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1.  In Vitro Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein Is Associated with Alterations in Cytoplasmic Membrane Fluidity 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(6):3548-3553.
Platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs) are small, cationic peptides which possess potent microbicidal activities against common bloodstream pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. We previously showed that S. aureus strains exhibiting resistance to thrombin-induced PMP (tPMP-1) in vitro have an enhanced capacity to cause human and experimental endocarditis (T. Wu, M. R. Yeaman, and A. S. Bayer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:729–732, 1994; A. S. Bayer et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:3169–3172, 1998; V. K. Dhawan et al., Infect. Immun. 65:3293–3299, 1997). However, the mechanisms mediating tPMP-1 resistance in S. aureus are not fully delineated. The S. aureus cell membrane appears to be a principal target for the action of tPMP-1. To gain insight into the basis of tPMP-1 resistance, we compared several parameters of membrane structure and function in three tPMP-1-resistant (tPMP-1r) strains and their genetically related, tPMP-1-susceptible (tPMP-1s) counterpart strains. The tPMP-1r strains were derived by three distinct methods: transposon mutagenesis, serial passage in the presence of tPMP-1 in vitro, or carriage of a naturally occurring multiresistance plasmid (pSK1). All tPMP-1r strains were found to possess elevated levels of longer-chain, unsaturated membrane lipids, in comparison to their tPMP-1s counterparts. This was reflected in corresponding differences in cell membrane fluidity in the strain pairs, with tPMP-1r strains exhibiting significantly higher degrees of fluidity as assessed by fluorescence polarization. These data provide further support for the concept that specific alterations in the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus strains are associated with tPMP-1 resistance in vitro.
PMCID: PMC97641  PMID: 10816510
2.  Resistance to platelet microbicidal protein results in increased severity of experimental Candida albicans endocarditis. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(4):1379-1384.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP) exerts potent in vitro microbicidal activity against pathogens commonly found in the bloodstream, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Localized platelet release of tPMP may be important in defense against infections involving the vascular endothelium caused by tPMP-susceptible organisms. In contrast, pathogens capable of surviving in the presence of tPMP could then exploit the platelet as an adhesive surface for attachment to damaged endothelium. To examine these hypotheses, we derived a tPMP-resistant (tPMP(r)) C. albicans strain from its tPMP-sensitive (tPMP(s)) parental strains were equivalent in vitro as assessed by genotyping (electrophoretic karyotype and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA), biotyping, germination, platelet aggregation, adherence to vascular endothelial cells, and growth characteristics. In addition, the tPMP(r) phenotype was stable following multiple in vitro and in vivo passages. We then investigated the in vivo relevance of tPMP susceptibility on endovascular infection using a rabbit model of endocarditis and hematogenous dissemination. Rabbits with transaortic catheters (n = 15 in each group) were challenged with either the tPMP(s) or tPMP(r) C. albicans strain. All rabbits developed C. albicans-induced endocarditis, as determined by the presence of infected vegetations. In rabbits challenged with tPMP(s) strain (P < 0.001). These results were seen in the absence of differences in either initial adherence of strains to cardiac valves or vegetation weights. Furthermore, although these C. albicans strains induced equivalent rates and extent of hematogenous renal infection, only the tPMP(r) strain disseminated hematogenously to the spleen (15 of 15 rabbits) versus 0 of 15 [tpmp(s) strain]; P < 0.0001). Thus, tPMP(r) C. albicans caused more-severe endocarditis and produced greater metastatic sequelae than the tPMP(s) counterpart.
PMCID: PMC173929  PMID: 8606104
3.  Staphylocidal action of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein is influenced by microenvironment and target cell growth phase. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(9):3758-3764.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP) is a small, cationic peptide released from rabbit platelets following exposure to thrombin in vitro. This peptide exerts potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of bloodstream pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. It is known that the microbicidal actions of other cationic antimicrobial peptides (e.g., neutrophil defensins) are influenced by environmental factors and target cell growth phase. However, whether these parameters affect tPMP microbicidal activity has not been studied. Thus, we assessed the in vitro bactericidal activity of tPMP against two tPMP-susceptible strains, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and S. aureus 502A, in various target cell growth phases or under various microenvironmental conditions. The conditions studied included differing bacterial growth phase (logarithmic versus stationary), temperature (range, 4 to 42 degrees C), pH (range, 4.5 to 8.5), cationicity (range, 0.1 mM to 2 M), anionicity (range, 0.08 to 5 microM), and neutral carbohydrates ranging in molecular weight (MW) from 180 to 37,700 (range, 50 to 500 mM) as well as rabbit platelet-free plasma and serum. tPMP staphylocidal activity was greater against logarithmic- than stationary-phase cells. tPMP bactericidal activity against both B. subtilis and S. aureus was directly correlated with temperature and pH, with microbicidal activity exhibited near the physiological range (37 to 42 degrees C and pH 7.2 to 8.5, respectively). The presence of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) decreased tPMP bactericidal activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with complete inhibition at monovalent or divalent cation concentrations of > or = 250 or > or = 10 mM, respectively. Staphylocidal activity of tPMP was also inhibited by the polyanions polyanetholsulfonic acid and polyaspartic acid, at 0.1 and 0.4 microM, respectively. Coincident exposure with low-MW carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, and melezitose) did not affect tPMP staphylocidal activity. However, higher-MW carbohydrates (raffinose and dextrans) decreased tPMP activity in a manner directly proportional to their concentration and MW. Solute-mediated inhibition of tPMP bactericidal activity was independent of solute osmolality but directly related to the duration of tPMP-solute coexposure. tPMP enhanced the staphylocidal activities of platelet-free plasma and heat-inactivated serum, while the activity of normal serum was not affected. These collective observations suggest that tPMP retains antimicrobial activities under physiological conditions which are likely to be relevant to host defense in vivo.
