This paper evaluates the internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity of the assessment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the adolescent version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI). The CIDI is a lay-administered diagnostic interview that was carried out in conjunction with the US National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a US nationally representative survey of 10,148 adolescents and their parents. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using factor and item response theory analyses. Concurrent validity was evaluated against diagnoses based on blinded clinician-administered interviews. Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity items loaded on separate but correlated factors, with hyperactivity and impulsivity items forming a single factor in parent reports but separate factors in youth reports. We were able to differentiate hyperactivity and impulsivity factors for parents as well by eliminating a subset who endorsed zero ADHD items from the factor analysis. Although concurrent validity was relatively weak, decomposition showed that this was due to low validity of adolescent reports. A modified CIDI diagnosis based exclusively on parent reports generated a diagnosis that had good concordance with clinical diagnoses [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.78]. Implications for assessing ADHD using the CIDI and the effect of different informants on measurement are discussed.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI); validity; National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)
The patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE) is a joint-specific, self-administered questionnaire consisting of a pain scale (PREE-P) and a functional scale (PREE-F), the latter consisting of specific function (PREE-SF) and usual function (PREE-UF). The purpose of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the PREE into Japanese (PREE-J) and to test its reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
A consecutive series of 74 patients with elbow disorder completed the PREE-J, the Japanese version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH–JSSH) questionnaire, and the official Japanese version of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Of the 74 patients, 53 were reassessed for test–retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated in terms of reproducibility and internal consistency. The validity of the PREE-J was examined by factor analysis, and correlation coefficients were obtained using the PREE-J, DASH-JSSH, and SF-36. Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size after elbow surgery in 53 patients.
Cronbach’s α coefficients for PREE-P, PREE-F, and PREE were 0.92, 0.97, and 0.97, respectively, and the corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively. Unidimensionality of PREE-P and PREE-F was confirmed by factor analysis. The coefficients of correlation between PREE-P and PREE-F or DASH–JSSH were 0.81 and 0.74, respectively; that between PREE-F and DASH–JSSH was 0.86, and those between DASH–JSSH and PREE-SF or PREE-UF were 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. Moderate correlation was observed in “physical functioning” for SF-36 and PREE-F (r = −0.69) or PREE (r = −0.68). The SRMs/effect sizes of PREE-P (1.31/1.32) or PREE (1.28/1.12) were more responsive than the DASH–JSSH (0.99/0.85), “bodily pain” (−1.15/−1.43), and “physical functioning” (−0.70/−0.44) in SF-36.
The PREE-J represents a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument and has evaluation capacities equivalent to those of the original PREE.
The Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Instrument (CTSI) is a disease-specific, self-administered questionnaire that consists of a symptom severity scale (SS) and a functional status scale (FS). The CTSI was cross-culturally adapted and developed by the Impairment Evaluation Committee, Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand (JSSH). The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Japanese version of the CTSI (CTSI-JSSH).
A consecutive series of 87 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome completed the CTSI-JSSH, the JSSH version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH-JSSH), and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Seventy-two of the patients were reassessed for test–retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated by the reproducibility and the internal consistency. To analyze the validity, a factor analysis (principal axis factoring) of the CTSI-JSSH and the correlation coefficients between the CTSI-JSSH and DASH-JSSH were obtained. The responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM; mean change/SD) and effect size (mean change/SD of baseline value) after carpal tunnel release in 42 patients.
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the CTSI-JSSH-SS and the CTSI-JSSH-FS were 0.84 and 0.90, respectively, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. The unidimensionality of the CTSI-JSSH-SS was barely confirmed; the unidimensionality of the CTSI-JSSH-FS was confirmed. The correlation coefficients between the CTSI-JSSH-FS and the CTSI-JSSH-SS or DASH-JSSH were 0.58 and 0.80, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the CTSI-JSSH-SS and DASH-JSSH was 0.54. The correlation coefficients between the subscales of SF-36 and the CTSI-JSSH-SS or the CTSI-JSSH-FS ranged from −0.23 to −0.66 and from −0.19 to −0.63, respectively. The SRMs/effect sizes of the CTSI-JSSH-SS and the CTSI-JSSH-FS were −0.85/−0.99 and −0.70/−0.61, which indicated that they were more than moderately sensitive.
