Objective To examine the developmental trajectory of obesity in adolescence in relation to sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Design Five year longitudinal cohort study of a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of school students aged 11-12 years at baseline.
Setting 36 London schools recruited to the study in 1999 by a stratified random sampling procedure.
Participants 5863 students participated in one or more years.
Main outcome measures Weight, height, and waist circumference measured annually by trained researchers; overweight and obesity defined according to International Obesity Task Force criteria; adiposity and central adiposity indexed by body mass index (BMI) and waist standard deviation scores relative to 1990 British reference values.
Results In school year 7 (age 11-12), the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was almost 25%, with higher rates in girls (29%) and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds (31%) and the highest rates in black girls (38%). Prevalence of obesity increased over the five years of the study at the expense of overweight, but no reduction occurred in the proportion of students with BMIs in the healthy range. Waist circumferences were high compared with 1990 norms at age 11 (by 0.79 SD in boys and by 1.15 SD in girls) and increased further over time. Both BMI and waist circumference tracked strongly over the five years.
Conclusions Prevalence of overweight and obesity was high in London school students, with significant socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities. Little evidence was found of new cases of overweight or obesity emerging over adolescence, but few obese or overweight adolescents reduced to a healthy weight. The results indicate that persistent obesity is established before age 11 and highlight the need to target efforts to prevent obesity in the early years.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of anemia and body mass index among adult women in Jiangsu Province, China. Data were collected in a sub-national cross-sectional survey, and 1,537 women aged 20 years and above were included in the analyses. Subjects were classified by body mass index (BMI) categories as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese according to the Chinese standard. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥ 80 cm. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration < 12 g/dl. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of the relationship between anemia and BMI or waist circumference were calculated using Poisson regression.
Overall, 31.1% of the Chinese women were anemic. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 34.2%, 5.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The obese group had the highest concentrations of hemoglobin compared with other BMI groups. After adjustment for confounders, overweight and obese women had a lower PR for anemia (PR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62-0.89; PR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.79). Central obesity was inversely associated with anemia.
In this Chinese population, women with overweight/obesity or central obesity were less likely to be anemic as compared to normal weight women. No measures are required currently to target anemia specifically for overweight and obese people in China.
Anemia; Body mass index; Waist circumference; China; Women
The objective of the study was to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity, using different anthropometric measurements in adult urban populations in Cameroon.
The Cameroon Burden of Diabetes Baseline Survey was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 4 urban districts (Yaoundé, Douala, Garoua and Bamenda) of Cameroon, using the WHO Step approach for population-based assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were measured using standardized methods. Overall, 10,011 individuals, 6,004 women and 4,007 men, from 4,189 households, aged 15 years and above participated.
Based on body mass index, more than 25% of urban men and almost half of urban women were either overweight or obese with 6.5% of men and 19.5% of women being obese. The prevalence of obesity showed considerable variation with age in both genders. Using body mass index provided the highest prevalence of obesity in men (6.5%) and waist-to-hip ratio the lowest prevalence (3.2%). Among women, using waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference yielded the highest prevalence of obesity (28%) and body mass index the lowest (19.5%). There was a trend towards an increase in age-adjusted odd ratios of being overweight or obese with duration of education in both sexes.
The study provides current data on anthropometric measurements and obesity in urban Cameroonian populations, and found high prevalences of overweight and obesity particularly over 35 years of age, and among women. Prevalence varied according to the measure used. Our findings highlight the need to carry out further studies in Cameroonian and other Sub-Saharan African populations to provide appropriate cut-off points for the identification of people at risk of obesity-related disorders, and indicate the need to implement interventions to reverse increasing levels of obesity.
We analyzed the effects of obesity on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) in Korean benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. This is a multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective study conducted in four centers in Korea. A total of 602 men with LUTSs secondary to BPH were included. BPH/LUTSs cases were men aged ≥ 40 years with international prostate symptom scores (IPSS) ≥ 8 points. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Among the 602 patients, 156 patients had a waist circumference above 90 cm, representing central obesity, and 215 patients had a body mass index above 25 kg m−2. Waist circumference was positively correlated with prostate volume (P = 0.034). Men with waist circumference > 90 cm experienced a 1.36-fold increased risk of severe LUTSs (95% CI 0.82–2.41) compared with men with waist circumference ≤ 90 cm. Prostate volume was positively correlated with urgency and nocturia in men with central obesity. In this population of Korean men diagnosed with BPH, central obesity rather than overall obesity seems to be the more important predictor of LUTSs correlated with BPH.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; central obesity; lower urinary tract symptom; prostate
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI)-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults.