PMCID: PMC174290  PMID: 8751926
4.  The cytoplasmic membrane is a primary target for the staphylocidal action of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(11):4795-4800.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide released from rabbit platelets exposed to thrombin in vitro. tPMP-1 is microbicidal against a broad spectrum of bloodstream pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Preliminary evidence suggests that tPMP-1 targets and disrupts the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane. However, it is not clear if the cytoplasmic membrane is a direct or indirect target of tPMP-1. Therefore, we assessed the in vitro activity of tPMP-1 versus protoplasts prepared from logarithmic-phase (LOG) or stationary-phase (STAT) cells of the genetically related S. aureus strains 19S and 19R (tPMP-1 susceptible and resistant, respectively). Protoplasts exposed to tPMP-1 (2 microg/ml) for 2 h at 37 degrees C were monitored for lysis (decrease in optical density at 420 nm) and ultrastructural alterations (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]). Exposure to tPMP-1 resulted in substantial lysis of LOG but not STAT protoplasts of 19S, coinciding with protoplast membrane disruption observed by TEM. Thus, it appears that tPMP-1-induced membrane damage is influenced by the bacterial growth phase but is independent of the staphylococcal cell wall. In contrast to 19S, neither LOG nor STAT protoplasts of 19R were lysed by tPMP-1. tPMP-1-induced membrane damage was further characterized with anionic planar lipid bilayers subjected to various trans-negative voltages. tPMP-1 increased conductance across bilayers at -90 mV but not at -30 mV. Once initiated, a reduction in voltage from -90 to -30 mV diminished conductance magnitude but did not eliminate tPMP-1-mediated membrane permeabilization. Therefore, tPMP-1 appears to directly target the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane as a primary event in its mechanism of action. Specifically, tPMP-1 likely leads to staphylococcal death, at least in part by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane in a voltage-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC175688  PMID: 9353067
5.  Platelet microbicidal protein alone and in combination with antibiotics reduces Staphylococcus aureus adherence to platelets in vitro. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(8):3416-3423.
Bacterial adherence to platelets on the cardiac valve surface is believed to be critical in the induction of infective endocarditis. Recent studies have confirmed that thrombin-activated platelets secrete platelet microbicidal protein (PMP), which can both kill and exert nonlethal antiadherence effects against endovascular pathogens. In the present study, we quantified the influence of antibiotic and/or PMP exposures on in vitro platelet adherence of two Staphylococcus aureus strains, identical by DNA restriction and cell wall protein profiles, that differed in their susceptibility to PMP-induced killing (PMPs or PMPr, respectively). Adherence assays were performed by flow cytometry in the presence of sublethal PMP concentrations (1 to 2.5 micrograms/ml) alone or in combination with ampicillin (AMP) alone, sulbactam (SUL) alone, or AMP plus SUL (AMP-SUL), at levels achievable in serum. Exposure of the PMPs and PMPr S. aureus strains to antibiotics (for 2 h at 37 degrees C) prior to flow cytometry resulted in no substantive changes in the percent adherence to platelets compared with that for S. aureus cells not exposed to antibiotics, except for modestly increased adherence of both PMPs and PMPr cells exposed to AMP-SUL (18.5 and 15.8% increases, respectively). Addition of PMP to antibiotic-S. aureus mixtures (final 30 min) caused a significant decrease in S. aureus adherence to platelets, for both the PMPs and PMPr S. aureus strains, compared with antibiotic exposure alone (e.g., reduction in platelet adherence from 57.9 +/- 8.2% to 12.2 +/- 3.6% for PMPs cells exposed to AMP-SUL and PMP [P = 0.01]). Moreover, addition of PMP following exposure of the PMPs and PMPr strains to AMP-SUL reversed the enhanced bacterium-platelet adherence observed with such antibiotic exposures alone (P < or = 0.005). These data demonstrate that PMP exerts a potent antiplatelet adherence effect which is independent of its microbicidal capacity, rendering S. aureus cells less adherent to platelets in the presence or absence of antibiotics. Reduction of microbial adherence to platelets by PMP alone or with antibiotics provides further insight into the mechanism(s) that may be involved in host defense and antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis and other endovascular infections.
PMCID: PMC302973  PMID: 8039912
6.  Thrombin-induced rabbit platelet microbicidal protein is fungicidal in vitro. 
Platelet microbicidal protein (PMP) is released from platelets in response to thrombin stimulation. PMP is known to possess in vitro bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci. To determine whether PMP is active against other intravascular pathogens, we evaluated its potential fungicidal activity against strains of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Anionic resin adsorption and gel electrophoresis confirmed that the fungicidal activity of PMP resided in a small (approximately 8.5-kDa), cationic protein, identical to previous studies of PMP-induced bacterial killing (M.R. Yeaman, S.M. Puentes, D.C. Norman, and A.S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 60:1202-1209, 1992). When assayed over a 180-min period in vitro, the susceptibilities of these fungi to PMP varied considerably. Generally, Candida albicans strains (mean survival, 33.5% +/- 6.9% [n = 6]) as well as isolates of Candida glabrata (mean survival, 50.8% +/- 2.9% [n = 2]) were the most susceptible to killing by PMP, while Candida guillermondii and Candida parapsilosis were relatively resistant to PMP-induced killing. Compared with C. albicans, C. neoformans was relatively resistant to the fungicidal activity of PMP, with a mean survival among the isolates studied of 77.4% +/- 12.4% (n = 6). Against C. albicans, PMP-induced fungicidal activity was time dependent (range, 0 to 180 min), PMP concentration dependent (range, 10 to 150 U/ml), and inversely related to the fungal inoculum (range, 5 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml). Scanning electron microscopy of PMP-exposed C. albicans and C. neoformans cells revealed extensive surface damage and collapse, suggesting that the site of PMP fungicidal action may directly or indirectly involve the fungal cell envelope.
