The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
The 66-kDa leader proteinase (L-Pro) of the Beet yellows virus (BYV) possesses a nonconserved N-terminal domain and a conserved, papain-like C-terminal domain. Previous work revealed that the N-terminal domain functions in RNA amplification, whereas the C-terminal domain is required for autoproteolysis. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was applied to complete the functional analysis of L-Pro throughout the virus life cycle. This analysis indicated that the C-terminal domain of L-Pro, in addition to being required for proteolysis, also functions in RNA amplification and that these two functions are genetically separable. Examination of the role of L-Pro in BYV cell-to-cell movement revealed that none of the 20 examined replication-competent mutants was movement defective. In contrast, six of the L-Pro mutations affected the long-distance transport of BYV to various degrees, whereas three mutations completely abolished the transport. Because these mutations were located throughout the protein molecule, both domains of L-Pro function in virus transport. We conclude that in addition to previously identified functions of L-Pro, it also serves as the BYV long-distance transport factor.
The filamentous virion of the closterovirus Beet yellows virus (BYV) consists of a long body formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and a short tail composed of the minor capsid protein (CPm) and the virus-encoded Hsp70 homolog. By using nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we show here that the BYV 64-kDa protein (p64) is the fourth integral component of BYV virions. The N-terminal domain of p64 is exposed at the virion surface and is accessible to antibodies and mild trypsin digestion. In contrast, the C-terminal domain is embedded in the virion and is inaccessible to antibodies or trypsin. The C-terminal domain of p64 is shown to be homologous to CP and CPm. Mutation of the signature motifs of capsid proteins of filamentous RNA viruses in p64 results in the formation of tailless virions, which are unable to move from cell to cell. These results reveal the dual function of p64 in tail assembly and BYV motility and support the concept of the virion tail as a specialized device for BYV cell-to-cell movement.
Filamentous virions of Beet yellows virus contain a long body formed by a major capsid protein and a short tail that is assembled by a minor capsid protein (CPm), an Hsp70-homolog (Hsp70h), a 64-kDa protein (p64), and a 20-kDa protein (p20). Using mutation analysis and newly developed in planta assays, here we investigate the genetic requirements for the tail assembly. We show that the inactivation of CPm dramatically reduces incorporation of both Hsp70h and p64. Furthermore, inactivation of Hsp70h prevents incorporation of p64 into virions and vice versa. Hsp70h and p64 are each required for efficient incorporation of CPm. We also show that the tails possessing normal relative amounts of CPm, Hsp70h, and p64 can be formed in the absence of the major capsid protein and p20. Similar to the tails isolated from the wild type virions, these mutant tails encapsidate the ~700 nt-long, 5’-terminal segments of the viral RNA. Taken together, our results imply that CPm, Hsp70h and p64 act cooperatively to encapsidate a defined region of the closterovirus genome.
Virus assembly; helical virion; Closterovirus; Hsp70
The cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses involves translocation of virus particles or nucleoproteins to and through the plasmodesmata (PDs). As we have shown previously, the movement of the Beet yellows virus requires the concerted action of five viral proteins including a homolog of cellular ∼70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70h). Hsp70h is an integral component of the virus particles and is also found in PDs of the infected cells. Here we investigate subcellular distribution of Hsp70h using transient expression of Hsp70h fused to three spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. We found that fluorophore-tagged Hsp70h forms motile granules that are associated with actin microfilaments, but not with microtubules. In addition, immobile granules were observed at the cell periphery. A pairwise appearance of these granules at the opposite sides of cell walls and their colocalization with the movement protein of Tobacco mosaic virus indicated an association of Hsp70h with PDs. Treatment with various cytoskeleton-specific drugs revealed that the intact actomyosin motility system is required for trafficking of Hsp70h in cytosol and its targeting to PDs. In contrast, none of the drugs interfered with the PD localization of Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Collectively, these findings suggest that Hsp70h is translocated and anchored to PDs in association with the actin cytoskeleton.