A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women) aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis.
After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59) or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90) than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-< 30.0 kg/m2) when stratified analyses were conducted by BMI status.
Among overweight and obese U.S. adults, waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated with increased likelihoods of having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Thus, mental health status should be monitored and evaluated in adults with abdominal obesity, particularly in those who are overweight.
abdominal obesity; depressive symptoms; PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm; waist circumference
Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity.
A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated.
In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002), low HDL-C (P = 0.017), and atherogenic index (P = 0.021) compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003), triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003), and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = −0.361, P = 0.004). Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13.44, P < 0.0001); LDL-C (OR 3.18, CI 1.04–9.75, P = 0.043); hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.88, CI 1.10–3.19, P = 0.020); and increased waist circumference (OR 1.40, CI 1.29–1.55, P = 0.022). Overweight and obesity significantly increased the risk of atherosclerosis (assessed by atherogenic index) by about two-fold (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06–3.15, P = 0.025).
Overweight and obese children screened by International Obesity Task Force reference values are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
cardiovascular risks; children; lipid profile; obesity; and waist circumference
Anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are widely used as convenient indices of adiposity, yet there are limitations in their estimates of body fat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity using criteria based on the BMI and waist circumference, and to examine the relationship between the BMI and body fat.
This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. A random sample of 1,467 men and 1,076 women aged 20–96 years was assessed 2001–2008. Overweight and obesity were identified according to BMI (overweight 25.0–29.9 kg/m2; obesity ≥30.0 kg/m2) and waist circumference (overweight men 94.0–101.9 cm; women 80.0–87.9 cm; obesity men ≥102.0 cm, women ≥88.0 cm); body fat mass was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; height and weight were measured and lifestyle factors documented by self-report. According to the BMI, 45.1% (95%CI 42.4–47.9) of men and 30.2% (95%CI 27.4–33.0) of women were overweight and a further 20.2% (95%CI 18.0–22.4) of men and 28.6% (95%CI 25.8–31.3) of women were obese. Using waist circumference, 27.5% (95%CI 25.1–30.0) of men and 23.3% (95%CI 20.8–25.9) of women were overweight, and 29.3% (95%CI 26.9–31.7) of men and 44.1% (95%CI 41.2–47.1) of women, obese. Both criteria indicate that approximately 60% of the population exceeded recommended thresholds for healthy body habitus. There was no consistent pattern apparent between BMI and energy intake. Compared with women, BMI overestimated adiposity in men, whose excess weight was largely attributable to muscular body builds and greater bone mass. BMI also underestimated adiposity in the elderly. Regression models including gender, age and BMI explained 0.825 of the variance in percent body fat.
As the BMI does not account for differences in body composition, we suggest that gender- and age-specific thresholds should be considered when the BMI is used to indicate adiposity.
Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM). Vitamin D3 insufficiency has been linked to obesity, whether obesity is assessed by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (waist). Central obesity, using waist as the surrogate, is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), insulin resistance, TIIDM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We tested how vitamin D3 was related to measures of fat mass, MetSyn markers, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and MetSyn in a cross-sectional sample of 250 overweight and obese adults of different ethnicities. There were modest inverse associations of vitamin D3 with body weight (weight) (r = -0.21, p = 0.0009), BMI (r = -0.18, p = 0.005), waist (r = -0.14, p = 0.03), [but not body fat % (r = -0.08, p = 0.24)], and HbA1c (r = -0.16, p = 0.01). Multivariable regression carried out separately for BMI and waist showed a decrease of 0.74 nmol/L (p = 0.002) in vitamin D3 per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI and a decrease of 0.29 nmol/L (p = 0.01) per 1 cm increase in waist, with each explaining approximately 3% of the variation in vitamin D3 over and above gender, age, ethnicity and season.