The CTSI-JSSH has sufficient reliability, validity, and responsiveness to assess the health status in carpal tunnel syndrome.
The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a region-specific self-administered questionnaire that consists of a disability/symptom (DASH-DS) scale, and two optional modules, the work (DASH-W) and the sport/music (DASH-SM) modules. The DASH was cross-culturally adapted and developed by the Impairment Evaluation Committee, Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Japanese version of DASH (DASH-JSSH).
A series of 72 patients with upper extremity disorders completed the DASH-JSSH, the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. Thirty-eight of the patients were reassessed for test-retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated by reproducibility and internal consistency. To analyze the validity, a principal component analysis and correlation coefficients between the DASH-JSSH and the SF-36 were obtained. Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (mean change/SD) and effect size (mean change/SD of baseline value) after carpal tunnel release of the 17 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients in the DASH-DS and DASH-W were 0.962 and 0.967, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the same were 0.82 and 0.85, respectively. The unidimensionality of the DASH-DS and DASH-W were confirmed. The correlations between the DASH-DS score and the subscale of the SF-36 scale ranged from −0.29 to −0.73. The correlation coefficient between the DASH-DS and the DASH-W was 0.79. The standardized response mean/effect size of DASH-DS, DASH-W, and VAS for pain were −0.48/−0.26, −0.68/−0.41, and −0.40/−0.40, respectively. DASH-DS and DASH-W were as moderately sensitive as VAS for pain.
The DASH-DS and DASH-W Japanese version have evaluation capacities equivalent to those of the original and other language versions of the DASH.
Although growing interest exists in the bipolar spectrum, fully structured diagnostic interviews might not accurately assess bipolar spectrum disorders. A validity study was carried out for diagnoses of threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorders (BPD) based on the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). CIDI BPD screening scales were also evaluated.
The NCS-R is a nationally representative US household population survey (n = 9282 using CIDI to assess DSM-IV disorders. CIDI diagnoses were evaluated in blinded clinical reappraisal interviews using the non-patient version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID).
Excellent CIDI-SCID concordance was found for lifetime BP-I (AUC = .99 κ = .88, PPV = .79, NPV = 1.0), either BP-II or sub-threshold BPD (AUC = .96, κ = .88, PPV = .85, NPV = .99), and overall bipolar spectrum disorders (i.e., BP-I/II or sub-threshold BPD; AUC = .99, κ = .94, PPV = .88, NPV = 1.0). Concordance was lower for BP-II (AUC = .83, κ = .50, PPV = .41, NPV = .99) and sub-threshold BPD (AUC = .73, κ = .51, PPV = .58, NPV = .99). The CIDI was unbiased compared to the SCID, yielding a lifetime bipolar spectrum disorders prevalence estimate of 4.4%. Brief CIDI-based screening scales detected 67–96% of true cases with positive predictive value of 31–52%.
CIDI prevalence estimates are still probably conservative, though, but might be improved with future CIDI revisions based on new methodological studies with a clinical assessment more sensitive than the SCID to sub-threshold BPD.
Bipolar spectrum disorders are much more prevalent that previously realized. The CIDI is capable of generating conservative diagnoses of both threshold and sub-threshold BPD. Short CIDI-based scales are useful screens for BPD.
Bipolar Disorders; Bipolar Spectrum; Mania; Hypomania; Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI); Validity; National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)
Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care. This study aimed to develop a scale for evaluating social support for self-care in middle-aged patients (30–60 years old) with type II diabetes.
This was a two-phase qualitative and quantitative study. The study was conducted during 2009 to 2011 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part, a sample of diabetic patients participated in four focus group discussions in order to develop a preliminary item pool. Consequently, content and face validity were performed to provide a pre-final version of the questionnaire. Then, in a quantitative study, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity and factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were performed to assess psychometric properties of the scale.
A 38-item questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. It was reduced to a 33-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 30-item with a five-factor solution (nutrition, physical activity, self monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and smoking) that jointly accounted for 72.3% of observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.94), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC=0.87).
