. These results indicate that in addition to amplifying the anticryptococcal DTH response, Tamp cells may protect the anticryptococcal TDH cells from suppression by C. neoformans-specific Ts cells, much like contrasuppressor cells do in other systems. However, further characterization of the Tamp cells revealed that they are not adherent to Viscia villosa lectin, indicating that the anticryptococcal Tamp cells do not have this characteristic in common with contrasuppressor cells of other antigen systems.
PMCID: PMC257701  PMID: 1824761
2.  Cytokine profiles associated with induction of the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(11):4750-4759.
Previous studies with a murine model have shown that immunization with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) induces two populations of anticryptococcal reactive CD4+ T cells. One population (TDH cells) transfers anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the other population (Tamp cells) amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response of given to recipient mice at the time of immunization of the recipient. Treatment of mice with cyclosporin A (CsA) ablates the induction of Tamp cells but not TDH cells. The present study focused on assessing the cytokines produced by spleen cells taken from CsA-treated and control (solvent-treated) mice at days 1, 2, 4, and 6 after immunization. Supernatants from the spleen cells cultured in vitro for 24 or 48 h in medium alone or with CneF, concanavalin A, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore were assessed for the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor. Spleen cells from CneF-CFA-treated mice produced IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 or IL-5, constitutively and in response to CneF, indicating that CneF-CFA induces a Th1 response. Tumor necrosis factor was not produced. Anticryptococcal TDH cells developed in spleens in which there were low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 (CsA-treated, immunized mice), whereas anticryptococcal Tamp cells along with TDH cells matured in spleens in which production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 was high (solvent-treated, immunized mice). The data also suggest that IL-2 and IFN-gamma produced by Tamp cells early after adoptive transfer are influential in the development of the amplified anticryptococcal DTH response that has been observed in Tamp cell-recipient mice.
PMCID: PMC281230  PMID: 8406874
3.  Effects of cyclosporin A on the cells responsible for the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response and its regulation. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(4):1158-1164.
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, was used to explore further the induction, expression, and regulation of lymphoid cells involved in the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to cryptococcal antigen(s). We found that the induction of the cells responsible for DTH (TDH cells) was not affected by CsA, but their expression was inhibited in CsA-treated mice. The inhibition of expression of the TDH cells could not be attributed to the Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T (Ts) cells, even though the Ts cells were induced in CsA-treated mice. Instead, the suppressed expression of the TDH cells in CsA-treated mice was a direct effect of CsA or its products. Our studies with CsA also resulted in the first identification of a population of cells that significantly amplify the anticryptococcal DTH response. The amplifier cells were induced in mice that were given a primary immunizing dose of cryptococcal antigen in complete Freund adjuvant, and they amplified the anticryptococcal DTH response in recipient mice when they were transferred at the time of immunization of the recipient. The amplifier cell population was distinct from the TDH cells in that CsA inhibited the production of the amplifying cells but did not affect the induction of TDH cells. Amplification of the DTH response was a cell-mediated event, since cells but not serum from immunized mice mediated the amplified response in recipient mice. Thus, CsA enabled us to characterize anticryptococcal TDH and Ts cells further and to add to the immune cell circuit of the cryptococcal system a distinct population of cells that amplifies the anticryptococcal DTH response.
PMCID: PMC313245  PMID: 2522419
4.  Antigen-Induced Protective and Nonprotective Cell-Mediated Immune Components against Cryptococcus neoformans 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(6):2632-2639.
Mice immunized with two different cryptococcal antigen preparations, one a soluble culture filtrate antigen (CneF) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and the other heat-killed Cryptococcus neoformans cells (HKC), develop two different profiles of activated T cells. CneF-CFA induces CD4+ T cells responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and for amplification of the anticryptococcal DTH response, whereas HKC induce CD4+ and CD8+ T cells involved in anticryptococcal DTH reactivity and activated T cells which directly kill C. neoformans cells. The main purpose of this study was to assess the level of protection afforded by each of the two different T-cell profiles against challenge with viable C. neoformans cells, thereby identifying which activated T-cell profile provides better protection. CBA/J mice immunized with CneF-CFA had significantly better protective responses, based on better clearance of C. neoformans from tissues, on longer survival times, and on fewer and smaller lesions in the brain, than HKC-immunized mice or control mice similarly infected with C. neoformans. Both immunization protocols induced an anticryptococcal DTH response, but neither induced serum antibodies to glucuronoxylmannan, so the protection observed in the CneF-CFA immunized mice was due to the activated T-cell profile induced by that protocol. HKC-immunized mice, which displayed no greater protection than controls, did not have the amplifier cells. Based on our findings, we propose that the protective anticryptococcal T cells are the CD4+ T cells which have been shown to be responsible for DTH reactivity and/or the CD4+ T cells which amplify the DTH response and which have been previously shown to produce high levels of gamma interferon and interleukin 2. Our results imply that there are protective and nonprotective cell-mediated immune responses and highlight the complexity of the immune response to C. neoformans antigens.