Criniviruses comprise one of the genera within the family Closteroviridae. Members in this family are restricted to the phloem and rely on whitefly vectors of the genera Bemisia and/or Trialeurodes for plant-to-plant transmission. All criniviruses have bipartite, positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes, although there is an unconfirmed report of one having a tripartite genome. Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) is the type species of the genus, the best studied so far of the criniviruses and the first for which a reverse genetics system was developed. LIYV RNA 1 encodes for proteins predicted to be involved in replication, and alone is competent for replication in protoplasts. Replication results in accumulation of cytoplasmic vesiculated membranous structures which are characteristic of most studied members of the Closteroviridae. These membranous structures, often referred to as Beet yellows virus (BYV)-type vesicles, are likely sites of RNA replication. LIYV RNA 2 is replicated in trans when co-infecting cells with RNA 1, but is temporally delayed relative to RNA 1. Efficient RNA 2 replication also is dependent on the RNA 1-encoded RNA-binding protein, P34. No LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins have been shown to affect RNA replication, but at least four, CP (major coat protein), CPm (minor coat protein), Hsp70h, and P59 are virion structural components and CPm is a determinant of whitefly transmissibility. Roles of other LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins are largely as yet unknown, but P26 is a non-virion protein that accumulates in cells as characteristic plasmalemma deposits which in plants are localized within phloem parenchyma and companion cells over plasmodesmata connections to sieve elements. The two remaining crinivirus-conserved RNA 2-encoded proteins are P5 and P9. P5 is 39 amino acid protein and is encoded at the 5′ end of RNA 2 as ORF 1 and is part of the hallmark closterovirus gene array. The orthologous gene in BYV has been shown to play a role in cell-to-cell movement and indicated to be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum as a Type III integral membrane protein. The other small protein, P9, is encoded by ORF 4 overlaps with ORF 3 that encodes the structural protein, P59. P9 seems to be unique to viruses in the genus Crinivirus, as no similar protein has been detected in viruses of the other two genera of the Closteroviridae.
phloem-limited; plasmalemma deposit; whitefly vector; Crinivirus; quintuple gene block
A reporter open reading frame (ORF) coding for a fusion of bacterial β-glucuronidase (GUS) with a proteinase domain (Pro) derived from tobacco etch potyvirus was utilized for tagging individual genes of beet yellows closterovirus (BYV). Insertion of this reporter ORF between the first and second codons of the BYV ORFs encoding the HSP70 homolog (HSP70h), a major capsid protein (CP), and a 20-kDa protein (p20) resulted in the expression of the processed GUS-Pro reporter from corresponding subgenomic RNAs. The high sensitivity of GUS assays permitted temporal analysis of reporter accumulation, revealing early expression from the HSP70h promoter, followed by the CP promoter and later the p20 promoter. The kinetics of transcription of the remaining BYV genes encoding a 64-kDa protein (p64), a minor capsid protein (CPm), and a 21-kDa protein (p21) were examined via Northern blot analysis. Taken together, the data indicated that the temporal regulation of BYV gene expression includes early (HSP70h, CPm, CP, and p21 promoters) and late (p64 and p20 promoters) phases. It was also demonstrated that the deletion of six viral genes that are nonessential for RNA amplification resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of transcription from one of the two remaining subgenomic promoters. Comparison with other positive-strand RNA viruses producing multiple subgenomic RNAs showed the uniqueness of the pattern of closterovirus transcriptional regulation.
In eukaryotic virus systems, infection leads to induction of membranous compartments in which replication occurs. Virus-encoded subunits of the replication complex mediate its interaction with membranes. As replication platforms, RNA viruses use the cytoplasmic surfaces of different membrane compartments, e.g., endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, endo/lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. Closterovirus infections are accompanied by formation of multivesicular complexes from cell membranes of ER or mitochondrial origin. So far the mechanisms for vesicles formation have been obscure. In the replication-associated 1a polyprotein of Beet yellows virus (BYV) and other closteroviruses, the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains (1a central region (CR), 1a CR) is marginally conserved. Computer-assisted analysis predicts several putative membrane-binding domains in the BYV 1a CR. Transient expression of a hydrophobic segment (referred to here as CR-2) of the BYV 1a in Nicotiana benthamiana led to reorganization of the ER and formation of ~1-μm mobile globules. We propose that the CR-2 may be involved in the formation of multivesicular complexes in BYV-infected cells. This provides analogy with membrane-associated proteins mediating the build-up of “virus factories” in cells infected with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses (alpha-like viruses, picorna-like viruses, flaviviruses, and nidoviruses) and negative-strand RNA viruses (bunyaviruses).
