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1.  Caring Relationships in Home-Based Nursing Care - Registered Nurses’ Experiences 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:89-95.
The caring relationship between the nurse and the person in need of nursing care has been described as a key concept in nursing and could facilitate health and healing by involving the person’s genuine needs. The aim of this study was to explore registered nurses’ experiences of their relationships with persons in need of home-based nursing care. Individual interviews with nurses (n=13 registered nurses and 11 district nurses) working in home-based nursing care were performed. A thematic content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews and resulted in the main theme Good nursing care is built on trusting relationship and five sub-themes, Establishing the relationship in home-based nursing care, Conscious efforts maintains the relationship, Reciprocity is a requirement in the relationship, Working in different levels of relationships and Limitations and boundaries in the relationship. A trusting relationship between the nurse and the person in need of healthcare is a prerequisite for good home-based nursing care whether it is based on face-to-face encounters or remote encounters through distance-spanning technology. A trusting relationship could reduce the asymmetry of the caring relationship which could strengthen the person’s position. The relationship requires conscious efforts from the nurse and a choice of level of the relationship. The trusting relationship was reciprocal and meant that the nurse had to communicate something about themself as the person needs to know who is entering the home and who is communicating through distance-spanning technology.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130516003
PMCID: PMC3722540  PMID: 23894261
Relationship; home-based nursing care; registered nurses; experiences; distance-spanning technology; interviews; thematic content analysis.
2.  Nursing home staff’s views on residents’ dignity: a qualitative interview study 
Background
Maintaining dignity is an important element of end-of-life care and also of the care given in nursing homes. Factors influencing personal dignity have been studied from both nursing home residents’ and staff’s perspective. Little is however known about the way nursing home staff perceive and promote the personal dignity of individual residents in daily practice, or about staff’s experiences with preserving dignity within the nursing home. The aim of this study is to gain more insight in this.
Methods
A qualitative descriptive interview study was designed, in which in-depth interviews were performed with 13 physicians and 15 nurses. They expressed their views on the personal dignity of 30 recently admitted nursing home residents on the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis.
Results
According to both physicians and nurses, physical impairment and being dependent on others threatened the residents’ dignity. Whether or not this led to a violation of an individual resident’s dignity, depended - in staff’s opinion - on the resident’s ability to show resilience and to keep his/her individuality. Staff mentioned treating residents with respect and taking care of their privacy as most important elements of dignity-conserving care and strived to treat the residents as they would like to be treated themselves. They could often mention aspects that were important for a particular resident’s dignity. But, when asked what they could contribute to a particular resident’s dignity, they often mentioned general aspects of dignity-conserving care, which could apply to most nursing home residents. By attempting to give dignity-conserving care, physicians and nurses often experienced conflicting values in daily care and barriers caused by the lack of resources.
Conclusions
Tailoring dignity-conserving care to an individual nursing home resident appears hard to bring about in daily practice. Both attention to solve contextual barriers within the nursing home as well as more awareness of staff members for their own values, which they take as a reference point in treating residents, is needed to promote personal dignity in the nursing home setting.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-353
PMCID: PMC3850947  PMID: 24041222
Dignity; Elderly care physicians; End-of-life issues; Interviews; Nurses; Nursing home; Older people
3.  Encounters in Home-Based Nursing Care - Registered Nurses’ Experiences 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:73-81.
The encounter between registered nurses and persons in need of healthcare has been described as fundamental in nursing care. This encounter can take place face-to-face in physical meetings and through meetings via distance-spanning technology. A strong view expressed in the literature is that the face-to-face encounter is important and cannot entirely be replaced by remote encounters. The encounter has been studied in various healthcare contexts but there is a lack of studies with specific focus on the encounter in home-based nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the encounter in home-based nursing care based on registered nurses’ experiences. Individual interviews were performed with 24 nurses working in home-based nursing care. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and six themes were identified: Follows special rules, Needs some doing, Provides unique information and understanding, Facilitates by being known, Brings energy and relieves anxiety, and Can reach a spirit of community. The encounter includes dimensions of being private, being personal and being professional. A good encounter contains dimensions of being personal and being professional and that there is a good balance between these. This is an encounter between two human beings, where the nurse faces the person with herself and the profession steadily and securely in the back. Being personal and professional at the same time could encourage nurses to focus on doing and being during the encounter in home-based nursing care.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130419001
PMCID: PMC3706799  PMID: 23847697
Encounters face-to-face; remote encounters; home-based nursing care; nurses; thematic content analysis.