PMCID: PMC187705  PMID: 8460923
7.  Reduced Susceptibility to Host-Defense Cationic Peptides and Daptomycin Coemerge in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus From Daptomycin-Naive Bacteremic Patients 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;206(8):1160-1167.
Background. We hypothesized that, for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in vitro daptomycin susceptibility could be influenced by exposures to endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) prior to clinical exposure to daptomycin.
Methods. Two endovascular HDPs were used: thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP) and human neutrophil defensin-1 (hNP-1) from neutrophils. Forty-seven unique MRSA isolates obtained from bacteremic patients in multicenter prospective clinical trials were studied. Clinical characteristics, microbiologic parameters, prior vancomycin therapy, and susceptibilities to tPMP, hNP-1, and daptomycin were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results. All strains were daptomycin susceptible. Daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were inversely related to in vitro tPMP (but not hNP-1) killing. Strains with a daptomycin MIC of 1 mg/L exhibited significantly less killing by tPMP, compared with strains with an MIC of ≤ 0.5 mg/L. Prior vancomycin therapy did not influence this relationship. Regression tree modeling confirmed that reduced tPMP-induced killing in vitro was the strongest predictor of higher daptomycin MICs within the daptomycin-susceptible range.
Conclusions. Among daptomycin-susceptible MRSA isolates from patients who had never received daptomycin, higher daptomycin MICs tracked with increased resistance to killing by platelet-derived but not neutrophil-derived HDPs. These findings support the notion that endogenous exposure of MRSA to specific HDPs may play a role in selecting strains with an intrinsically higher daptomycin MIC phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3448966  PMID: 22904338
8.  Partial characterization and staphylocidal activity of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(3):1202-1209.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (PMP) is considered to play an important role in preventing an important role in preventing streptococcal endocarditis. However, the structural features and functions of PMPs have not been well characterized, and their antibacterial spectra against other common endocarditis pathogens, such as the staphylococci, are not known. Thrombin stimulation of washed rabbit platelets (10(8)/ml) yielded a PMP-rich preparation with a specific activity of approximately 25 U/mg of protein as determined by Bacillus subtilis bioassay. Twenty-eight clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates, exposed to a standardized PMP preparation (100 U/ml for 2 h at 37 degrees C), exhibited a Poisson-distributed heterogeneity to the bactericidal action of PMP, with approximately one-third designated as PMP resistant. Gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-50) identified the bioactive moiety within PMP preparations to be in the major protein elution peak; sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) presumptively identified PMP as a low-molecular-weight (MW) (8,500) protein present only in such bioactive protein peaks. Both the bioactivity of PMP preparations and the low-MW protein band were removable by specific anionic membranes (e.g., cellulose-acetate/nitrate), as well as by a variety of anionic resins, further corroborating the suspected cationic charge of PMP. In addition, both PMP bioactivity and the low-MW protein band were recoverable by 1.5 M NaCl elution of the anionic membrane filters post-PMP adsorptive removal. Adsorption of bioactive PMP preparations by highly PMP-susceptible B. subtilis (10(8) CFU/ml, 30 min) resulted in a near-complete loss of residual bioactivity; in contrast, adsorption of bioactive PMP preparations with less PMP-susceptible S. aureus strains failed to reduce bioactivity. Significant lysozyme contamination of PMP-rich preparations was ruled out by determination of differences between bioactive PMP preparations and exogenous lysozyme as regards (i) relative heat stabilities; (ii) differential bactericidal activity versus B. subtilis and Micrococcus luteus; and (iii) SDS-PAGE protein profiles. These data show that the bioactive PMP protein moiety is of low MW, is heat stable, is probably cationic (similar to leukocyte-derived defensins), and possesses potent bactericidal activity against a significant percentage of S. aureus isolates.
PMCID: PMC257613  PMID: 1541535
9.  Influence of Platelets and Platelet Microbicidal Protein Susceptibility on the Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Model of Infective Endocarditis 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(8):4699-4705.
Several lines of evidence indicate that platelets protect against endovascular infections such as infective endocarditis (IE). It is highly likely that a principal mechanism of this platelet host defense role is the release of platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs) in response to agonists generated at sites of endovascular infection. We studied the ability of platelets to limit the colonization and proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro model of IE. Three isogenic S. aureus strains, differing in their in vitro susceptibility to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP), were used: ISP479C (parental strain; highly susceptible to tPMP [tPMPs]); ISP479R (transposon mutant derived from ISP479; tPMP resistant [tPMPr]); or 757-5 (tPMPr transductant of the ISP479R genotype in the ISP479 parental background). Time-kill assays and in vitro IE models were used to examine the temporal relationship between thrombin-induced platelet activation and S. aureus killing. In time-kill studies, early platelet activation (30 min prior to bacterial exposure) correlated with a significant bactericidal effect against tPMPs ISP479C (r2 > 0.90, P < 0.02) but not against tPMPr strains, ISP479R or 757-5. In the IE model, thrombin activation significantly inhibited proliferation of ISP479C within simulated vegetations compared to strains ISP479R or 757-5 (P < 0.05). The latter differences were observed despite there being no detectable differences among the three S. aureus strains in initial colonization of simulated vegetations. Collectively, these data indicate that platelets limit intravegetation proliferation of tPMPs but not tPMPr S. aureus. These findings underscore the likelihood that platelets play an important antimicrobial host defense role in preventing and/or limiting endovascular infections due to tPMPs pathogens.