PMCID: PMC108249  PMID: 9596727
5.  CTLA-4 Down-Regulates the Protective Anticryptococcal Cell-Mediated Immune Response 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(8):4624-4630.
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses defined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity to cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) can be either protective or nonprotective against an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. The protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal DTH responses are induced by different immunogens and have differing activated-T-cell profiles. This study examined the effects of blockade of the interaction between cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and its ligands B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on the anticryptococcal DTH responses and protection. We found that CTLA-4 blockade at the time of immunization with the immunogen that induces the protective response, CneF, in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or the immunogen that induces the nonprotective response, heat-killed cryptococcal cells (HKC), enhanced anticryptococcal DTH reactivity. In contrast, blocking CTLA-4 after the immune response was induced failed to enhance responses. Blockade of CTLA-4 in an infection model resulted in earlier development of the anticryptococcal CMI response than in control mice. Concomitant with increases in DTH reactivity in mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments at the time of immunization, there were decreases in cryptococcal CFU in lungs, spleens, and brains compared to controls. Blockade of CTLA-4 resulted in long-term protection, as measured by significantly increased survival times, only in mice given the protective immunogen, CneF-CFA. Anti-CTLA-4 treatment did not shift the response induced by the nonprotective immunogen, HKC, to a long-term protective one. Our data indicate that blockade of CTLA-4 interactions with its ligands may be useful in enhancing host defenses against C. neoformans.
PMCID: PMC98393  PMID: 10899865
6.  Characterization of cellular infiltrates and cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(7):2854-2865.
Cryptococcosis, an increasingly important opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast-like organism Cryptococcus neoformans, is limited by an anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Gaining a thorough understanding of the complex anticryptococcal CMI response is essential for developing means of controlling infections with C. neoformans. The murine cryptococcosis model utilizing footpad swelling to cryptococcal antigen (delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]) has proven to be a valuable tool for studying the induction and regulation of the anticryptococcal CMI response, but this technique has limitations with regard to evaluating the role of the final effector cells recruited by an ongoing CMI response. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of cells and cytokines induced into the site of cryptococcal antigen deposition in C. neoformans-infected and -immunized mice compared with those for control mice. We used a gelatin sponge implant model to examine the cells and cytokines present at the site of an anticryptococcal DTH response. Sponges implanted in infected mice and injected with cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) 24 h before assessment had significantly increased numbers of infiltrating leukocytes compared with saline-injected sponges in the same animals. Exaggerated influxes of neutrophils and mononuclear cells were the major contributors to the increase in total numbers of cells in the DTH-reactive sponges. The numbers of CD4+ and LFA-1+ cells were found to be significantly increased in the CneF-injected sponges of infected and immunized mice over the numbers in control sponges. The numbers of large granular lymphocytes were also increased in DTH-reactive sponges compared with control sponges. Gamma interferon, interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-5 are clearly relevant cytokines in the anticryptococcal CMI response, since they were produced in greater amounts in the CneF-injected sponges from C. neoformans-infected and -immunized mice than in control sponges. IL-4 was not associated with the expression of DTH to cryptococcal antigen. The gelatin sponge model is an excellent tool for studying cells and cytokines involved in specific CMI responses.
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PMCID: PMC280931  PMID: 8514388
7.  Differences in Components at Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction Sites in Mice Immunized with Either a Protective or a Nonprotective Immunogen of Cryptococcus neoformans 
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(2):591-600.
Cell-mediated immunity is the major protective mechanism against Cryptococcus neoformans. Delayed swelling reactions, i.e., delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), in response to an intradermal injection of specific antigen are used as a means of detecting a cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to the antigen. We have found previously that the presence of an anticryptococcal DTH response in mice is not always indicative of protection against a cryptococcal infection. Using one immunogen that induces a protective anticryptococcal CMI response and one that induces a nonprotective response, we have shown that mice immunized with the protective immunogen undergo a classical DTH response characterized by mononuclear cell and neutrophil infiltrates and the presence of gamma interferon and NO. In contrast, immunization with the nonprotective immunogen results in an influx of primarily neutrophils and production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at the DTH reaction site. Even when the anticryptococcal DTH response was augmented by blocking the down-regulator, CTLA-4 (CD152), on T cells in the mice given the nonprotective immunogen, the main leukocyte population infiltrating the DTH reaction site is the neutrophil. Although TNF-α is increased at the DTH reaction site in mice immunized with the nonprotective immunogen, it is unlikely that TNF-α activates the neutrophils, because the density of TNF receptors on the neutrophils is reduced below control levels. Uncoupling of DTH reactivity and protection has been demonstrated in other infectious-disease models; however, the mechanisms differ from our model. These findings stress the importance of defining the cascade of events occurring in response to various immunogens and establishing the relationships between protection and DTH reactions.