The similar relationships of BMI and waist with vitamin D3 may have been due to associations between BMI and waist, or coincidental, where different mechanisms relating hypovitaminosis D3 to obesity occur concurrently. Previously reviewed mechanisms include that 1) low vitamin D3, may impair insulin action, glucose metabolism and various other metabolic processes in adipose and lean tissue 2) fat soluble-vitamin D3 is sequestered in the large adipose compartment, and low in serum, 3) obese people may be sensitive about their body shape, minimising their skin exposure to view and sunlight (not tested). We showed evidence for the first theory but no evidence to support the second.
In the current study, serum vitamin D3 was inversely related to weight, BMI and markers of TIIDM (large waist, raised HbA1c) but not to adipose mass nor to MetSyn per se.
Obesity is a significant risk factor for metabolic disorders including increase in blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Waist/Hip ratio (WHR) are simple and effective indicators of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity anthropometric indicators and hypertension and to identify the best anthropometric indicator/s that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE.
A 110 first year students in a Medical University in Ajman, UAE, during the year 2009–2010 were included in a cross-sectional study. The height, weight, WC, hip circumference and blood pressure were measured and the BMI and WHR were calculated for each student and used in the analyses.
The mean values for BMI, WC, hip circumference and WHR, were significantly higher in the Pre/Hypertensive group compared to normal blood pressure group. The risk of Pre/ hypertension was significantly increased by 4.3 times for participants who had general obesity (BMI≥ 30) or abdominal obesity (identified from high WC). Highly significant correlations were noticed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all anthropometric indicators except that for Hip circumference and systolic blood pressure. Step-wise linear regression model showed that when all obesity indicators were studied together, the waist circumference was the only indicator which showed significant relationship with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Waist circumference is the best anthropometric indicator that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE.
Hypertension; Youth; Obesity indicators
To quantify how overweight children have to be for their mothers to classify them as overweight and to express concern about future overweight, and to investigate the adiposity cues in children that mothers respond to.
531 children from the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at 6-8 years and their mothers.
In the mother: responses to two questions concerning the child's adiposity; height; weight; educational qualifications; economic status. In the child: height; weight; waist circumference; skinfold thicknesses; bioelectrical impedance; bone frame measurements.
The body mass index (BMI) at which half the mothers classify their child as overweight was 21.3 (in the obese range for children of this age). The BMI at which half the mothers were concerned about their child becoming overweight in the future was 17.1 (below the overweight range). Waist circumference and skinfolds contributed most to mothers' responses. While BMI and fat scores were important predictors individually, they did not contribute independently once waist circumference and skinfolds (their most visible manifestations) were included in the regression equations. Mothers were less likely to classify girls as overweight. Mothers with higher BMIs were less likely to classify their child as overweight but were more likely to be concerned about future overweight.
Health promotion efforts directed at parents of young primary school children might better capitalise on their concern about future overweight in their child than on current weight status, and focus on mothers' response to more visible characteristics than the BMI.
Epidemiologic studies; overweight; adiposity; child; perception
In southern and eastern Mediterranean countries, changes in lifestyle and the increasing prevalence of excess weight in childhood are risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) during adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BP status of Tunisian adolescents and to identify associated factors.
A cross-sectional study in 2005, based on a national, stratified, random cluster sample of 1294 boys and 1576 girls aged 15-19 surveyed in home visits. The socio-economic and behavioral characteristics of the adolescents were recorded. Overweight/obesity were assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI) from measured height and weight (WHO, 2007), abdominal obesity by waist circumference (WC). BP was measured twice during the same visit. Elevated BP was systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90th of the international reference or ≥ 120/80 mm Hg for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y.; hypertension was SBP/DBP ≥ 95th for 15-17 y. and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Adjusted associations were assessed by logistic regression.
The prevalence of elevated BP was 35.1%[32.9-37.4]: higher among boys (46.1% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.0001); 4.7%[3.8-5.9] of adolescents had hypertension. Associations adjusted for all covariates showed independent relationships with BMI and WC: - obesity vs. no excess weight increased elevated BP (boys OR = 2.1[1.0-4.2], girls OR = 2.3[1.3-3.9]) and hypertension (boys OR = 3.5[1.4-8.9], girls OR = 5.4[2.2-13.4]), - abdominal obesity (WC) was also associated with elevated BP in both genders (for boys: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.7[1.3-2.3], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.8[1.9-4.2]; for girls: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.6[1.2-2.1], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.1[1.5-3.0]) but only among boys for hypertension. Associations with other covariates were weaker: for boys, hypertension increased somewhat with sedentary lifestyle, while elevated BP was slightly more prevalent among urban girls and those not attending school.