PMCID: PMC98414  PMID: 10899875
10.  Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein is independent of platelet adherence and aggregation in vitro. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(6):2368-2374.
Bacterium-platelet interactions at the cardiac valve surface represent an important initial step in the induction of infective endocarditis (IE). This cell-cell interaction may play either a protagonistic role in the induction of IE via bacterial adherence to and aggregation of platelets or an antagonistic role via secretion of platelet-derived microbicidal molecules. We examined the spectrum and interrelationship of three aspects of the interaction of 20 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates with rabbit platelets in vitro: (i) S. aureus adherence to platelets; (ii) S. aureus-induced platelet aggregation; and (iii) S. aureus resistance to the action of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (PMP; low-molecular-weight cationic peptides contained in alpha granules). Among the 20 S. aureus isolates (11 bacteremia, 9 endocarditis), there was a heterogeneous distribution profile for each of the bacterium-platelet interaction parameters studied. For S. aureus-platelet adherence and S. aureus-induced platelet aggregation, 3 of 20 and 7 of 20 isolates tested were considered highly active for each respective parameter; 5 of 20 staphylococcal strains were deemed resistant to the bactericidal action of PMP. In addition, more endocarditis isolates (45%) were PMP resistant than strains from patients without endocarditis (19%). When analyzed concomitantly, there was a significant, positive correlation between S. aureus-platelet adherence and S. aureus-induced platelet aggregation among isolates (P = 0.003; r = 0.78). In contrast, there were no statistically significant relationships between either platelet adherence or aggregation and PMP resistance among these 20 S. aureus isolates. These data suggest that platelet adherence and aggregation are related abilities of S. aureus, while resistance to thrombin-induced PMP is an independent phenotypic characteristic and potential virulence factor.
PMCID: PMC257167  PMID: 1587603
11.  Phenotypic resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein in vitro is correlated with enhanced virulence in experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(8):3293-3299.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP) is secreted by rabbit platelets following thrombin stimulation, and it kills common endovascular pathogens in vitro, including Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, pathogens which exhibit tPMP resistance in vitro possess a potential survival advantage in vivo at sites of endovascular damage. We generated an isogenic S. aureus strain pair, differing in tPMP susceptibility, by transposon (Tn551) mutagenesis of a tPMP-susceptible (tPMPs) parental strain (ISP479) to derive a stably tPMP-resistant (tPMPr) strain, ISP479R. ISP479 and ISP479R were equivalent in vitro in the following phenotypes: biotyping, antiobiograms, platelet adherence and aggregation, growth kinetics, cell wall-associated protein A expression, and fibrinogen binding. Genotypic comparisons of chromosomal DNA of strains ISP479 and ISP479R following restriction endonuclease digestion revealed indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoretic patterns. The genotype exhibited by strain ISP479R was linked to the tPMP-resistant phenotype, as it was transducible into the initially tPMP-susceptible parental strain, ISP479. Southern hybridization verified the presence of a single copy of Tn551 in the same chromosomal restriction site of both ISP479R and tPMPr transductants of ISP479. The correlation of in vitro tPMP susceptibility phenotypes with the ability to induce experimental endocarditis (a prototypical endovascular infection) was evaluated. Despite equivalent rates of endocarditis induction, animals infected with strain ISP479R achieved significantly higher vegetation bacterial densities over a 7-day post-challenge period than did animals infected with strain ISP479. These data suggest that tPMPr microbial strains have a selective advantage in experimental staphylococcal endocarditis. Furthermore, the major impact of tPMP resistance upon endocarditis pathogenesis appears to involve a postvalvular adherence event(s), most probably by facilitating bacterial proliferation within vegetations.
PMCID: PMC175466  PMID: 9234789
12.  In vitro resistance to platelet microbicidal protein correlates with endocarditis source among bacteremic staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates. 
Traditionally, platelets have been thought to contribute to the induction and propagation of infective endocarditis (IE). However, recent studies suggest that platelets may potentially mitigate IE via secretion of alpha-granule-derived platelet microbicidal protein (PMP). In this study, we compared the PMP susceptibility of bacteremic isolates from patients with and without IE. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 17), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; n = 28), viridans streptococci (VS; n = 54), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 20), each at a final inoculum of 2 x 10(3) CFU/ml, were exposed to PMP [100 U/ml, (5 micrograms/ml)] for 2 h, and the percent survival was determined. For S. aureus, CNS, and VS isolates, there was a significant correlation between an IE source and increased percent survival post-PMP exposure; the mean percent survivals of S. aureus, CNS, and VS were significantly greater for IE versus non-IE isolates (P < 0.005 for each organism). No significant correlation was observed between the source of bacteremic E. faecalis isolates and PMP susceptibility. These data suggest that staphylococcal and VS (but not enterococcal) resistance to PMP may facilitate either the induction or progression of IE.