4.  Vocation, Friendship and Resilience: A Study Exploring Nursing Student and Staff Views on Retention and Attrition 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:149-156.
Introduction:
There is international concern about retention of student nurses on undergraduate programmes. United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions are monitored on their attrition statistics and can be penalised financially, so they have an incentive to help students remain on their programmes beyond their moral duty to ensure students receive the best possible educational experience.
Aims:
to understand students’ and staff concerns about programmes and placements as part of developing our retention strategies.
Design:
This study reports qualitative data on retention and attrition collected as part of an action research study.
Setting:
One University School of Nursing and Midwifery in the South West of England.
Participants:
Staff, current third year and ex-student nurses from the adult field.
Methods:
Data were collected in focus groups, both face-to face and virtual, and individual telephone interviews. These were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis.
Results:
Four themes emerged: Academic support, Placements and mentors, Stresses and the reality of nursing life, and Dreams for a better programme.
Conclusions:
The themes Academic support, Placements and mentors and Stresses and the reality of nursing life, resonate with international literature. Dreams for a better programme included smaller group learning. Vocation, friendship and resilience seem instrumental in retaining students, and Higher Education Institutions should work to facilitate these. ‘Vocation’ has been overlooked in the retention discussions, and working more actively to foster vocation and belongingness could be important.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010149
PMCID: PMC3807580  PMID: 24167537
Student nurse; retention; qualitative research; action research.
5.  Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers. 
Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers.
PMCID: PMC1035090  PMID: 2310704
6.  Strengths and weaknesses of working with the Global Trigger Tool method for retrospective record review: focus group interviews with team members 
BMJ Open  2013;3(9):e003131.
Objectives
The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm.
Design
A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis.
Setting
5 Swedish hospitals in 2011.
Participants
5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses.
Intervention
5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim.
Results
8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members’ knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics.
Conclusions
The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003131
PMCID: PMC3787413  PMID: 24068761
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
7.  Experiences of the Postoperative Recovery Process: An Interview Study 
Few researchers have described postoperative recovery from a broad, overall perspective. In this article the authors describe a study focusing on patient and staff experiences of postoperative recovery using a qualitative descriptive design to obtain a description of the phenomenon. They performed 10 individual interviews with patients who had undergone abdominal or gynecological surgery and 7 group interviews with registered nurses working on surgical and gynecological wards and in primary care centers, surgeons from surgical and gynecological departments, and in-patients from a gynecological ward. The authors analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Postoperative recovery is described as a Dynamic Process in an Endeavour to Continue With Everyday Life. This theme was further highlighted by the categories Experiences of the core of recovery and Experiences of factors influencing recovery. Knowledge from this study will help caregivers support patients during their recovery from surgery.
doi:10.2174/1874434600802010001
PMCID: PMC2582826  PMID: 19319214
Postoperative; recovery; experience; interview; content analysis.
8.  Associations Between Night Work and Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, Sleepiness and Fatigue in a Sample of Norwegian Nurses 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70228.
Background
Night work has been reported to be associated with various mental disorders and complaints. We investigated relationships between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue among Norwegian nurses.
Methods
The study design was cross-sectional, based on validated self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 5400 nurses were invited to participate in a health survey through the Norwegian Nurses' Organization, whereof 2059 agreed to participate (response rate 38.1%). Nurses completed a questionnaire containing items on demographic variables (gender, age, years of experience as a nurse, marital status and children living at home), work schedule, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire). They were also asked to report number of night shifts in the last 12 months (NNL). First, the parameters were compared between nurses i) never working nights, ii) currently working nights, and iii) previously working nights, using binary logistic regression analyses. Subsequently, a cumulative approach was used investigating associations between NNL with the continuous scores on the same dependent variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Results
Nurses with current night work were more often categorized with insomnia (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10–1.99) and chronic fatigue (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.11) than nurses with no night work experience. Previous night work experience was also associated with insomnia (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04–2.02). NNL was not associated with any parameters in the regression analyses.