PMCID: PMC127722  PMID: 11796587
8.  Clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans from immunologically suppressed mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(7):1946-1952.
To assess the effects of cryptococcal antigen-induced immunosuppression on a Cryptococcus neoformans infection, CBA/J mice were injected intravenously with saline or suppressive doses of cryptococcal antigen (CneF) at weekly intervals and were then infected with viable C. neoformans cells. By the second week after infection, the cryptococcal antigen-injected mice had suppressed anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses compared with the responses of the saline-treated, infected control mice. In addition, the immunosuppressed mice had higher numbers of cryptococcal CFU cultured from their lungs, livers, spleens, lymph nodes, and brains than did the control animals. A direct correlation of suppression of the anticryptococcal DTH response and reduced clearance of cryptococci from tissues was also observed after mice were given a single intravenous injection of CneF and infected. To determine whether or not the cryptococcal antigen was specifically reducing the clearance of C. neoformans or had a more generalized effect, mice were injected with saline or suppressive doses of CneF, infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and then followed daily for 7 days for the clearance of L. monocytogenes from spleens and on day 7 for DTH reactivity to Listeria antigen. There were no differences between the saline- and CneF-treated mice with respect to anti-Listeria DTH responses or clearance of L. monocytogenes from spleens, indicating that CneF was not altering natural resistance mechanisms responsible for early clearance of L. monocytogenes, nor was the CneF influencing the induction of the acquired immune response which was responsible for the late clearance of the bacteria. Together, these data indicate that the specific suppression of this cell-mediated immune response induced by cryptococcal antigen reduces the ability of the animals to eliminate the homologous organism (C. neoformans) but not a heterologous infectious agent, such as L. monocytogenes.
PMCID: PMC313825  PMID: 2499541
9.  Polysaccharide antigens of the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(5):1507-1512.
The major significance of the capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans is its role in potentiating opportunistic infections by the yeast. It has the ability to exert a broad spectrum of influences on the immune response, from activation of phagocytic cells and complement components of the alternative pathway, to the induction of specific antibody, T-suppressor cells, DTH responses, and cytokines (51). These biological properties along with the serotype specificities are all determined by the physical properties and chemical structures of the polysaccharide antigens that compose the capsule. There is evidence not only for an association of lethal infections with serotype A in patients with advanced AIDS (34, 56), but also for a role for the capsule in directly influencing the infection of CD4+ cells by HIV (57). Together, these phenomena raise intriguing questions about the possible connection between the chemistry of these capsular antigens and cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. One speculation is that AIDS creates the optimal physiological conditions for the establishment and spread of cryptococcosis. It has been observed that during the progression of AIDS there is a shift towards a T-2 response (14). This could lead to conditions that would inhibit the cellular immune responses that block dissemination of cryptococcal infections. Thus, an important consideration in the application of vaccine or immune modulation therapies in the treatment of cryptococcosis in AIDS victims would be the design of vaccines that could boost the T-1 immune response. It has been shown that the form and dose of an antigenic challenge can influence the induction of a T-1 or T-2 immune response (61). Recently, Murphy has reported that gamma interferon and interleukin 2 are up-regulated in the spleens of mice that produce anticryptococcal TDH and TAMP cells in response to immunogenic doses of cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen given with Freund's complete adjuvant (49). Perhaps purified cryptococcal antigens (e.g., MP) conjugated to an appropriate carrier or adjuvant could be used in therapeutic strategies to limit cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. Future investigations of virulence and pathogenicity in the context of defined polysaccharide antigens from encapsulated strains of C. neoformans will contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of cryptococcal infection and immunity at the cellular and molecular levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC186341  PMID: 8168912
10.  Differential Regulation of Immune Responses by Highly and Weakly Virulent Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(7):3601-3609.