PMCID: PMC284533  PMID: 8031037
13.  Low-Level Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1 In Vitro Associated with qacA Gene Carriage Is Independent of Multidrug Efflux Pump Activity 
Thrombin-induced platelet microbial protein 1 (tPMP-1), a cationic antimicrobial polypeptide released from thrombin-stimulated rabbit platelets, targets the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane to initiate its microbicidal effects. In vitro resistance to tPMP-1 correlates with survival advantages in vivo. In S. aureus, the plasmid-carried qacA gene encodes a multidrug transporter, conferring resistance to organic cations (e.g., ethidium [Et]) via proton motive force (PMF)-energized export. We previously showed that qacA also confers a tPMP-1-resistant (tPMP-1r) phenotype in vitro. The current study evaluated whether (i) transporters encoded by the qacB and qacC multidrug resistance genes also confer tPMP-1r and (ii) tPMP-1r mediated by qacA is dependent on efflux pump activity. In contrast to tPMP-1r qacA-bearing strains, the parental strain and its isogenic qacB- and qacC-containing strains were tPMP-1 susceptible (tPMP-1s). Efflux pump inhibition by cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abrogated Etr, but not tPMP-1r, in the qacA-bearing strain. In synergy assays, exposure of the qacA-bearing strain to tPMP-1 did not affect the susceptibility of Et (ruling out Et-tPMP-1 cotransport). The following cytoplasmic membrane parameters did not differ significantly between the qacA-bearing and parental strains: contents of the major phospholipids; asymmetric distributions of the positively charged species, lysyl-phosphotidylglycerol; fatty acid composition; and relative surface charge. Of note, the qacA-bearing strain exhibited greater membrane fluidity than that of the parental, qacB-, or qacC-bearing strain. In conclusion, among these families of efflux pumps, only the multidrug transporter encoded by qacA conferred a tPMP-1r phenotype. These data suggest that qacA-encoded tPMP-1r results from the impact of a specific transporter upon membrane structure or function unrelated to PMF-dependent peptide efflux.
PMCID: PMC1489806  PMID: 16801425
14.  Reduced Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to Vancomycin and Platelet Microbicidal Protein Correlates with Defective Autolysis and Loss of Accessory Gene Regulator (agr) Function 
Loss of agr function, vancomycin exposure, and abnormal autolysis have been linked with both development of the GISA phenotype and low-level resistance in vitro to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs). We examined the potential in vitro interrelationships among these parameters in well-characterized, isogenic laboratory-derived and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The laboratory-derived S. aureus strains included RN6607 (agrII-positive parent) and RN6607V (vancomycin-passaged variant; hetero-GISA), RN9120 (RN6607 agr::tetM; agr II knockout parent), RN9120V (vancomycin-passaged variant), and RN9120-GISA (vancomycin passaged, GISA). Two serial isolates from a vancomycin-treated patient with recalcitrant, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) endocarditis were also studied: A5937 (agrII-positive initial isolate) and A5940 (agrII-defective/hetero-GISA isolate obtained after prolonged vancomycin administration). In vitro tPMP susceptibility phenotypes were assessed after exposure of strains to either 1 or 2 μg/ml. Triton X-100- and vancomycin-induced lysis profiles were determined spectrophotometrically. For agrII-intact strain RN6607, vancomycin exposure in vitro was associated with modest increases in vancomycin MICs and reduced killing by tPMP, but no change in lysis profiles. In contrast, vancomycin exposure of agrII-negative RN9120 yielded a hetero-GISA phenotype and was associated with defects in lysis and reduced in vitro killing by tPMP. In the clinical isolates, loss of agrII function during prolonged vancomycin therapy was accompanied by emergence of the hetero-GISA phenotype and reduced tPMP killing, with no significant change in lysis profiles. An association was identified between loss of agrII function and the emergence of hetero-GISA phenotype during either in vitro or in vivo vancomycin exposure. In vitro, these events were associated with defective lysis and reduced susceptibility to tPMP. The precise mechanism(s) underlying these findings is the subject of current investigations.
PMCID: PMC1168700  PMID: 15980337
15.  Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein in Staphylococci: Role of the qacA Locus 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(10):2395-2399.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide released from rabbit platelets following thrombin stimulation. In vitro resistance to this peptide among strains of Staphylococcus aureus correlates with the survival advantage of such strains at sites of endothelial damage in humans as well as in experimental endovascular infections. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic resistance of S. aureus to tPMP-1 are not fully delineated. The plasmid-encoded staphylococcal gene qacA mediates multidrug resistance to multiple organic cations via a proton motive force-dependent efflux pump. We studied whether the qacA gene might also confer resistance to cationic tPMP-1. Staphylococcal plasmids encoding qacA were found to confer resistance to tPMP-1 in an otherwise susceptible parental strain. Deletions which removed the region containing the qacA gene in the S. aureus multiresistance plasmid pSK1 abolished tPMP-1 resistance. Resistance to tPMP-1 in the qacA-bearing strains was inoculum independent but peptide concentration dependent, with the level of resistance decreasing at higher peptide concentrations for a given inoculum. There was no apparent cross-resistance in qacA-bearing strains to other endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptides which are structurally distinct from tPMP-1, including human neutrophil defensin 1, protamine, or the staphylococcal lantibiotics pep5 and nisin. These data demonstrate that the staphylococcal multidrug resistance gene qacA also mediates in vitro resistance to cationic tPMP-1.
PMCID: PMC89489  PMID: 10508013
16.  In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Platelet Microbicidal Protein and Neutrophil Defensin against Staphylococcus aureus Are Influenced by Antibiotics Differing in Mechanism of Action 
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) and human neutrophil defensin-1 (HNP-1) are small, cationic antimicrobial peptides. These peptides exert potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Evidence suggests that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 target and disrupt the bacterial membrane. However, it is not yet clear whether membrane disruption itself is sufficient to kill the bacterium or whether subsequent, presumably intracellular, events are also involved in killing. We investigated the staphylocidal activities of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 in the presence or absence of pretreatment with antibiotics that differ in their mechanisms of action. The staphylocidal effects of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 on control cells (no antibiotic pretreatment) were rapid and concentration dependent. Pretreatment of S. aureus with either penicillin or vancomycin (bacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitors) significantly enhanced the anti-S. aureus effects of tPMP-1 compared with the effects against the respective control cells over the entire tPMP-1 concentration range tested (P < 0.05). Similarly, S. aureus cells pretreated with these antibiotics were more susceptible to HNP-1 than control cells, although the difference in the effects against cells that received penicillin pretreatment did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.05 for cells that received vancomycin pretreatment versus effects against control cells). Studies with isogenic pairs of strains with normal or deficient autolytic enzyme activities demonstrated that enhancement of S. aureus killing by cationic peptides and cell wall-active agents could not be ascribed to a predominant role of autolytic enzyme activation. Pretreatment of S. aureus cells with tetracycline, a 30S ribosomal subunit inhibitor, significantly decreased the staphylocidal effect of tPMP-1 over a wide peptide concentration range (0.16 to 1.25 μg/ml) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, pretreatment with novobiocin (an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase subunit B) and with azithromycin, quinupristin, or dalfopristin (50S ribosomal subunit protein synthesis inhibitors) essentially blocked the S. aureus killing resulting from exposure to tPMP-1 or HNP-1 at most concentrations compared with the effects against the respective control cells (P < 0.05 for a tPMP-1 concentration range of 0.31 to 1.25 μg/ml and for an HNP-1 concentration range of 6.25 to 50 μg/ml). These findings suggest that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 exert anti-S. aureus activities through mechanisms involving both the cell membrane and intracellular targets.