Conclusion
Nurses with current or previous night work reported more insomnia than nurses without any night work experience, and current night work was also associated with chronic fatigue. Anxiety, depression and sleepiness were not associated with night work, and no cumulative effect of night shifts during the last 12 months was found on any parameters.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070228
PMCID: PMC3737208  PMID: 23950914
9.  The meaning of long-term caregiving for patients with frontal lobe dementia 
Nursing staff that work with patients with frontal lobe dementia (FLD) experience challenges that may lead to physical and psychiatric distress. The aim of this study was to capture the feelings, experiences, and reflections of the health staff regarding interactions with and caring for patients with FLD and to highlight what it means for health staff to care for patients with FLD through their daily work. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Ten health staff members who work with patients with FLD were interviewed using semistructered interviews. The focus during the interview was the experiences of the staff through their everyday work. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed verbatim. The material was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The result of the study identifies three themes that highlight the meaning of caregiving for patients with FLD, that is, being aware of the relationship with the patients, being insecure, and being safe. The patients’ unpredictable behaviour puts the relationship between the staff and the patients on trial. It is essential in caregiving to see the human behind the disease and the behaviour. The interest of finding new solutions in the caregiving is awakened through the relation with the patients, through reflections with colleagues, external guidance and by support from the staff leader.
doi:10.3402/qhw.v8i0.19860
PMCID: PMC3578947  PMID: 23428309
Frontal lobe dementia (FLD); hermeneutics; insecurity; narrative interviews; nursing care; phenomenological; relation; safety
10.  The encounter with the unknown: Nurses lived experiences of their responsibility for the care of the patient in the Swedish ambulance service 
Registered nurses (RNs) have, according to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, the overall responsibility for the medical care in the ambulance care setting. Bringing RNs into the ambulance service are judged, according to earlier studies, to lead to a degree of professionalism with a higher quality of medical care. Implicitly in earlier studies, the work in the ambulance service involves interpersonal skills. The aim of this study was to describe RNs' experiences of being responsible for the care of the patient in the Swedish ambulance service. A reflective lifeworld approach within the perspective of caring science was used. Five RNs with at least five years experience from care in the ambulance care setting were interviewed. The findings show that the essence of the phenomenon is to prepare and create conditions for care and to accomplish care close to the patient. Three meaning constituents emerged in the descriptions: prepare and create conditions for the nursing care, to be there for the patient and significant others and create comfort for the patient and significant others. The responsibility is a complex phenomenon, with a caring perspective, emerging from the encounter with the unique human being.
doi:10.3402/qhw.v5i2.5098
PMCID: PMC2875973  PMID: 20640018
Ambulance care; prehospital care; caring science; responsibility; encounter; phenomenology
11.  Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study 
Background
It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call.
Methods
Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons.
Results
Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep.
Conclusions
Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-239
PMCID: PMC2928216  PMID: 20712854
12.  The nursing staff's opinion of falls among older persons with dementia. a cross-sectional study 
BMC Nursing  2011;10:13.
The aim of this study was to describe the nursing staff's opinion of caring for older persons with dementia with the focus on causes of falls, fall-preventing interventions, routines of documentation and report and the nursing staff's experiences and reactions when fall incidents occur. A further aim was to compare these areas between registered nurses (RNs) and enrolled nurses (ENs) and staff with ≤5 and >5 years of employment in the care units in question.
Background
Falls are common among older people and persons with dementia constitute an additional risk group.
Methods
The study had a cross-sectional design and included nursing staff (n = 63, response rate 66%) working in four special care units for older persons with dementia. Data collection was conducted with a questionnaire consisting of 64 questions.
Results
The respondents reported that the individuals' mental and physical impairment constitute the most frequent causes of falls. The findings also revealed a lack of, or uncertainty about, routines of documentation and reporting fall-risk and fall-preventing interventions. Respondents who had been employed in the care units more than five years reported to a higher degree that colours and material on floors caused falls. RNs considered the residents' autonomy and freedom of movement as a cause of falls to a significantly higher degree than ENs. RNs also reported a significantly longer time than ENs before fall incidents were discovered, and they used conversation and closeness as fall-preventing interventions to a significantly higher degree than ENs.