Early inflammatory responses, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and cytokine profiles were studied in mice infected by the pulmonary route with either a highly virulent isolate (NU-2) or a weakly virulent isolate (184A) of Cryptococcus neoformans. After infection, NU-2 remained in the lungs and the capsule became more pronounced during the first 24 h, whereas 184A induced an immediate inflammatory reaction and was rapidly cleared from the lungs. Cryptococcal antigen (GXM) appeared in sera early after infection with NU-2 and increased over the entire observation period. There was no detectable GXM in sera from 184A-infected mice. Both C. neoformans isolates induced anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune responses, but the responses had different profiles. DTH in NU-2-infected mice appeared at day 15 after infection and waned by day 21, whereas DTH in 184A-infected mice was present by day 5 and continued to increase. T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (interleukin 2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) were made by spleen cells early after infection with either isolate. NU-2-infected mice lost their ability to produce these cytokines, but 184A-infected mice retained it. IL-4, a Th2 cytokine, was not detected in infected mice. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 was made by spleen cells early but not later after infection with the highly virulent isolate and was not produced by spleen cells from 184A-infected mice. IL-10-deficient mice survived an NU-2 infection significantly longer than wild-type mice, suggesting that IL-10 is important in down-regulating the protective immune response. The induction of anergy appears to be responsible for the inability of NU-2-infected mice to control a C. neoformans infection.
PMCID: PMC116550  PMID: 10377145
11.  Regulation of cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(7):2930-2939.
Effects of both positive and negative regulatory T cells on cellular infiltration and cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal immune response were examined. Tamp cells, which are induced by cryptococcal antigen, significantly amplify the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response, whereas a cascade of T suppressor (Ts) cells inhibits the response and decreases the clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans during an infection. By using the gelatin sponge implantation model, we found that Tamp cells do not stimulate a significant increase in cellular infiltration into the sponges in response to cryptococcal antigen compared with that into delayed-type hypersensitivity-reactive sponges in immune control mice. However, Tamp cells do stimulate significant increases in the production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the antigen-injected sponges over the level of the representative cytokine in antigen-injected sponges from the immune control mice. Likewise, Ts1 cells, induced with cryptococcal antigen, do not significantly affect antigen-induced cellular infiltration into sponges in immune mice. In contrast, decreased levels of gamma interferon and IL-2 are observed in antigen-injected sponges from Ts1-cell-recipient, immunized mice compared with those of the positive immune controls. The presence of either Tamp or Ts1 cells in immunized mice stimulates increased production of IL-5 but not IL-4 over that of the positive immune controls.
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PMCID: PMC302900  PMID: 7911788
12.  Characterization of a third-order suppressor T cell (Ts3) induced by cryptococcal antigen(s). 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(7):1657-1662.
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that a high dose of cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) administered intravenously induces a complex suppressor cell cascade which down-regulates the cell-mediated immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans antigens. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine whether a suppressor cell induced by immunization is required for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. Our approach to this problem was to immunize CBA/J mice with CneF emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and then 6 days later to collect spleen cells from the immunized mice and adoptively transfer these cells along with C. neoformans-specific second-order suppressor T cells (Ts2) to naive syngeneic recipients at the time of footpad challenge of the recipients with CneF. To establish which populations of cells in the spleens of immunized mice play a suppressive role, mass cytolysis with specific antibodies and complement was performed before the spleen cells were transferred to naive animals. Since the phenotype of the cells responsible for the transfer of the cryptococcal DTH response had not been completely determined, we first demonstrated that the cells responsible for DTH were L3T4+ Lyt-2- cells. Subsequently, we established that a Thy-1+ L3T4- Lyt-2+ I-J+ cell population induced by immunization was required along with C. neoformans-specific Ts2 cells for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal DTH response. In addition, we demonstrated that the suppressor cells in the immune cell population were derived from cyclophosphamide-sensitive precursors. These data indicate that a third suppressor cell population is required for efferent suppression of the cryptococcal DTH response. As in the azobenzenearsonate and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl hapten suppressor models, the Ts2 cells in the circuit mediate their effects through this third suppressor component. Since the mode of induction and the phenotype of the third C. neoformans-specific suppressor cells are similar to those reported for Ts3 cells in other antigen-specific suppression models, we referred to this third suppressor cell in the C. neoformans-specific suppressor cell cascade as a Ts3 cell.
PMCID: PMC260574  PMID: 2954914
13.  Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(4):734-743.
In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and cryptococcal models of suppression of the DTH response and to the afferent suppressor cells in the dinitrofluorobenzene contact sensitivity system.
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PMCID: PMC259363  PMID: 2964411
14.  Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Dendritic Cell Accumulation in Lymph Nodes Draining the Immunization Site and the Impact on the Anticryptococcal Cell-Mediated Immune Response  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(1):68-74.