Within the limits of BP measurement on one visit only, these results suggest that Tunisian adolescents of both genders are likely not spared from early elevated BP. Though further assessment is likely needed, the strong association with overweight/obesity observed suggests that interventions aimed at changing lifestyles to reduce this main risk factor may also be appropriate for the prevention of elevated BP.
Adolescent; Blood pressure; Tunisia; Prevalence; Risk factors
The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC) over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia.
A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs).
We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC), aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run), physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry), healthy eating (dietary recall) and cardiovascular risk (CV risk).
zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05). No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01). There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05) but otherwise no dietary changes were detected.
While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.1
physical activity; aerobic fitness; cardiovascular risk; children; Aboriginal; nutrition
We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.
A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%). Height, weight, fat mass (FM), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m2 (overall obesity); WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І) and waist hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П). The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.
The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, −0.086, P<0.001 for BMI; β, −0.072, P<0.001 for WC; β, −0.044, P<0.05 for WHR; and β, −0.058, P<0.01 for FM, respectively) and both measures of abdominal obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.80–0.93; P<0.001, for abdominal obesity I; OR = 0.92, 95% CI, 0.86–0.99; P = 0.026, for abdominal obesity II). These associations were not observed among men (P>0.05). Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05).
Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.
A cross-sectional relation between short sleep and obesity has not been confirmed prospectively. We examined the relationship between sleep duration and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference using the Whitehall II study, a prospective cohort of 10,308 white-collar British civil servants aged 35–55 in 1985–88. Data were gathered in 1997–9 and 2003–4. Sleep duration and other covariates were assessed. Changes in BMI and waist circumference were assessed between the two phases. The incidence of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was assessed among non-obese participants at baseline. In cross-sectional analyses (n=5,021), there were significant, inverse associations (p<0.001) between duration of sleep and both BMI and waist circumference. Compared to 7h sleep short duration of sleep (≤5h) was associated with higher BMI (β=+0.82 units; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.26) and waist circumference (β=+1.88 cm; 0.64 to 3.12), and with an increased risk of obesity (ORadj 1.65; 1.22 to 2.24). In prospective analyses, short duration of sleep was not associated with significant changes in BMI (β=−0.06; −0.26 to 0.14) or waist circumference (β=+0.44; −0.23 to 1.12), nor with the incidence of obesity (ORadj 1.05; 0.60 to 1.82). There is no temporal relationship between short duration of sleep and future changes in measures of body weight and central adiposity.
sleep duration; relative weight; body fat distribution; obesity; epidemiology
Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0–6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries’ data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.
Waist circumference reference values; Preschool children
Objective To assess the long term effects of an obesity prevention programme in schools.
Design Longitudinal results after a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Setting Schools in southwest England.
Participants Of the original sample of 644 children aged 7-11, 511 children were tracked and measurements were obtained from 434 children three years after baseline.
Intervention The intervention was conducted over one school year, with four sessions of focused education promoting a healthy diet and discouraging the consumption of carbonated drinks.
Main outcome measures Anthropometric measures of height, weight, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) converted to z scores (SD scores) and to centile values with growth reference curves. Waist circumference was also converted to z scores (SD scores).
Results At three years after baseline the age and sex specific BMI z scores (SD scores) had increased in the control group by 0.10 (SD 0.53) but decreased in the intervention group by −0.01 (SD 0.58), with a mean difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval −0.00 to 0.21, P=0.06). The prevalence of overweight increased in both the intervention and control group at three years and the significant difference between the groups seen at 12 months was no longer evident. The BMI increased in the control group by 2.14 (SD 1.64) and the intervention group by 1.88 (SD 1.71), with mean difference of 0.26 (−0.07 to 0.58, P= 0.12). The waist circumference increased in both groups after three years with a mean difference of 0.09 (−0.06 to 0.26, P=0.25).
Conclusions These longitudinal results show that after a simple year long intervention the difference in prevalence of overweight in children seen at 12 months was not sustained at three years.