Conclusions
Individual factors were the most common causes to falls according to the nursing staff. RNs used closeness and dialog as interventions to a significantly higher degree to prevent falls than ENs. Caring of for older people with dementia consisted of a comprehensive on-going assessment by the nursing staff to balance the residents' autonomy-versus-control to minimise fall-risk. This ethical dilemma should initiate development of feasible routines of systematic risk-assessment, report and documentation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-10-13
PMCID: PMC3142214  PMID: 21689441
Dementia; falls; nursing home; nursing care; older persons
13.  NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND FRACTURE RISK: THE NURSES’ HEALTH STUDY 
Summary
Night shift work suppresses melatonin production and has been associated with an increased risk of major diseases including hormonally related tumors. Experimental evidence suggests that light at night acts through endocrine disruption, likely mediated by melatonin. To date, no observational study has addressed the effect of night work on osteoporotic fractures, another condition highly sensitive to sex steroid exposure. Our study, to our knowledge the first to address this question, supports the hypothesis that night shift work may negatively affect bone health, adding to the growing list of ailments that have been associated with shift work.
Introduction
We evaluated the association between night shift work and fractures at the hip and wrist in postmenopausal nurses.
Methods
The study population was drawn from Nurses’ Health Study participants who were working full or part time in nursing in 1988 and had reported their total number of years of rotating night shift work. Through 2000, 1,223 incident wrist and hip fractures involving low or moderate trauma were identified among 38,062 postmenopausal women. We calculated multivariate relative risks (RR) of fracture over varying lengths of follow-up in relation to years of night shift work.
Results
Compared with women who never worked night shifts, 20+ years of night shift work was associated with a significantly increased risk of wrist and hip fractures over eight years of follow-up (RR = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.80). This risk was strongest among women with a lower BMI (<24) who never used hormone replacement therapy (RR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.33–4.20). The elevated risk was no longer apparent with twelve years of follow-up after the baseline single assessment of night shift work.
Conclusions
Long durations of rotating night shift work may contribute to risk of hip and wrist fractures, although the potential for unexplained confounding cannot be ruled out.
doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0729-5
PMCID: PMC2651998  PMID: 18766292
writs fractures; hip fractures; light exposure; melatonin; night work
14.  Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers. 
Twelve medical house officers were tested on a battery of memory, concentration, and work related tasks after three conditions: a night spent off duty; a night spent on call; and a night spent admitting emergency cases. Short term recall, but not digit span, concentration, or work related abilities, was impaired after a night of emergency admissions. A night spent on call had no effect on cognitive performance. Self reported mood scores showed that house officers were more deactivated (indicating a lack of vigour and drive) after nights of emergency admissions but not after nights on call. Significant between subject differences were found for five of the eight cognitive tests. Though loss of sleep and long hours of work have an effect on memory and mood, the individual differences among doctors are the main source of the variance in performance of tasks.
PMCID: PMC1248664  PMID: 3122881
15.  Recognition of cognitive impairment by day and night nursing staff among acute geriatric patients. 
The recognition of cognitive impairment by day and night nursing staff was studied in an acute geriatric unit. Seventy-six patients were randomly selected from a prospective sample of admissions. DSM-III-R diagnoses were established on all patients. Day and night staff were interviewed about each patient's clinical condition and asked to state whether or not they thought they were cognitively impaired or confused. Day staff were reasonably good at differentiating cognitively unimpaired from those with dementia and or delirium [kappa = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46-0.78]. All patients thought by day staff to be cognitively impaired were found to be so, although day staff did fail to identify some patients with cognitive impairment. Night staff performed less well (kappa = 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.57) and identified cognitively normal patients as being cognitively impaired, as well as failing to identify patients who were cognitively impaired. Night nursing interviews were not thought to have contributed to the management of any patient. The usefulness of night-time nursing interviews for research and general inpatient management purposes is questioned and the importance of daytime nursing interviews emphasized.
PMCID: PMC1295162  PMID: 7745564
16.  Sleep deprivation and cognitive testing in internal medicine house staff. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1990;152(1):82-86.
There is increased concern about the effects of sleep deprivation on physician performance. We administered four standard tests of cognitive function to 23 university hospital house staff. Each physician served as his or her own control, and the tests were administered at rest, after a night on call, and after a night of sleep for recovery. The study was designed so that normal learning would minimize any deterioration in the post-on-call test performance. Statistically significant deterioration occurred in 3 of the 4 tests after a night on call. Even physicians acclimated to sleep deprivation on a regular, every-third-or-fourth-night basis showed functional impairment. The results have implications for patient care under conditions where house staff are stressed by sleep deprivation and prolonged fatigue.
PMCID: PMC1002278  PMID: 2309486
17.  Nurse Empowerment from a Middle-Management Perspective: Nurse Managers' and Assistant Nurse Managers' Workplace Empowerment Views 
The Permanente Journal  2011;15(1):e101-e107.