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been shown to be essential in acquired protection against Cryptococcus neoformans. Induction of a protective anticryptococcal CMI response includes increases in dendritic cells (DC) and activated CD4+ T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLN). During the expression phase, activated CD4+ T cells accumulate at a peripheral site where cryptococcal antigen is injected, resulting in a classical delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Induction of a nonprotective anticryptococcal CMI response results in no significant increases in the numbers of DC or activated CD4+ T cells in DLN. This study focuses on examining the role of TNF-α in induction of protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal CMI responses. We found that neutralization of TNF-α at the time of immunization with the protective immunogen (i) reduces the numbers of Langerhans cells, myeloid and lymphoid DC, and activated CD4+ T cells in DLN and (ii) diminishes the total numbers of cells, the numbers of activated CD4+ T cells, and amount of gamma interferon at the DTH reaction site. Although TNF-α neutralization during induction of the nonprotective CMI response had little effect on cellular and cytokine parameters measured, it did cause a reduction in footpad swelling when mice received challenge in the footpad. Our findings show that TNF-α functions during induction of the protective CMI response by influencing the accumulation of all three DC subsets into DLN. Without antigen stimulated DC in DLN, activated CD4+ T cells are not induced and thus not available for the expression phase of the CMI response.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.1.68-74.2003
PMCID: PMC143367  PMID: 12496150
15.  Immunoadsorption of Cryptococcus-specific suppressor T-cell factors. 
Infection and Immunity  1986;51(3):844-850.
In the murine cryptococcal suppressor cell circuit, two different T-cell suppressor factors, TsF1 and TsF2, have been identified which specifically suppress the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF). TsF1 is produced by a first-order T suppressor (Ts1) cell population and suppresses the afferent limb of the DTH response, whereas TsF2 is produced by a second-order T suppressor (Ts2) cell population and suppresses the efferent limb of the cryptococcal DTH response. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether TsF1 or TsF2 could bind to cryptococcal antigen. To assess this, adsorption of TsF1 and TsF2 was performed with heat-killed Cryptococcus neoformans cells and by solid-phase immunoadsorption (SPIA) on columns containing cryptococcal antigens, i.e., CneF covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. The suppressive effect of TsF1 was removed by adsorption with intact heat-killed cryptococci and by SPIA on CneF-Sepharose 4B. The binding of cryptococcal TsF1 to the cryptococcal SPIA column was shown to be specific since Sepharose 4B columns either coupled with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan or blocked with glycine did not adsorb the suppressor activity. In contrast, the suppressive component of TsF2 did not bind to heat-killed cryptococci, CneF-Sepharose 4B, S. cerevisiae mannan-Sepharose 4B, or glycine-Sepharose 4B columns. These results, together with the finding that cryptococcal antigen, anticryptococcal antibody, and C1q-binding immune complexes were not demonstrated in either TsF1 or TsF2, establish that TsF1 and TsF2 can be differentiated on the basis of their affinity for cryptococcal antigen.
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PMCID: PMC260975  PMID: 2936685
16.  Mannoprotein from Cryptococcus neoformans Promotes T-Helper Type 1 Anticandidal Responses in Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(12):6621-6627.
We previously demonstrated that mannoprotein (MP) from Cryptococcus neoformans (CnMP) stimulates interleukin-12 production by human monocytes, thus fostering a T-helper type 1 (Th1) protective anticryptococcal response. In this paper we show that CnMP was also able to induce a Candida albicans-directed protective Th1 response. This was demonstrated for mice immunized with CnMP by induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to C. albicans MP (CaMP) as well as induction of gamma interferon production by CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells stimulated in vitro with CaMP. CnMP-immunized mice were also partially protected from lethal systemic challenge with C. albicans, as shown by prolonged median survival times and decreased fungal burden in the kidney. Much evidence supports the validity of these cross-reactive and functional Th1 responses: (i) a non-cross-reactive C. albicans antigen, such as enolase, did not produce a DTH response to CaMP; (ii) passive adoptive transfer of T cells primed with CnMP induced a DTH reaction; (iii) C. neoformans extract elicited a DTH response to CaMP; and (iv) a monoclonal antibody (7H6) directed against a major and immunodominant T-cell-stimulatory 65-kDa MP (MP65) of C. albicans also recognized discrete 100-kDa constituents of C. neoformans extracts, as well as secretory constituents of the fungus. These results suggest the presence of common Th1 antigenic determinants in the mannoproteic material of C. neoformans and C. albicans epitopes, which should be considered in devising common strategies for immunoprophylactic or immunotherapeutic control of the fungi.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.12.6621-6627.2002
PMCID: PMC132998  PMID: 12438334
17.  Age-Related Resistance of C57BL/6 Mice to Cryptococcus neoformans Is Dependent on Maturation of NKT Cells  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(9):5175-5180.