Overweight/obesity is a growing global public health concern. The variations in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, defined by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHpR) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), were studied and a prediction equation for % body fat (%BF) developed.
A total of 1584 subjects (56.4% males) were recruited for the study. Data on age, gender, height, weight, hip circumference and WC were collected from the subjects using standard protocols. BMI, WHtR and WHpR were derived using standard equations. %BF was measured using a BIA device (Omron BF-400). Appropriate statistical tools were used for the data analysis.
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population was 28.4% (36.3% for males; 22.6% for females) (BIA); 20.7% (17.5% for males; 24.8% for females) (BMI); 7.5% (1.3% for males; 16.1% for females) (WC); 2.9% (4.3% for males; 1.2% for females) (WHpR); and 15.4% (14.8% for males; 16.2% females) (WHtR). Taking BIA as the reference point, WC misclassified overweight/obesity the most for males (35%), while for the females, WHpR misclassified both disorders the most (21.4%). Correlation studies showed that only BMI correlated significantly, albeit weakly, with %BF among the males, whereas all the anthropometric measures, but WHpR correlated significantly with % body fat in females. Two prediction equations for %BF were generated, and %BF predicted with the two equations correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with that measured by BIA.
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population vary widely depending on the definition used. The developed prediction equations could be useful in resource-poor settings, but require validation.
Anthropometry; Bioelectrical impedance analysis; Overweight/obesity; Young adults
Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities.
The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m2 and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference.
There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference.
Body mass index; central obesity; fruit and vegetable; waist circumference
The aim of this work was to study the associations of physical activity (PA) and other factors predisposing to overweight, with overweight and central adiposity in children and adolescents.
A total of 557 Swedish children (9.5 ± 0.3 y) and 517 adolescents (15.6 ± 0.4 y) from the European Youth Heart Study participated in this study. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of PA, as measured by accelerometry, and other determinants (i.e. television viewing, birth weight, maternal educational level and parental overweight) with total and central adiposity. Body mass index and waist circumference cut-off values proposed by the IOTF and the Bogalusa Heart Study (i.e. waist measures for predicting risk factors clustering, hereinafter called high-risk waist circumference), respectively, were used. Fatness was estimated from skinfold thicknesses and dichotomized using the 85th sex- and age-specific percentile (high/low).
Children and adolescents who had a low level (first tertile) of vigorous PA, were more likely to be overweight (including obesity) and to have a high-risk waist circumference, than those with a high level (third tertile) of vigorous PA. Similarly, those subjects who had a low or middle level (second tertile) of total PA were more likely to be overweight than those who had a high level of total PA. Among the PA variables, only vigorous PA was associated with high total fatness. Birth weight and television viewing, were also associated with higher odds of having a high-risk waist circumference, but these associations were attenuated once either total or vigorous PA variable was included in the model. Those subjects who had two overweight parents were more likely to be overweight and to have a high-risk waist circumference independently of PA variables, compared to those whose parents were not overweight.
Low levels of total PA and especially vigorous PA may play an important role in the development of overweight and excess of central adiposity in children and adolescents, independently of a number of factors such as television viewing and birth weight. In addition, the data suggest that the association between television viewing and central fat deposition could be attenuated if enough vigorous PA is accumulated. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.
The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance. We assessed diet through 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey. We calculated prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7% to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet – specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles – was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention.
Although smokers tend to have a lower body-mass index than non-smokers, smoking may favour abdominal body fat accumulation. To our knowledge, no population-based studies have assessed the relationship between smoking and body fat composition. We assessed the association between cigarette smoking and waist circumference, body fat, and body-mass index.
Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured among 6,123 Caucasians (ages 35-75) from a cross-sectional population-based study in Switzerland. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women. Body fat (percent total body weight) was measured by electrical bioimpedance. Age- and sex-specific body fat cut-offs were used to define excess body fat. Cigarettes smoked per day were assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Age-adjusted means and odds ratios were calculated using linear and logistic regression.