Background: Researchers have explored empowerment as an important condition for nursing staff but little current research focuses on empowerment from a middle-management perspective.
Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the empowerment of a middle-management group made up of only nurse managers (NMs) and assistant nurse managers (ANMs) in an acute-care hospital setting.
Methods: A questionnaire was distributed online to a convenience sample of NMs (n = 11) and ANMs (n = 31) working in an ethnically diverse acute-care hospital.
Results: Overall, this middle-management group did not feel empowered.
Conclusions: Empowerment as perceived by middle management is crucial for carrying out leadership duties and, in turn, empowering frontline staff. Even though the work is challenging, resources and support, among other constructs of empowerment, must be improved to increase the empowerment of middle management. Nursing administration must understand the importance of an empowered middle management so that middle management can lead effectively and facilitate the delivery of safe, high-quality patient care.
PMCID: PMC3138177  PMID: 21892343
18.  A Case-Control Study of Occupational Injuries for Consecutive and Cumulative Shifts Among Hospital Registered Nurses and Patient Care Associates 
Workplace health & safety  2012;60(10):437-444.
Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies.
doi:10.3928/21650799-20120917-39
PMCID: PMC3711150  PMID: 22998692
19.  Nurses using physical restraints: Are the accused also the victims? – A study using focus group interviews 
BMC Nursing  2007;6:5.
Background
To date, the literature has provided an abundance of evidence on the adverse outcomes of restraint use on patients. Reportedly, nurses are often the personnel who initiate restraint use and attribute its use to ensuring the safety of the restrained and the others. A clinical trial using staff education and administrative input as the key components of a restraint reduction program was conducted in a rehabilitation setting to examine whether there were any significant differences in the prevalence of restraint use pre- and post-intervention. Subsequent to the implementation of the intervention program, focus group interviews were conducted to determine the perspective of the nursing staff on the use of restraints and their opinions of appropriate means to reduce their use.
Method
Registered nurses working in units involved in the study were invited to participate in focus group interviews on a voluntary basis. Twenty-two registered nurses (three males [13.6%] and nineteen females [86.4%]) attended the four sessions. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Other than the author, another member of the project team validated the findings from the data analysis.
Results
Four themes were identified. Participants experienced internal conflicts when applying physical restraints and were ambivalent about their use, but they would use restraints nonetheless, mainly to prevent falls and injuries to patients. They felt that nurse staffing was inadequate and that they were doing the best they could. They experienced pressure from the management level and would have liked better support. Communication among the various stakeholders was a problem. Each party may have a different notion about what constitutes a restraint and how it can be safely used, adding further weight to the burden shouldered by staff.
Conclusion
Studies about restraints and restraint use have mostly focused on nurses' inadequate and often inaccurate knowledge about the use of restraints and its associated adverse effects. These studies, however, fail to note that nurses can also be victims of the system. Restraint use is a complex issue that needs to be understood in relation to the dynamics within an environment.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-6-5
PMCID: PMC1939996  PMID: 17640345
20.  Lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in Iran 
Background:
Caring is a valuable task. The staff in any profession that involves patients’ fear, anxiety, pain, and suffering may experience similar feelings. As a professional group, oncology nurses deal with patients and their relatives and caregivers under very stressful conditions. They encounter pain, suffering, and death as a part of their daily life. A number of studies have evaluated the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in other countries. Therefore, conducting a survey about the experiences of Iranian nurses of caring for children with cancer can reveal their demands, stress, and limitations.
Materials and Methods:
In a qualitative research, in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with open-ended questions were conducted to evaluate the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in a hospital in a metropolitan city of Iran. The subjects all consented to participate and had at least one year of working experience in the ward. Content analysis was performed to analyze the data.
Results:
The lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses were categorized in five main themes. These themes included attachment, supportive care, trying to repress feelings, feeling of helplessness, and the need to be supported.
Conclusions:
According to these results, nurses who provide care for children with cancer require support. This research also highlighted the roles, limitations, and needs of nurses in pediatric oncology wards.