Conflicting results have been reported regarding the ability of C57BL/6 mice to clear infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination of the various experimental protocols used suggested that C57BL/6 mice might develop the ability to resist infection as they mature. We analyzed the ability of C57BL/6 mice of different ages to respond to immunization with cryptococcal antigen or to clear a cryptococcal infection. Mice were immunized with a soluble cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CneF-CFA). Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions elicited by the immunization were significantly stronger in 15-week-old C57BL/6 mice than in 7-week-old mice. Analysis of cryptococcal CFU 8 weeks following intratracheal infection of 7-week-old mice or 15-week-old mice revealed a relative inability of the younger animals to control the infection. Six-week-old immunized and infected mice cleared cryptococci from brain, spleen, and liver in a manner similar to that of immunized and infected 15-week-old mice. However, the older mice cleared cryptococci much more efficiently from the lungs. The possible role for NKT cells was determined by passive transfer of thymocytes from 10-week-old mice (containing mature NKT cells) or 2-week-old mice (containing immature NKT cells) to 6-week-old mice. The 10-week-old thymocytes significantly enhanced the ability of the mice to develop a DTH response after immunization with CneF-CFA, while animals treated with 2-week-old thymocytes did not improve their DTH response after immunization. The cells in the 10-week-old thymocyte population responsible for improvement of DTH responses were identified as being NK1.1 positive.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.9.5175-5180.2004
PMCID: PMC517463  PMID: 15322012
18.  Effects of immunization with Cryptococcus neoformans cells or cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen on direct anticryptococcal activities of murine T lymphocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):1645-1651.
Immunizing CBA/J mice with intact Cryptococcus neoformans cells or with a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) induces an anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Recently, it has been shown that two phenotypically different T-cell populations are responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity in mice immunized with intact cryptococcal cells, whereas only one of those populations is present in mice immunized with soluble cryptococcal antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The purpose of this study was to determine if differences occur with regard to direct anticryptococcal activity between T-lymphocyte-enriched populations from mice immunized with intact viable or dead cryptococcal cells and similar cell populations from mice immunized with the soluble cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen, CneF, emulsified in CFA. The percentage of lymphocytes which form conjugates with C. neoformans and the percentage of cryptococcal growth inhibition in vitro are greater with T-lymphocyte-enriched populations from mice sublethally infected with C. neoformans or from mice immunized with intact heat-killed cryptococcal cells in the presence or absence of CFA than with lymphocyte populations from mice immunized with CneF-CFA. Enhanced anticryptococcal activity of T lymphocytes could be induced by immunizing mice with heat-killed C. neoformans cells of serotype A, B, C, or D as well as by immunizing with a similar preparation of an acapsular C. neoformans mutant but not by immunizing with CFA emulsified with CneF prepared from any one of the C. neoformans isolates. These data indicate that the soluble cryptococcal culture filtrate antigens do not induce the same array of functional T lymphocytes as whole cryptococcal cells.
PMCID: PMC173204  PMID: 7729868
19.  Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity to Leishmania major and the concomitant acceleration of disease development in progressive murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(3):645-651.
BALB/c mice injected intradermally with 10(5) or higher doses of formaldehyde-fixed promastigotes (FFP) of Leishmania major developed strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to leishmanial antigens injected into the hind footpad 3 to 10 days later. The DTH peaked 15 to 18 h after footpad injection and disappeared by 48 h. This specific DTH correlated with the homing of 51Cr-labeled syngeneic bone marrow cells and the infiltration of proliferating cells to the site of antigen administration. Spleen cells from FFP-sensitized mice also gave significant proliferative response to FFP in vitro. The DTH was adoptively transferable by Lyt-1+2-L3T4+ T cells and was H-2 restricted. DTH could be substantially enhanced by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide or pertussigen. Such DTH enhancement was accompanied by concomitant exacerbation of disease progression after L. major infection. Mice injected intravenously with FFP developed substantial immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis but specifically suppressed DTH reactivity. Treatment of mice with pertussigen before intravenous immunization, however, abolished the protection and reversed the suppression of DTH. These results therefore demonstrate that the early-appearing type of DTH is not involved in host protection but that it actually facilitates disease progression in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further evidence, which also shows the nonspecific nature of this disease exacerbation, is provided by local cell transfer experiments. Splenic T cells from mice sensitized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or FFP induced significantly larger lesions compared with normal T cells when they were transferred into the footpad together with specific antigen and L. major promastigotes.