PMCID: PMC89119  PMID: 10223922
17.  Platelet Antistaphylococcal Responses Occur through P2X1 and P2Y12 Receptor-Induced Activation and Kinocidin Release▿  
Infection and Immunity  2008;76(12):5706-5713.
Platelets (PLTs) act in antimicrobial host defense by releasing PLT microbicidal proteins (PMPs) or PLT kinocidins (PKs). Receptors mediating staphylocidal efficacy and PMP or PK release versus isogenic PMP-susceptible (ISP479C) and -resistant (ISP479R) Staphylococcus aureus strains were examined in vitro. Isolated PLTs were incubated with ISP479C or ISP479R (PLT/S. aureus ratio range, 1:1 to 10,000:1) in the presence or absence of a panel of PLT inhibitors, including P2X and P2Y receptor antagonists of increasingly narrow specificity, and PLT adhesion receptors (CD41, CD42b, and CD62P). PLT-to-S. aureus exposure ratios of ≥10:1 yielded significant reductions in the viability of both strains. Results from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that staphylocidal PLT releasates contained PMPs and PKs. At ratios below 10:1, the PLT antistaphylococcal efficacy relative to the intrinsic S. aureus PMP-susceptible or -resistant phenotype diminished. Apyrase (an agent of ADP degradation), suramin (a general P2 receptor antagonist), pyridoxal 5′-phosphonucleotide derivative (a specific P2X1 antagonist), and cangrelor (a specific P2Y12 antagonist) mitigated the PLT staphylocidal response against both strains, correlating with reduced levels of PMP and PK release. Specific inhibition occurred in the presence and absence of homologous plasma. The antagonism of the thromboxane A2, cyclooxygenase-1/cyclooxygenase-2, or phospholipase C pathway or the hindrance of surface adhesion receptors failed to impede PLT anti-S. aureus responses. These results suggest a multifactorial PLT anti-S. aureus response mechanism involving (i) a PLT-to-S. aureus ratio sufficient for activation; (ii) the ensuing degranulation of PMPs, PKs, ADP, and/or ATP; (iii) the activation of P2X1/P2Y12 receptors on adjacent PLTs; and (iv) the recursive amplification of PMP and PK release from these PLTs.
PMCID: PMC2583569  PMID: 18824536
18.  Failures in Clinical Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infection with Daptomycin Are Associated with Alterations in Surface Charge, Membrane Phospholipid Asymmetry, and Drug Binding▿  
Increasingly frequent reports have described the in vivo loss of daptomycin susceptibility in association with clinical treatment failures. The mechanism(s) of daptomycin resistance is not well understood. We studied an isogenic set of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the bloodstream of a daptomycin-treated patient with recalcitrant endocarditis in which serial strains exhibited decreasing susceptibility to daptomycin. Since daptomycin is a membrane-targeting lipopeptide, we compared a number of membrane parameters in the initial blood isolate (parental) with those in subsequent daptomycin-resistant strains obtained during treatment. In comparison to the parental strain, resistant isolates demonstrated (i) enhanced membrane fluidity, (ii) increased translocation of the positively charged phospholipid lysyl-phosphotidylglycerol to the outer membrane leaflet, (iii) increased net positive surface charge (P < 0.05 versus the parental strain), (iv) reduced susceptibility to daptomycin-induced depolarization, permeabilization, and autolysis (P < 0.05 versus the parental strain), (v) significantly lower surface binding of daptomycin (P < 0.05 versus the parental strain), and (vi) increased cross-resistance to the cationic antimicrobial host defense peptides human neutrophil peptide 1 (hNP-1) and thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1). These data link distinct changes in membrane structure and function with in vivo development of daptomycin resistance in S. aureus. Moreover, the cross-resistance to hNP-1 and tPMP-1 may also impact the capacity of these daptomycin-resistant organisms to be cleared from sites of infection, particularly endovascular foci.
PMCID: PMC2223911  PMID: 17954690
19.  Platelet microbicidal protein enhances antibiotic-induced killing of and postantibiotic effect in Staphylococcus aureus. 