PMCID: PMC3877455  PMID: 24403935
Iran; lived experiences; pediatric oncology nursing qualitative research
21.  Rotating Night Shift Work and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2009;169(11):1370-1377.
Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and is associated with coronary heart disease. The relation between rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke is unclear. The Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing cohort study of registered female nurses, assessed in 1988 the total number of years the nurses had worked rotating night shifts. The majority (69%) of stroke outcomes from 1988 to 2004 were confirmed by physician chart review. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation between years of rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke, adjusting for multiple vascular risk factors. Of 80,108 subjects available for analysis, 60% reported at least 1 year of rotating night shift work. There were 1,660 ischemic strokes. Rotating night shift work was associated with a 4% increased risk of ischemic stroke for every 5 years (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07; Ptrend = 0.01). This increase in risk was similar when limited to the 1,152 confirmed ischemic strokes (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.07; Ptrend = 0.10) and may be confined to women with a history of 15 or more years of rotating shift work. Women appear to have a modestly increased risk of stroke after extended periods of rotating night shift work.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwp056
PMCID: PMC2727250  PMID: 19357324
risk factors; sleep disorders, circadian rhythm; stroke
22.  Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania 
Background
The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions.
Methods
The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania.
Results
The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions.
Conclusions
The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms, decentralisation and emerging democratic sentiments. Such a historic contextualisation enhances our understanding of the strong sentiments of unfairness revealed in this study and assists us in considering potential ways forward.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-34
PMCID: PMC3045290  PMID: 21314985
23.  Nurses’ perception of occupational stress and its influencing factors: A qualitative study 
Background:
Studies have shown that nurses are under considerable job stress, which can lead to health disorders and failure in duties. Stressors of nursing have been studied in some of quantitative studies; however, a few investigators have studied the nurses’ life experiences in this regard. The current qualitative research aimed to understand the nurses’ experiences and perceptions of job-related stress.
Materials and Methods:
This qualitative study was conducted in 2010-2011 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through individual deep interviews with 19 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The content of data was analyzed by the Krippendorff method.
Results:
Three categories were emerged including ‘nurses’ perception from the job stress, “professional interest”, and “prioritizing career over family life”. The first category included the following subcategories of “being in constantly alarm situation,” “lack of experience”, “dignity and social status”, “lack of proper logistics”, “shortage of nurses”, “Irregularities in the organization,” “directors of nursing performance,” “undesirable relations among colleagues,” and “the patients conditions all have effects on the nurses’ level of professional stress.
Conclusion:
The study participants defined job stress as a condition in which a nurse is under pressure so that the quality of care and the nurses’ personal and family life is interrupted. Being under continuous pressure, low social dignity, and the manner of nurse managers were among the important sources of job stress. Providing appropriate logistics, improving the coordination within hospital subsystems, and improving the managers and nurses relationships may decrease the stressors in nursing profession.
PMCID: PMC3703075  PMID: 23853647
Life experiences; nurse; occupations; perception; psychological stress
24.  Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran 
Background
There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift.
Methods
The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts) in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating). Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests.
Results
Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in rotating-shift nurses (81.9%) than in day-shift nurses (59.2%). Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01) and GI medications (p = 0.002) were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom.
Conclusion
Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.
doi:10.1186/1740-3391-8-9
PMCID: PMC2958856  PMID: 20929565
25.  The process of community health nursing clinical clerkship: A grounded theory 
Background:
The performance of the community health nurse depends on a combination of scientific and practical competencies acquired by educational experiences during the nursing course. Curriculum planners of nursing education need to understand nursing education to train professional and community-oriented nurses. The aim of this article is to explore the experiences of nursing students during their community health nursing clinical clerkship courses.
Materials and Methods:
A grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. Twelve nursing students, 13 health-care staff members, and 10 nursing instructors were interviewed individually in 2011-2012. The interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the method of Strauss and Corbin.
Results:
Ambivalence of motivation was the main category and included five subcategories: Professional identity, educational atmosphere, educational management, motivation-based approaches, and inadequate productivity. This paper presents the aspects of the community health nursing clerkship course from the viewpoint of students in areas such as the role of the community health nurse, attitude toward the course, medical orientation, prerequisite skills/knowledge, poor administrative planning, rotation of students, insufficient activity for students, passiveness, providing service to clients, responsibility, and inproductivity. These categories could explain the nature of the community health nursing clerkship of the Mashhad Faculty of Nursing and probably others in Iran.
Conclusions:
The findings revealed inadequate productivity of the community health nursing education; so, it is suggested to define a position for nurses in this setting and remove barriers and provide conditions for them to play more important roles in the promotion of community health.
PMCID: PMC3917128  PMID: 24554943
Clinical clerkship; community health; grounded theory; Iran; nursing students

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