Current smokers (29% of men and 24% of women) had lower mean waist circumference, body fat percentage, and body-mass index compared with non-smokers. Age-adjusted mean waist circumference and body fat increased with cigarettes smoked per day among smokers. The association between cigarettes smoked per day and body-mass index was non-significant. Compared with light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for abdominal obesity in men was 1.28 (0.78-2.10) for moderate smokers and 1.94 (1.15-3.27) for heavy smokers (P = 0.03 for trend), and 1.07 (0.72-1.58) and 2.15 (1.26-3.64) in female moderate and heavy smokers, respectively (P < 0.01 for trend). Compared with light smokers, the OR for excess body fat in men was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.58-1.92) for moderate smokers and 1.15 (0.60-2.20) for heavy smokers (P = 0.75 for trend) and 1.34 (0.89-2.00) and 2.11 (1.25-3.57), respectively in women (P = 0.07 for trend).
Among smokers, cigarettes smoked per day were positively associated with central fat accumulation, particularly in women.
The ability of different obesity indices to predict cardiovascular risk is still debated in youth and few data are available in sub Saharan Africa. We compared the associations between several indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in late adolescence in the Seychelles.
We measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHiR), waist/height ratio (WHtR) and percent fat mass (by bioimpedance) and 6 CVRFs (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and uric acid) in 423 youths aged 19–20 years from the general population.
The prevalence of overweight/obesity and several CVRFs was high, with substantial sex differences. Except for glucose in males and LDL-cholesterol in females, all obesity indices were associated with CVRFs. BMI consistently predicted CVRFs at least as well as the other indices. Linear regression on BMI had standardized regression coefficients of 0.25-0.36 for most CVRFs (p<0.01) and ROC analysis had an AUC between 60%-75% for most CVRFs. BMI also predicted well various combinations of CVRFs: 36% of male and 16% of female lean subjects (BMI P90).
There was an elevated prevalence of obesity and of several CVRFs in youths in Seychelles. BMI predicted single or combined CVRFs at least as well as other simple obesity indices.
Obesity; Body mass index (BMI); Cardiovascular risk factors; Screening; Youth; Adolescents; Young adults; Africa
Identification of subpopulations at high risk of overweight and obesity is crucial for prevention and management of obesity in different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. The objective of the study was to describe disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic status (SES) groups in 18–74 year-old French adults.
Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 18–74-years-old from the French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS), a cross-sectional national survey carried out in 2006/2007. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference (WC)), demographic and SES data (occupation, education and frequency of holiday trips as a marker of family income). SES factors associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and central obesity (WC above gender-specific references) were identified using multiple logistic regression.
Almost half (49.3%) of French adults were overweight or obese and 16.9% were obese. In men, the risk of overall overweight or obesity was associated with occupation (p < 0.05), whereas the risk of central obesity was independently associated with occupation (p < 0.05) and frequency of holiday trips (p < 0.01). In women, both overall and central overweight and obesity were independently associated with educational level (respectively p < 10-3 and p < 10-3) and frequency of holiday trips (respectively p < 0.05 and p < 10-3).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be similar to that of several neighbouring western European countries, and lower than the UK and eastern Europe. Risk of being overweight or obese varied across SES groups both in men and women, but associations were different between men and women, indicating differing determinants.
Due to the negative health consequences of childhood obesity monitoring trends in body mass and adiposity is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 9-year-old children, and to study changes in adiposity and fat distribution by investigating changes in waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thicknesses.
A total of 859 9-year-olds were included in two cross-sectional studies conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. Measurements of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), WC and skinfold thicknesses were taken by trained investigators. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define overweight and obese subjects.
The overall prevalence of overweight (including obesity) did not change over the five year period. However, a shift may have occurred as the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) increased by 6.4% in girls and 5.5% in boys over the five year period. In both study periods, logistic regression analyses revealed that children of non-Western origin had 2 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than those of Western origin. However, neither the children of Western origin nor the children of non-Western origin showed a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight over the five-year period. No changes were observed for mean BMI, while a significant increase in WC was reported for both girls and boys, and an increase in all skinfold measurements was observed in girls only. Shifts in percentile distribution were observed for BMI, WC and sum of 4 skinfold thickness, however, the shift appeared to be faster in the upper end of the population distribution (p < 0.001 for interactions).
From 1999-2000 to 2005, there have been increases in 9-year-olds measures of adiposity even though the BMI did not change. The results indicate the need of a large-scale monitoring of adiposity, in addition to BMI, in children.
To compare the performance of Stunkard’s current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard’s figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index.
Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups.
CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available.