The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes. It is an easy to use questionnaire and contains the most significant diabetes related behaviors that need continuous support for self-care.
The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students.
The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89).
The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia.
Malaysia; medical; psychological; reliability and validity; stress; students
Objective: To assess the internal validity and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) program by China Medical Board for resident physicians in China.
Method: Multisource feedback was used to assess professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills. 258 resident physicians were assessed by attending doctors, self-evaluation, resident peers, nurses, office staffs, and patients who completed a sealed questionnaire at 19 hospitals in China. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess reliability. Validity was assessed by exploratory factor analyses and by profile ratings.
Results: 4128 questionnaires were collected from this study. All responses had high internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's α> 0.90), which suggests that both questions and form data were internally consistent. The exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation for the evaluators' questionnaires was able to account for 70 to 74% of the total variance.
Conclusion: The current MSF assessment tools are internally valid and reliable for assessing resident physician professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills in China.
Resident physician; Multisource feedback; Professionalism; Interpersonal and Communication Skills; international
Background: The Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire (SRS-22r) is a questionnaire assessing the health related quality of life of patients with scoliosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Greek Version of the SRS-22r in patients suffering from scoliosis who were treated conservatively.
Methods: The (translated and adapted) Greek versions of the SRS-22r together with the previously validated Short Form-36 questionnaire were mailed to 117 patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. Two weeks later, the Greek SRS-22r was mailed to the same patients once again. The internal consistency, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed.
Results: Factor analysis revealed a five–factor structure. The study demonstrated high Cronbach α coefficients for all but the 'Satisfaction with management' domain, when compared with the original questionnaire. Intraclass correlation was excellent regarding every domain of the SRS-22r. Concerning concurrent validity, one domain had excellent (r=0.75-1), thirteen domains good (r=0.50-0.75) and 16 domains moderate correlations (r=0.25-0.50) when compared with the relevant domains of the SF-36 questionnaire.
Conclusions: This Greek Version of the SRS-22r outcome instrument is a validated questionnaire which can be used to evaluate Greek-speaking patients suffering from Idiopathic Scoliosis who are being treated conservatively.
Scoliosis Research Society-22r; SRS-22r Patient Questionnaire; SRS-22r; SRS-22r validation; Greek language; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
Female sexual dysfunction is a common condition that extremely affects reproductive health and quality of life. To assess this health condition, a valid and reliable questionnaire is required. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Sexual Quality of Life-Female (SQOL-F) questionnaire in Iran.
Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and pilot examination, a cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of questionnaire were tested. One hundred reproductive aged, married, healthy and sexually active women completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient) analyses. In addition, content, and face validity were assessed and the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing exploratory factor analysis.
The mean age of participants was 33 (SD = 8.07) years, and the mean quality of sexual life score was 86.4 (SD = 1.78) ranging from 36 to 108. Most women were housewife (n = 92). Reliability evaluation revealed high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.73 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.88. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.91 and 0.84, respectively. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated a four-factor solution for the questionnaire that jointly accounted for 60.8% of variance observed.
The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of SQOL-F questionnaire has good psychometric properties and it will be useful to assess the female sexual quality of life in reproductive health care settings.
Neck pain is a highly prevalent condition resulting in major disability. Standard scales for measuring disability in patients with neck pain have a pivotal role in research and clinical settings. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is a valid and reliable tool, designed to measure disability in activities of daily living due to neck pain. The purpose of our study was the translation and validation of the NDI in a Greek primary care population with neck complaints.
The original version of the questionnaire was used. Based on international standards, the translation strategy comprised forward translations, reconciliation, backward translation and pre-testing steps. The validation procedure concerned the exploration of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland and Altman method), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) and responsiveness (Spearman correlation coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change) of the questionnaire. Data quality was also assessed through completeness of data and floor/ceiling effects.