RNA virus replication; membrane vesicles; virus replication factory; endoplasmic reticulum modification; intracellular traffic
The capsid protein (CP) of potyviruses is required for various steps during plant infection, such as virion assembly, cell-to-cell movement, and long-distance transport. This suggests a series of compatible interactions with putative host factors which, however, are largely unknown. By using the yeast two-hybrid system the CP from Potato virus Y (PVY) was found to interact with a novel subset of DnaJ-like proteins from tobacco, designated NtCPIPs. Mutational analysis identified the CP core region, previously shown to be essential for virion formation and plasmodesmal trafficking, as the interacting domain. The ability of NtCPIP1 and NtCPIP2a to associate with PVY CP could be confirmed in vitro and was additionally verified in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The biological significance of the interaction was assayed by PVY infection of agroinfiltrated leaves and transgenic tobacco plants that expressed either full-length or J-domain-deficient variants of NtCPIPs. Transient expression of truncated dominant-interfering NtCPIP2a but not of the functional protein resulted in strongly reduced accumulation of PVY in the inoculated leaf. Consistently, stable overexpression of J-domain-deficient variants of NtCPIP1 and NtCPIP2a dramatically increased the virus resistance of various transgenic lines, indicating a critical role of functional NtCPIPs during PVY infection. The negative effect of impaired NtCPIP function on viral pathogenicity seemed to be the consequence of delayed cell-to-cell movement, as visualized by microprojectile bombardment with green fluorescent protein-tagged PVY. Therefore, we propose that NtCPIPs act as important susceptibility factors during PVY infection, possibly by recruiting heat shock protein 70 chaperones for viral assembly and/or cellular spread.
Members of the human heat shock (HSP) family of related proteins are involved in the intracellular folding, transport, and assembly of proteins and protein complexes. We have observed that human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is associated with the capsid precursor P1 of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B1 in infected HeLa cells. Antiserum generated against HSP70 coimmunoprecipitated the poliovirus protein P1, an intermediate in capsid assembly. Similarly, alpha-virion serum coimmunoprecipitated HSP70 from virus-infected cell extracts, but not from mock-infected cell extracts. The HSP70-P1 complex was stable in high-salt medium but was sensitive to incubation with 2 mM ATP, which is a characteristic of other known functional complexes between HSP70 and cellular proteins. The P1 in the complex was predominantly newly synthesized, and the half-life of complexed P1 was nearly twice as long as that of total P1. The HSP70-P1 complex was found to sediment at 3S to 6S, suggesting that it may be part of, or a precursor to, the "5S promoter particles" thought to be an assembly intermediate of picornaviruses. The finding that HSP70 was associated with the capsid precursors of at least two enteroviruses may suggest a functional role of these complexes in the viral life cycles.
A full-length cDNA clone of beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) was engineered and used to map functions involved in the replication of the viral RNA genome and subgenomic RNA formation. Among 10 open reading frames (ORFs) present in BYV, ORFs 1a and 1b suffice for RNA replication and transcription. The proteins encoded in these ORFs harbor putative methyltransferase, RNA helicase, and RNA polymerase domains common to Sindbis virus-like viruses and a large interdomain region that is unique to closteroviruses. The papain-like leader proteinase (L-Pro) encoded in the 5′-proximal region of ORF 1a was found to have a dual function in genome amplification. First, the autocatalytic cleavage between L-Pro and the remainder of the ORF 1a product was essential for replication of RNA. Second, an additional L-Pro function that was separable from proteolytic activity was required for efficient RNA accumulation. The deletion of a large, ∼5.6-kb, 3′-terminal region coding for a 6-kDa hydrophobic protein, an HSP70 homolog, a 64-kDa protein, minor and major capsid proteins, a 20-kDa protein, and a 21-kDa protein (p21) resulted in replication-competent RNA. However, examination of mutants with replacements of start codons in each of these seven 3′-terminal ORFs revealed that p21 functions as an enhancer of genome amplification. The intriguing analogies between the genome organization and replicational requirements of plant closteroviruses and animal coronavirus-like viruses are discussed.
Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; another closterovirus), P-Pro proteinase of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; a crinivirus), and HC-Pro proteinase of Tobacco etch virus (a potyvirus). Each foreign proteinase efficiently processed the chimeric BYV polyprotein in vitro. However, only L1 and P-Pro, not L2 and HC-Pro, were able to rescue the amplification of the chimeric BYV variants. The combined expression of L1 and L2 resulted in an increased RNA accumulation compared to that of the parental BYV. Remarkably, this L1-L2 chimera exhibited reduced invasiveness and inability to move from cell to cell. Similar analyses of the BYV hybrids, in which only the papain-like domain of L-Pro was replaced with those derived from L1, L2, P-Pro, and HC-Pro, also revealed functional specialization of these domains. In subcellular-localization experiments, distinct patterns were observed for the leader proteinases of BYV, CTV, and LIYV. Taken together, these results demonstrated that, in addition to a common proteolytic activity, the leader proteinases of closteroviruses possess specialized functions in virus RNA amplification, virus invasion, and cell-to-cell movement. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that functionally distinct L1 and L2 of CTV originated by a gene duplication event.
Although propagation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions requires Hsp104 protein disaggregating activity, overproducing Hsp104 “cures” cells of [PSI+] prions. Earlier evidence suggests that the Hsp70 mutant Ssa1-21 impairs [PSI+] by a related mechanism. Here, we confirm this link by finding that deletion of STI1 both suppresses Ssa1-21 impairment of [PSI+] and blocks Hsp104 curing of [PSI+]. Hsp104's tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) interaction motif was dispensable for curing; however, cells expressing Sti1 defective in Hsp70 or Hsp90 interaction cured less efficiently, and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol abolished curing, implying that Sti1 acts in curing through Hsp70 and Hsp90 interactions. Accordingly, strains lacking constitutive or inducible Hsp90 isoforms cured at reduced rates. We confirm an earlier finding that elevating free ubiquitin levels enhances curing, but it did not overcome inhibition of curing caused by Hsp90 defects, suggesting that Hsp90 machinery is important for the contribution of ubiquitin to curing. We also find curing associated with cell division. Our findings point to crucial roles of Hsp70, Sti1, and Hsp90 for efficient curing by overexpressed Hsp104 and provide evidence supporting the earlier suggestion that destruction of prions by protein disaggregation does not adequately explain the curing.
Hsp70 chaperones play a role in polyoma- and papillomavirus assembly, as evidenced by their interaction in vivo with polyomavirus capsid proteins at late times after virus infection and by their ability to assemble viral capsomeres into capsids in vitro. We studied whether Hsp70 chaperones might also participate in the uncoating reaction. In vivo, Hsp70 coimmunoprecipitated with polyomavirus virion VP1 at 3 h after infection of mouse cells. In vitro, prokaryotic and eukaryotic Hsp70 chaperones efficiently disassembled polyoma- and papillomavirus-like particles and virions in energy-dependent reactions. These observations support a role for cell chaperones in the disassembly of these viruses.
Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) interacts with host factors such as the Hsp90 complex, which is a critical step in viral genome replication. In this report, we propose that another chaperone, Hsp60, interacts with human HBV Pol and that this is a very important step for maturation of human HBV Pol into the active state. In the immunoprecipitation of recombinant human HBV Pol expressed in insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus expression system, the 60-kDa protein was coimmunoprecipitated with Pol and the protein was identified as Hsp60 through peptide sequencing and immunogenic analysis with an anti-Hsp60 antibody. In vitro experiments showed that Hsp60 strongly affected human HBV Pol activity in that (i) blocking of Hsp60 by the protein-specific antibody reduced human HBV Pol activity, (ii) the activity was increased by addition of Hsp60 in the presence of ATP, and (iii) ATP synergistically activated human HBV Pol with Hsp60. In vivo experiments showed that inhibition of Hsp60 in cells by a mutant Hsp60, CΔ540, resulted in the reduction of human HBV Pol activity. In summary, our results indicate that the interaction is significant for conversion of human HBV Pol into the active state.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases.