The interaction of bacteria with platelets at the cardiac valve surface represents a critical event in the induction of infective endocarditis. Platelets are thought to modulate induction or propagation of endocarditis via secretion of alpha-granule-derived platelet microbicidal protein (PMP) (a low-molecular-mass, cationic, heat-stable protein distinct from lysozyme). We studied representative PMP-susceptible and PMP-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates to determine their in vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal susceptibilities to combinations of PMP plus antistaphylococcal antibiotics. PMP plus oxacillin exerted a synergistic bactericidal effect, in contrast to either agent alone, regardless of the intrinsic PMP susceptibility of the isolate tested. Exposure of S. aureus to PMP alone resulted in residual postexposure growth-inhibitory effects lasting from 0.9 to 1.8 h. Sequential exposure of S. aureus isolates to PMP for 30 min followed by exposure to either oxacillin or vancomycin (each at 10x the MIC for 120 min) resulted in a significant extension of the postantibiotic-effect duration compared with antibiotic exposure alone (P less than or equal to 0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that PMP both enhances antibiotic-induced killing of S. aureus and increases the postantibiotic-effect duration in S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC192027  PMID: 1416849
20.  Combinatorial Phenotypic Signatures Distinguish Persistent from Resolving Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Isolates ▿  
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (PB) (positive blood cultures after ≥7 days of therapy) represents a clinically challenging subset of invasive MRSA infections. In this investigation, we examined the potential correlation of specific virulence signatures with PB versus resolving MRSA bacteremia (RB) (negative blood cultures within 2 to 4 days of therapy) strains. Thirty-six MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in a recent multinational clinical trial were studied for (i) susceptibility to host defense cationic peptides (HDPs) (i.e., thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins [tPMPs] and human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]); (ii) adherence to host endovascular ligands (fibronectin) and cells (endothelial cells); and (iii) biofilm formation. We found that PB isolates exhibited significantly reduced susceptibilities to tPMPs and hNP-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). There was no significant association between the PB outcome and fibronectin binding, endothelial cell binding, or biofilm formation (P = 0.25, 0.97, and 0.064 versus RB strains, respectively). However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the PB outcome was significantly associated with the combination of reduced susceptibilities to HDPs and extent of biofilm formation (P < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained in a second analysis using days of bacteremia as a continuous outcome, showing that reduced HDP susceptibilities and increased biofilm formation cocontributed to predict the duration of bacteremia. Our data indicate that PB isolates have specific pathogenic signatures independent of conventional antimicrobial susceptibility. These combinatorial mosaics can be defined and used to prospectively distinguish PB from RB strains in advance and potentially to predict ultimate clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3028773  PMID: 21098242
21.  Susceptibility to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein Is Associated with Increased Fluconazole Efficacy against Experimental Endocarditis Due to Candida albicans 
Platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs) are believed to be integral to host defense against endovascular infection. We previously demonstrated that susceptibility to thrombin-induced PMP 1 (tPMP-1) in vitro negatively influences Candida albicans virulence in the rabbit model of infective endocarditis (IE). This study evaluated the relationship between in vitro tPMP-1 susceptibility (tPMP-1s) or resistance (tPMP-1r) and efficacy of fluconazole (FLU) therapy of IE due to C. albicans. Candida IE was established in rabbits with either tPMP-1s or tPMP-1r strains. Treatment groups received FLU (100 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 7 or 14 days; control animals received no therapy. At these time points, cardiac vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were quantitatively cultured to assess fungal burden. At both 7 and 14 days and in all target tissues, the extent of candidal clearance by FLU was greater in animals infected with the tPMP-1s strain than in those infected with the tPMP-1r strain. These differences were statistically significant in the spleen and kidney. Corroborating these in vivo data, FLU (a candidastatic agent), in combination with tPMP-1, exerted an enhanced fungicidal effect in vitro against tPMP-1s and tPMP-1r C. albicans, with the extent of this effect greatest against the tPMP-1s strain. Collectively, these results support the concept that tPMP-1 susceptibility contributes to the net efficacy of FLU against C. albicans IE in vivo, particularly in tissues in which platelets and tPMP-1 likely play significant roles in host defense.
PMCID: PMC478484  PMID: 15273120
22.  Membrane Permeabilization by Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1 Is Modulated by Transmembrane Voltage Polarity and Magnitude 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(5):2475-2481.
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide generated from rabbit platelets when they are exposed to thrombin in vitro. It has potent microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Previous in vitro studies involving whole staphylococcal cells and planar lipid bilayers (as artificial bacterial membrane models) suggested that membrane permeabilization by tPMP-1 is voltage dependent (S.-P. Koo, M. R. Yeaman, and A. S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 64:3758–3764, 1996; M. R. Yeaman, A. S. Bayer, S. P. Koo, W. Foss, and P. M. Sullam, J. Clin. Investig. 101:178–187, 1998). Thus, the aims of the present study were to specifically characterize the electrophysiological events associated with membrane permeabilization by tPMP-1 by using artificial planar lipid bilayer membranes. We assessed the influence of transmembrane voltage polarity and magnitude on the initiation and modulation of tPMP-1 membrane permeabilization at various concentrations of tPMP-1 (range, 1 to 100 ng/ml) added to the cis side of the membranes. The incidence of membrane permeabilization induced by tPMP-1 at all of the concentrations tested was more frequent at −90 mV than at +90 mV. It is noteworthy that membrane permeabilization due to 1-ng/ml tPMP-1 was successfully initiated at −90 mV but not at +90 mV. Further, the mean onset times of induction of tPMP-1 activity were comparable under the various conditions. Modulation of ongoing membrane permeabilization was dependent on voltage and tPMP-1 concentration. Membrane permeabilization at a low tPMP-1 concentration (1 ng/ml) was directly correlated with trans-negative voltages, while a higher tPMP-1 concentration (100 ng/ml) induced conductance which was more dependent on trans-positive voltages. Collectively, these data indicate that the mechanism of tPMP-1 microbicidal activity at the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane may involve distinct induction and propagation stages of membrane permeabilization which, in turn, are modulated by transmembrane potential, as well as peptide concentration.