The translation procedure resulted in the Greek modified version of the NDI. The latter was culturally adapted through the pre-testing phase. The validation procedure raised a large amount of missing data due to low applicability, which were assessed with two methods. Floor or ceiling effects were not observed. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.85, which was interpreted as good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.93 (95% CI 0.84–0.97), which was considered as very good test-retest reliability. Factor analysis yielded one factor with Eigenvalue 4.48 explaining 44.77% of variance. The Spearman correlation coefficient (0.3; P = 0.02) revealed some relation between the change score in the NDI and Global Rating of Change (GROC). The SEM and MDC were calculated as 0.64 and 1.78 respectively.
The Greek version of the NDI measures disability in patients with neck pain in a reliable, valid and responsive manner. It is considered a useful tool for research and clinical settings in Greek Primary Health Care.
To study the reliability and applicability of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural community of India, a two steps sampling procedure was adopted, Step I: A clinical diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-Ill-Revised (DSM-IIIR) criteria was administered to 218 persons aged 18-60 years who consulted the Primary Health Centre (PHC); Step II: Of these persons, 71 were selected for detailed examination with the CIDI Hindi version in their home environment. The current diagnoses produced by the CIDI (scored two ways DSM-III-R and ICD-10) were evaluated against the DSM-III-R clinical diagnoses. The kappa values were 0.43 and 0.64. The likelihood ratios of positive CIDI-DSM-III-R and CIDI-ICD-10 were found to be 13.11 and 17.23; the specificity rates were 95.4% in each; the positive predictive values were 96.6% and 97.4% and the sensitivity rates were 59.2% and 77.5%. A significant longer time was faken for coding one CIDI. Only 8% of the 71 CIDI interviewed required more than one sitting. 96% of those interviewed were receptive for future interviews with CIDI. The study findings emphasize the good reliability and acceptability of the CIDI in a rural community of India.
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI); rural community; reliability; mental morbidity
High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.
We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492) and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265). Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day) in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01), and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month) in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05). This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.
In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.
To test the psychometric properties of the short form of the Chinese version Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth scale (C-DQOLY-SF).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A 30-item C-DQOLY-SF was administered to 371 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, correlation with HbA1c, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were used to examine the psychometric characteristics of C-DQOLY-SF.
A 25-item questionnaire with three correlated second-order factor structures best fitted data. Scores on the 25-item C-DQOLY-SF significantly correlated with HbA1c values. Cronbach’s α and ICCs of each scale and subscale ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 and from 0.70 to 0.92, respectively.
The C-DQOLY-SF has satisfactory reliability and validity. The C-DQOLY-SF can be conveniently used in clinical settings to assess the quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Assessment of disordered eating has uncertain validity across culturally diverse populations. This study evaluated Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) performance in an ethnic Fijian study population.
The EDE-Q was translated, adapted, and administered to school-going Fijian adolescent females (N = 523). A subsample (n = 81) completed it again within ∼1 week. We assessed feasibility, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability; evaluated construct validity through factor analysis and correlation with similar constructs; and examined the marginal utility of an additional question on traditional purgative use.
Internal consistency reliability was adequate for the global scale and subscales (Cronbach's alpha = 0.66–0.91); retest reliability was adequate for both the languages (range of ICCs, 0.50–0.79, and of kappas, 0.46–0.81, excluding purging items). Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with measures of similar constructs. Factor analysis confirms multiple dimensions of eating disorder symptoms but suggests possible culture-specific variation in this population. The majority of respondents endorsing traditional purgative use (58%) did not endorse conventional EDE-Q items assessing purging.
The EDE-Q is a valid measure of eating disorder pathology for ethnic Fijian adolescent females and measures a unitary underlying construct. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2010
eating disorder; EDE-Q; validity; cross-cultural; Fiji
The aim of the study was to validate the Norwegian version of a self-administered 43-item questionnaire designed to assess quality of life in kidney transplant recipients, the End-Stage Renal Disease Symptom Checklist – Transplantation Module (ESRD-SCL).
In total, 53 kidney transplant recipients from one university-affiliated hospital responded to a questionnaire including the ESRD-SCL and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). We assessed internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability with 2 weeks between assessments. Construct validity was assessed by correlations of the ESRD-SCL subscales with related and unrelated SF-36 scales, demographic, and clinical characteristics.