PMCID: PMC260388  PMID: 3818088
20.  Requirement for vasoactive amines for production of delayed-type hypersensitvity skin reactions 
The skin sites of the mouse where delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions are most easily elicited (foot pads and ears) are particularly rich in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing mast cells. Since mice are deficient in circulating basophils, which play a role in at least some DTH reactions, we investigated the possibility that the mast cells were playing an important role in the evolution of the skin reactions of DTH in mice. We found that reserpine, a drug which depletes mast cells of 5-HT, abolished the ability of the mouse to make DTH reactions in the skin. The suppressive effect of reserpine could be partially blocked by monoamine oxidase inhibitors which prevent the degradation of 5-HT in the cytosol of the mast cell. Spleen cells of immune, reserpine-treated mice transferred DTH reactions to nonimmune mice normally, indicating that the reserpine treatment did not affect immune T cells. DTH reactions could not be transferred into reserpine- treated mice. We suggest that T cells are continually emigrating from the blood, through postcapillary venule endothelium, by a mechanism which does not depend on vasoactive amines. If they are appropriately immune and meet the homologous antigen in the tissue, they induce mast cells to release vasoactive amines which cause postcapillary venule endothelial cells to separate, allowing the egress from the blood of cells which ordinarily do not recirculate. The secondarily arriving vasoactive amine-dependent cells are responsible for the micro- and macroscopic lesions of DTH reactions. Chemotactic factors may also be involved in bringing cells to the DTH reaction sites but we propose that T-cell regulation of vasoactive amine-containing cells allows the effector cells to pass through the endothelial gates after they are called.
PMCID: PMC2189924  PMID: 1165473
21.  Immune Amplification of Murine CD8+ Suppressor T Cells Induced via An Immune-Privileged Site: Quantifying Suppressor T Cells Functionally 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e22496.
Background
CD8+ suppressor T cells exert antigen-specific suppression of the expression of hypersensitivity by activated T cells. Therefore, CD8+ suppressor T cells serve a major regulatory role for the control of active immunity. Accordingly, the number and/or activity of CD8+ suppressor T cells should be influenced by an immune response to the antigen. To test this hypothesis we used an adoptive transfer assay that measures the suppression of the expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) by CD8+ suppressor T cells to quantify the antigen-specific suppression of DTH by these suppressor T cells.
Methods
Suppressor T cells were induced in the spleens of mice by the injection of antigen into the anterior chamber of an eye. Following this injection, the mice were immunized by the same antigen injected into the anterior chamber. Spleen cells recovered from these mice (AC-SPL cells) were titrated in an adoptive transfer assay to determine the number of AC-SPL cells required to effect a 50% reduction of antigen-induced swelling (Sw50) in the footpad of immunized mice challenged by antigen.
Results
Suppression of the expression of DTH is proportional to the number of AC-SPL cells injected into the site challenged by antigen. The number of AC-SPL cells required for a 50% reduction in DTH-induced swelling is reduced by injecting a cell population enriched for CD8+ AC-SPL cells. Immunizing the mice receiving intracameral antigen to the same antigen decreases the RSw50 of AC-SPL cells required to inhibit the expression of DTH.
Conclusions
The results provide the first quantitative demonstration that the numbers of antigen-specific splenic CD8+ suppressor T cells are specifically amplified by antigen during an immune response.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022496
PMCID: PMC3149055  PMID: 21829628
22.  Characterization of an in vitro-stimulated, Cryptococcus neoformans-specific second-order suppressor T cell and its precursor. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(5):1267-1272.
Using a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) in a murine model, we have demonstrated previously that a cascade of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells and soluble factors function in suppressing the cryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In addition, we have successfully hybridized the C. neoformans-specific, first-order T-suppressor (Ts1) cell and have established that the culture supernatant (hTsF1) from this hybridoma induces second-order T-suppressor (Ts2) cells in vivo. Here we report the in vitro induction of expression-phase suppressor cells. The suppressor cells were induced by culturing nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells from naive mice with hTsF1 in the absence of CneF. Nylon wool-nonadherent splenic cells similarly cultured with supernatants from the BW5147 thymoma cells, the fusion partners of the hybridoma, did not significantly suppress the cryptococcal DTH response. The suppressor cells were designated Ts2 cells based on their similarities in function, specificity, and phenotype, i.e. L3T4-, Lyt-2+, and I-J+, to the in vivo-induced Ts2 cells. By employing the in vitro culture technique, we demonstrated that the precursors of the functional Ts2 cells were L3T4- Lyt-1-2+ I-J- cells. The induction of Ts2 cells was not associated with [3H]thymidine incorporation; therefore, we concluded that hTsF1 induces the Lyt-2+ I-J- cells to differentiate into Lyt-2+ I-J+ functional Ts2 cells without a significant amount of proliferation. From the results of this study, a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of the DTH response to CneF was achieved. The in vitro culture technique will allow for further detailed studies of the interactions between the various cell populations and the Ts1 cell-derived soluble factor during the induction of Ts2 cells.
PMCID: PMC259805  PMID: 2965681
23.  Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1982;156(4):1042-1056.