Citrus tristeza virus; citrus; disease; host-interactions; stem pitting; seedling yellows
Phloem transport of plant viruses is an essential step in the setting-up of a complete infection of a host plant. After an initial replication step in the first cells, viruses spread from cell-to-cell through mesophyll cells, until they reach the vasculature where they rapidly move to distant sites in order to establish the infection of the whole plant. This last step is referred to as systemic transport, or long-distance movement, and involves virus crossings through several cellular barriers: bundle sheath, vascular parenchyma, and companion cells for virus loading into sieve elements (SE). Viruses are then passively transported within the source-to-sink flow of photoassimilates and are unloaded from SE into sink tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms governing virus long-distance movement are far from being understood. While most viruses seem to move systemically as virus particles, some viruses are transported in SE as viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP). The nature of the cellular and viral factors constituting these RNPs is still poorly known. The topic of this review will mainly focus on the host and viral factors that facilitate or restrict virus long-distance movement.
virus; long-distance movement; phloem; viral factors; host factors
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is incorporated within the membrane of primate lentiviral virions. Here we demonstrate that Hsp70 is also incorporated into oncoretroviral virions and that it remains associated with membrane-stripped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion cores. To determine if Hsp70 promotes virion infectivity, we attempted to generate Hsp70-deficient virions with gag deletion mutations, Hsp70 transdominant mutants, or RNA interference, but these efforts were confounded, largely because they disrupt virion assembly. Given that polypeptide substrates are bound and released by Hsp70 in an ATP-hydrolytic reaction cycle, we supposed that incubation of HIV-1 virions with ATP would perturb Hsp70 interaction with substrates in the virion and thereby decrease infectivity. Treatment with ATP or ADP had no observable effect, but ATPγS and GTPγS, nucleotide triphosphate analogues resistant to Hsp70 hydrolysis, dramatically reduced the infectivity of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus virions. ATPγS-treated virions were competent for fusion with susceptible target cells, but viral cDNA synthesis was inhibited to an extent that correlated with the magnitude of decrease in infectivity. Intravirion reverse transcription by HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus, or murine leukemia virus was also inhibited by ATPγS. The effects of ATPγS on HIV-1 reverse transcription appeared to be indirect, resulting from disruption of virion core morphology that was evident by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with effects on capsid conformation, ATPγS-treated viruslike particles failed to saturate host antiviral restriction activity. Our observations support a model in which the catalytic activity of virion-associated Hsp70 is required to maintain structural integrity of the virion core.
Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a “pure” culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature.
Assembly of viral replicase complexes of eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses is a regulated process: multiple viral and host components must be assembled on intracellular membranes and ordered into quaternary complexes capable of synthesizing viral RNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we used a model virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), whose replicase complex can be detected readily as the 480-kDa functional protein complex. We found that host heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are required for RCNMV RNA replication and that they interact with p27, a virus-encoded component of the 480-kDa replicase complex, on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Using a cell-free viral translation/replication system in combination with specific inhibitors of Hsp70 and Hsp90, we found that inhibition of p27-Hsp70 interaction inhibits the formation of the 480-kDa complex but instead induces the accumulation of large complexes that are nonfunctional in viral RNA synthesis. In contrast, inhibition of p27-Hsp90 interaction did not induce such large complexes but rendered p27 incapable of binding to a specific viral RNA element, which is a critical step for the assembly of the 480-kDa replicase complex and viral RNA replication. Together, our results suggest that Hsp70 and Hsp90 regulate different steps in the assembly of the RCNMV replicase complex.