Subscales of the ESRD-SCL showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's = 0.72–0.81) and for the aggregate total scale α was 0.94. Test-retest reliability median 14 days apart was excellent with intraclass coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.95. The pattern of correlations of the ESRD-SCL scales with related and unrelated scales SF-36 scales and demographic and clinical characteristics gave support to the construct validity of the ESRD-SCL.
The Norwegian translation of the ESRD-SCL showed satisfactory internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity, at the level of the original German version.
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC).
In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity.
Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, p<0.01). Conversely, BDI (r=-0.46, p<0.01), PSS (r=-0.32, p<0.01), and IES-R scores (r=-0.26, p<0.01) were negatively correlated with the K-CD-RISC. The K-CD-RISC showed a five-factor structure that explained 57.2% of the variance.
The K-CD-RISC showed good reliability and validity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.
Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Resilience; Reliability; Validity; Trauma
Validity of the adolescent version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 3.0, a fully-structured research diagnostic interview designed to be used by trained lay interviewers, is assessed in comparison to independent clinical diagnoses based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS). This assessment is carried out in the clinical reappraisal sub-sample (n = 347) of the US National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a large (n = 10,148) community epidemiological survey of the prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders in the US. The diagnoses considered are panic disorder and phobic disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia). CIDI diagnoses are found to have good concordance with K-SADS diagnoses (AUC = .81–.94), although the CIDI diagnoses are consistency somewhat higher than the K-SADS diagnoses. Data are also presented on criterion-level concordance in an effort to pinpoint CIDI question series that might be improved in future modifications of the instrument. Finally, data are presented on the factor structure of the fears associated with social phobia, the only disorder in this series where substantial controversy exists about disorder subtypes.
Panic Disorder; Specific Phobia; Social Phobia; Agoraphobia; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI); US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)
The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) was designed to measure psychological well-being in people with diabetes. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version and a short form of the W-BQ.
A linguistic validation process produced a preliminary Japanese version of the 22-item W-BQ, which was distributed to 550 patients. Factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and aspects of validity (hypothesised group differences and correlations with other measures) were evaluated.
Questionnaires were returned by 464 patients (84.4%). Preliminary factor analysis revealed that the Depression and Anxiety items were dispersed according to the positive or negative direction of the wording. A 12-item W-BQ (Japanese W-BQ12), consisting of three 4-item subscales (Negative Well-being, Energy and Positive Well-being), was constructed that balanced positively and negatively worded items. Cronbach's alpha was high (>0.85) for the 12-item questionnaire and consistently high (>0.82) across sex and treatment subgroups. Cronbach's alpha for subscale scores in the total sample ranged from 0.69 (Energy) to 0.80 (Positive Well-being). Expected subgroup differences indicated significantly poorer well-being in women compared with men and in insulin-treated patients compared with tablet/diet treated patients. Discriminant and convergent validity was supported by minimal correlations between W-BQ12 scores and HbA1c and low-to-moderate correlations with Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) scores.
The W-BQ12 (Japanese) is a short, reliable and valid measure of psychological well-being that is suitable for use with people with diabetes. The items selected to produce the W-BQ12 (Japanese) have since produced psychometrically sound 12-item short-form measures in other translations for use in diabetes and in other chronic illnesses.
The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14).
The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p < 0.05), although the correlation between the RS and CES-D was somewhat lower than that in previous studies. Factor analyses indicated a one-factor solution for RS-14, but as for RS, the result was not consistent with previous studies.
This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.
The IOFS (Impact On Family Scale) questionnaire is a useful instrument to assess the impact of chronic childhood conditions on general family quality of life. As this instrument was not validated in French, we proposed to translate, adapt and validate the IOFS questionnaire for clinical and research use in French-speaking populations.
The sample studied comprised French-speaking parents with a child presenting a cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, aged 6 to 12 years and treated in the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. The 15-item version of the IOFS was translated into French and then sent to the parents by post. The structure of the measure was studied using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability was studied by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
A total of 209 parents answered the questionnaire. Its acceptability was good, with 67.9% of mothers and 59.9% of fathers answering the questionnaire. EFA identified one main factor that explained 77% of the variance. Internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. Finally, the ICC values were 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.66–0.85) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.92) for inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively.