In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively transferred DTH to types IV and I collagen to normal recipients; T cell-depleted spleen cells failed to transfer immunity. Periodate-treated type IV collagen did not elicit DTH in mice sensitized to type I collagen; however, mice sensitized with type IV collagen displayed significant DTH when challenged with periodate- treated type IV collagen. Furthermore, treatment of type IV collagen with a mixed glycosidase or alpha-glucosidase before challenge eliminated the DTH response in type I collagen-sensitized mice; beta- galactosidase treatment of type IV collagen had no effect on this response. Mice sensitized with type IV collagen, however, displayed significant DTH when challenged with these glycosidase-treated antigens. Antibodies produced to types I and IV collagen by repeated immunizations were specific for the sensitizing antigen and did not react with other connective tissue antigens. These studies indicate that a CMI response to type I collagen recognizes similar antigenic determinants on the type IV collagen molecule. These cross-reacting determinants are dependent on conformation and contain carbohydrates, particularly glucose residues.
PMCID: PMC2186829  PMID: 6185605
24.  Characterization of efferent T suppressor cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-specific afferent T suppressor cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(4):744-750.
Previously, we reported that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) when injected i.v. into mice induces antigen-specific suppressor cells which down-regulate the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The suppressor cells are present in both spleens and lymph nodes of Pb.Ag-treated animals and suppress the afferent limb but not the efferent limb of the DTH response to P. brasiliensis. The suppressor cells induced by Pb.Ag are L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+ T cells and are considered to be equivalent to the Ts1 cells described for other antigen-specific suppressor cell pathways. This report provides data which show that Ts1 cells induced by Pb.Ag or a soluble factor derived from Ts1 cells (TsF1) stimulates the production of second-order or efferent suppressor cells. The second-order suppressor cells are detectable in spleens and lymph nodes of mice 7 days after injection of Ts1 cells or TsF1 and are specific in suppressing the paracoccidioidal DTH response. In addition, the second-order suppressor cells are T cells with an L3T4- Lyt-2+ I-J+ phenotype and are effective in suppressing only the efferent limb of the P. brasiliensis DTH response. On the basis of the characteristics defined in this study, the paracoccidioidal second-order suppressor cells are equivalent to the Ts2 cells described for other antigen-specific suppressor-cell pathways. Thus, the suppressive circuit induced by Pb.Ag is similar to the suppressor-cell pathways that regulate the DTH responses to azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, lysozyme, and Cryptococcus neoformans antigen. We propose that such a suppressor-cell circuit as defined here with the murine model could be responsible for the depressed cell-mediated immune responses observed in paracoccidioidomycosis patients who have antigen circulating in their sera.
PMCID: PMC259364  PMID: 2964412
25.  An early component of delayed-type hypersensitivity mediated by T cells and mast cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1983;157(5):1604-1617.
In four different systems it was shown that murine delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses at 18-48 h were preceded by early 2-h responses. CBA mice immunized with picryl chloride, BDF1 mice immunized with oxazolone, BALB/c mice immunized with dinitrofluorobenzene, and C57BL/6 mice immunized with L5178Y lymphoma cells, and challenged with the appropriate specific antigen, all gave rise to expected 18-48 h delayed-in-time hypersensitivity reactions, but all of these responses were preceded by early hypersensitivity reactions that peaked at 2 h. These early 2-h reactions are transferable with T cells or with a T cell-derived, antigen-binding factor and are antigen-specific. The early and late components of DTH reactions are mast cell dependent since neither are elicited in mast cell deficient W/Wv or Sl/Sld mice. The T cell activity mediating the early component of DTH is demonstrable as early as 24 h after immunization, while the classical late component of DTH is not demonstrable until days 3-4. The difference in onset after immunization of the early and late components of DTH, and the different kinetics of these components in recipients of cell transfers that were challenged immediately or 24 h after transfer, led to the hypothesis that immunization for DTH leads to rapid induction in lymphoid organs of a certain population of T cells to produce an antigen-binding factor. This factor sensitizes peripheral tissues, probably mast cells, and local challenge with appropriate antigen leads to mast cell activation and release of the vasoactive amine serotonin, resulting in increased permeability of the local vasculature. This allows other circulating antigen-specific T cells, which are induced later after immunization, to enter the tissues and interact with antigen, resulting in production of chemoattractant lymphokines that recruit accessory leukocytes such as monocytes and polymorphs to enter the tissues via gaps between endothelial cells. These inflammatory cells, that are recruited to the site via two different T cell activities, constitute the characteristic infiltrate of DTH responses. Identification of an early 2-h component of DTH that is T cell- and mast cell-dependent provides evidence that the tissue- sensitizing, antigen-binding, T cell factor probably functions in vivo in the early phases of DTH responses.
PMCID: PMC2187022  PMID: 6602201

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