We previously showed that Hsp27 protects against apoptosis through its interaction with cytosolic cytochrome c. We have revisited this protective activity in murine cell lines expressing different levels of Hsp27. We report that Hsp27 also interferes, in a manner dependent on level of expression, with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Moreover, a decreased level of endogenous Hsp27, which sensitized HeLa cells to apoptosis, reduced the delay required for cytochrome c release and procaspase 3 activation. The molecular mechanism regulating this function of Hsp27 is unknown. In our cell systems, Hsp27 is mainly cytosolic and only a small fraction of this protein colocalized with mitochondria. Moreover, we show that only a very small fraction of cytochrome c interacts with Hsp27, hence excluding a role of this interaction in the retention of cytochrome c in mitochondria. We also report that Bid intracellular relocalization was altered by changes in Hsp27 level of expression, suggesting that Hsp27 interferes with apoptotic signals upstream of mitochondria. We therefore investigated if the ability of Hsp27 to act as an expression-dependent modulator of F-actin microfilaments integrity was linked to the retention of cytochrome c in mitochondria. We show here that the F-actin depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D rapidly induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and caspase activation. This phenomenon was delayed in cells pretreated with the F-actin stabilizer phalloidin and in cells expressing a high level of Hsp27. This suggests the existence of an apoptotic signaling pathway linking cytoskeleton damages to mitochondria. This pathway, which induces Bid intracellular redistribution, is negatively regulated by the ability of Hsp27 to protect F-actin network integrity. However, this upstream pathway is probably not the only one to be regulated by Hsp27 since, in staurosporine-treated cells, phalloidin only partially inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Moreover, in etoposide-treated cells, Hsp27 still delayed the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and Bid intracellular redistribution in conditions where F-actin was not altered.
A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories.
The assembly of viral RNA replication complexes on intracellular membranes represents a critical step in the life cycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. We investigated the role of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in viral RNA replication complex assembly and function using Flock House virus (FHV), an alphanodavirus whose RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, protein A, is essential for viral RNA replication complex assembly on mitochondrial outer membranes. The Hsp90 chaperone complex transports cellular mitochondrial proteins to the outer mitochondrial membrane import receptors, and thus we hypothesized that Hsp90 may also facilitate FHV RNA replication complex assembly or function. Treatment of FHV-infected Drosophila S2 cells with the Hsp90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin or radicicol potently suppressed the production of infectious virions and the accumulation of protein A and genomic, subgenomic, and template viral RNA. In contrast, geldanamycin did not inhibit the activity of preformed FHV RNA replication complexes. Hsp90 inhibitors also suppressed viral RNA and protein A accumulation in S2 cells expressing an FHV RNA replicon. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition with either geldanamycin or RNAi-mediated chaperone downregulation suppressed protein A accumulation in the absence of viral RNA replication. These results identify Hsp90 as a host factor involved in FHV RNA replication and suggest that FHV uses established cellular chaperone pathways to assemble its RNA replication complexes on intracellular membranes.
Increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsp) occurs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells when they are exposed to stress. By increasing their hsp content, cells protect themselves from lethal assaults, primarily because hsp interfere with the uncontrolled protein unfolding that occurs under stress. However, hsp are not produced only by stressed cells; some hsp are synthesized constitutively and perform important housekeeping functions. Accordingly, hsp are involved in the assembly of molecules which play important roles in the immune system. It is not surprising that due to their wide distribution and their homology among different species, hsp represent target antigens of the immune response. Frequent confrontation of the immune system with conserved regions of hsp which are shared by various microbial pathogens can potentiate antimicrobial immunity. However, long-term confrontation of the immune system with hsp antigens which are similar in the host and invaders may convert the immune response against these host antigens and promote autoimmune disease. This review provides an overview of the role of hsp in immunity with a focus on infectious and autoimmune diseases.
Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) is one of a few viruses that can move systemically in plants in the absence of the capsid protein (CP). Pomoviruses encode the triple gene block genetic module of movement proteins (TGB 1, 2, and 3) and recent research suggests that PMTV RNA is transported either as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes containing TGB1 or encapsidated in virions containing TGB1. Furthermore, there are different requirements for local or systemic (long-distance) movement. Research suggests that nucleolar passage of TGB1 may be important for the long-distance movement of both RNP and virions. Moreover, and uniquely, the long-distance movement of the CP-encoding RNA requires expression of both major and minor CP subunits and is inhibited when only the major CP sub unit is expressed. This paper reviews pomovirus research and presents a current model for RNA movement.
Pomovirus; PMTV; BVQ; BSBV; nucleus; nucleolus; microtubules; TGB