The French version of the IOFS questionnaire exhibited very good psychometric properties. For practitioners, this instrument will facilitate the assessment of the impact of chronic childhood conditions on quality of life among French-speaking families.
Quality of life; Family; Child; Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Validation studies
The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) is a commonly used self-reporting tinnitus questionnaire. We undertook this study to determine the reliability and validity of the Chinese-Mandarin version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-CM) for measuring tinnitus-related handicaps.
We tested the test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the THI-CM. Two-hundred patients seeking treatment for primary or secondary tinnitus in Southwest China were asked to complete THI-CM prior to clinical evaluation. Patients were evaluated by a clinician using standard methods, and 40 patients were asked to complete THI-CM a second time 14±3 days after the initial interview.
The test-retest reliability of THI-CM was high (Pearson correlation, 0.98), as was the internal reliability (Cronbach's α, 0.93). Factor analysis indicated that THI-CM has a unifactorial structure.
The THI-CM version is reliable. The total score in THI-CM can be used to measure tinnitus-related handicaps in Mandarin-speaking populations.
Tinnitus; Reliability; Validity
A novel version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) was developed by addition of faces rating scale to the original numeric form. The aim of this prospective descriptive study was to perform a transcultural adaptation and reliability analysis of the Iranian version of Faces version of Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) and the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS).
To determine the test–retest reliability, 200 school-children aged 8–12 years completed the MCDASf and the CFSS-DS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. To determine the criterion validity, all participants completed two questionnaires at the same sitting. The translated instrument was tested for internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, inter-item, and item-total correlation coefficients. Correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS mean scores and age were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.158 to 0.658 (P < 0.01) for the individual items of the MCDASf between the first and the second assessments and also, ranged from 0.350 to 0.677 (P < 0.01) for CFSS-DS. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) were 0.85 and 0.92 for the MCDASf and CFSS-DS, respectively. The correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS was 0.73 (P < 0.001). The MCDASf and the CFSS-DS scores at the first administration were significantly greater than those of the second.
The MCDASf is a reliable measure of dental anxiety in Iranian children aged 8–12 years, suggestive of good reliability and validity.
Transcultural Adaptation; MCDASf; Childhood Dental Fear; Iran; CFSS-DS
Lack of insight in patients with bipolar I disorder has been associated with poor course and clinical outcome and compromised therapeutic compliance. Therefore, it is important to evaluate insight and use more specialized scales such as Mood Disorder Insight Scale (MDIS) in these patients. Our objective in this study was to assess validity and reliability of Persian version of MDIS.
Materials and Methods:
A hundred forty five bipolar patients were selected from Iran Hospital of Psychiatry. They were interviewed by The Persian Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th edition's (DSM-IV) axis I disorders (SCID-I) and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). The translated version of MDIS in Persian was subsequently completed by patients.
The internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha coefficients = 0.8). The test-retest reliability (coefficient alpha) was 0.95 (p < 0.01). Construct validity and concurrent validity were supported by factor analysis and Spearman rank correlation between MDIS and SUMD (0.85). Conclusions: Persian version of the MDIS could be a useful instrument for assessing insight in patients with bipolar I disorder.
Validation Studies; Mood Disorder Insight Scale; Bipolar Disorder; Iran
Purpose. To perform a parsimonious measurement of workplace psychosocial stress in routine occupational health surveillance, this study tests the psychometric properties of a short version of the original Italian effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Methods. 1,803 employees (63 percent women) from 19 service companies in the Italian region of Latium participated in a cross-sectional survey containing the short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items) and questions related to self-reported health, musculoskeletal complaints and job satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of scales and criterion validity were utilized. Results. The internal consistency of scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis enabled to identify the model's main factors. Significant associations with health and job satisfaction in the majority of cases support the notion of criterion validity. A high score on the effort-reward ratio was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.86–3.95) of musculoskeletal complaints in the upper arm. Conclusions. The short form of the Italian ERI questionnaire provides a psychometrically useful tool for routine occupational health surveillance, although further validation is recommended.