PMCID: PMC115993  PMID: 10225910
23.  A core microbiome associated with the peritoneal tumors of pseudomyxoma peritonei 
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a malignancy characterized by dissemination of mucus-secreting cells throughout the peritoneum. This disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and despite effective treatment options for early-stage disease, patients with PMP often relapse. Thus, there is a need for additional treatment options to reduce relapse rate and increase long-term survival. A previous study identified the presence of both typed and non-culturable bacteria associated with PMP tissue and determined that increased bacterial density was associated with more severe disease. These findings highlighted the possible role for bacteria in PMP disease.
To more clearly define the bacterial communities associated with PMP disease, we employed a sequenced-based analysis to profile the bacterial populations found in PMP tumor and mucin tissue in 11 patients. Sequencing data were confirmed by in situ hybridization at multiple taxonomic depths and by culturing. A pilot clinical study was initiated to determine whether the addition of antibiotic therapy affected PMP patient outcome.
Main results
We determined that the types of bacteria present are highly conserved in all PMP patients; the dominant phyla are the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A core set of taxon-specific sequences were found in all 11 patients; many of these sequences were classified into taxonomic groups that also contain known human pathogens. In situ hybridization directly confirmed the presence of bacteria in PMP at multiple taxonomic depths and supported our sequence-based analysis. Furthermore, culturing of PMP tissue samples allowed us to isolate 11 different bacterial strains from eight independent patients, and in vitro analysis of subset of these isolates suggests that at least some of these strains may interact with the PMP-associated mucin MUC2. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that targeting these bacteria with antibiotic treatment may increase the survival of PMP patients.
Using 16S amplicon-based sequencing, direct in situ hybridization analysis and culturing methods, we have identified numerous bacterial taxa that are consistently present in all PMP patients tested. Combined with data from a pilot clinical study, these data support the hypothesis that adding antimicrobials to the standard PMP treatment could improve PMP patient survival.
PMCID: PMC3729368  PMID: 23844722
PMP; Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Peritoneal cancer; Microbiome; Microbiota
24.  Beneficial Influence of Platelets on Antibiotic Efficacy in an In Vitro Model of Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Endocarditis 
Platelets contribute to antimicrobial host defense against infective endocarditis (IE) by releasing platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs). We investigated the influence of thrombin-stimulated human platelets on the evolution of simulated IE in the presence and absence of vancomycin or nafcillin. Staphylococcus aureus strains differing in intrinsic susceptibility to PMPs or antibiotics were studied: ISP479C (thrombin-induced PMP-1 [tPMP-1] susceptible; nafcillin and vancomycin susceptible), ISP479R (tPMP-1 resistant; nafcillin and vancomycin susceptible), and GISA-NJ (tPMP-1 intermediate-susceptible; vancomycin intermediate-susceptible). Platelets were introduced and thrombin activated within the in vitro IE model 30 min prior to inoculation with S. aureus. At 0 to 24 h postinoculation, bacterial densities in chamber fluid and simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) were quantified and compared among groups. Activated platelets alone, or in combination with antibiotics, inhibited the proliferation of ISP479C in chamber fluid or SEVs over the initial 4-h period (P < 0.05 versus controls). Moreover, nafcillin-containing regimens exerted inhibitory effects beyond 4 h against ISP479C in both model phases. By comparison, activated platelets inhibited GISA-NJ proliferation in SEVs but not in chamber fluid. The combination of platelets plus nafcillin or vancomycin significantly inhibited proliferation of the GISA-NJ strain in SEVs compared to the effect of platelets or antibiotics alone (P < 0.05). In contrast, platelets did not significantly alter the antistaphylococcal efficacies of nafcillin or vancomycin against ISP479R. These data support our hypothesis that a beneficial antimicrobial effect may result from the interaction among platelets, PMPs, and anti-infective agents against antibiotic-susceptible or -resistant staphylococci that exhibit a tPMP-1-susceptible or -intermediate-susceptible phenotype.
PMCID: PMC434186  PMID: 15215108
25.  Comparative Expression Profiling of the Chlamydia trachomatis pmp Gene Family for Clinical and Reference Strains 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(9):e878.
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is a leading worldwide cause of ocular and urogenital diseases. Advances have been made in our understanding of the nine-member polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) gene (pmp) family of C. trachomatis. However, there is only limited information on their biologic role, especially for biological variants (biovar) and clinical strains.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We evaluated expression for pmps throughout development for reference strains E/Bour and L2/434, representing different biovars, and for clinical E and L2 strains. Immunoreactivity of patient sera to recombinant (r)Pmps was also determined. All pmps were expressed at two hours. pmpA had the lowest expression but was up-regulated at 12 h for all strains, indicating involvement in reticulate body development. For pmpD, expression peaked at 36 h. Additionally, 57.7% of sera from infected and 0% from uninfected adolescents were reactive to rPmpD (p = 0.001), suggesting a role in immunogenicity. pmpF had the highest expression levels for all clinical strains and L2/434 with differential expression of the pmpFE operon for the same strains. Sera were nonreactive to rPmpF despite immunoreactivity to rMOMP and rPmpD, suggesting that PmpF is not associated with humoral immune responses. pmpFE sequences for clinical strains were identical to those of the respective reference strains. We identified the putative pmpFE promoter, which was, surprisingly, 100% conserved for all strains. Analyses of ribosomal binding sites, RNase E, and hairpin structures suggested complex regulatory mechanism(s) for this >6 Kb operon.
The dissimilar expression of the same pmp for different C. trachomatis strains may explain different strain-specific needs and phenotypic distinctions. This is further supported by the differential immunoreactivity to rPmpD and rPmpF of sera from patients infected with different strains. Furthermore, clinical E strains did not correlate with the E reference strain at the gene expression level, reinforcing the need for expansive studies of clinical strains.
PMCID: PMC1963315  PMID: 17849007

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