This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine
metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20
volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic
fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields
(TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes.
Adenylate kinase activity was increased after ELF field exposure but decreased slightly after
TAMMEF exposure. Neither of the two electromagnetic field affected the activities of the purine
metabolism enzymes ecto-5′-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine kinase. We concluded that ELF fields may influence cellular electrical charge stability; stimulation of adenylate kinase activity could restore the cell to a state of equilibrium. In contrast, TAMMEF fields may be useful for maintaining and regulating the cellular electrical charge.
Previous reports indicate altered metabolism and enzyme kinetics for various organisms, as well as changes of neuronal functions and behaviour of higher animals, when they were exposed to specific combinations of weak static and alternating low frequency electromagnetic fields. Field strengths and frequencies, as well as properties of involved ions were related by a linear equation, known as the formula of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, abbreviation mentioned first by Liboff). Under certain conditions already a aqueous solution of the amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate shows this effect.
An aqueous solution of glutamate was exposed to a combination of a static magnetic field of 40 μT and a sinusoidal electromagnetic magnetic field (EMF) with variable frequency (2–7 Hz) and an amplitude of 50 nT. The electric conductivity and dielectric properties of the solution were investigated by voltammetric techniques in combination with non linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS), which allow the examination of the dielectric properties of macromolecules and molecular aggregates in water. The experiments target to elucidate the biological relevance of the observed EMF effect on molecular level.
An ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) effect of glutamate previously reported by the Fesenko laboratory 1998 could be confirmed. Frequency resolution of the sample currents was possible by NLDS techniques. The spectrum peaks when the conditions for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) of glutamate are matched. Furthermore, the NLDS spectra are different under ICR- and non-ICR conditions: NLDS measurements with rising control voltages from 100–1100 mV show different courses of the intensities of the low order harmonics, which could possibly indicate "intensity windows". Furthermore, the observed magnetic field effects are pH dependent with a narrow optimum around pH 2.85.
Data will be discussed in the context with recent published models for the interaction of weak EMF with biological matter including ICR. A medical and health relevant aspect of such sensitive effects might be given insofar, because electromagnetic conditions for it occur at many occasions in our electromagnetic all day environment, concerning ion involvement of different biochemical pathways.
Electromagnetic resonators consisting of low-loss dielectric material and/or metallic boundaries are widely used in microwave technologies. These dielectric resonators usually have high Q factors and well-defined field distributions. Magnetic resonance imaging was shown as a way of visualizing the magnetic field distribution of the resonant modes of these resonators, if the dielectric body contains NMR sensitive nuclei. Dielectric resonators have also been proposed as RF coils for magnetic resonance experiments. The feasibility of this idea in high-field MR is discussed here. Specifically, the dielectric resonances of cylindrical water columns were characterized at 170.7 MHz (4 T 1H Larmor frequency) , and evaluated as NMR transmit and receive coils. The dielectric resonance of a cylindrical volume of D2O was used to image a hand at 170.7 MHz. This study demonstrated that MRI is an effective way of visualizing the magnetic field in dielectric structures such as a water cylinder, and can potentially be generalized to solid-state dielectric devices. The possible applications of dielectric resonators other than simple cylindrical volumes in MRI and MR solution spectroscopy at high field strengths are also discussed.
Although the modulation of Ca2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na+ channels (Nav). Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Nav activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10–60 min significantly increased Nav currents (INa) by 30–125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Nav channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV) towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on INa in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the NaV 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of NaV 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE2 receptor (EP) antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and INa. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal INa is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.
Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.
The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields – 80 mcTl – on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth’s magnetic field intensity.
The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206±22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31±6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.
In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.
electromagnetic field; human lung fibroblasts; cell culture; stimulation of growth; decrease of number of dead cells
In regenerative medicine finding a new method for cell differentiation without pharmacological treatment or gene modification and minimal cell manipulation is a challenging goal. In this work we reported a neuronal induced differentiation and consequent reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells exposed to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), matching the cyclotron frequency corresponding to the charge/mass ratio of calcium ion (Ca2+-ICR). These cells, capable of differentiating into post-mitotic neurons following treatment with Retinoic Acid (RA), were placed in a solenoid and exposed for 5 weeks to Ca2+-ICR. The solenoid was installed in a μ-metal shielded room to avoid the effect of the geomagnetic field and obtained totally controlled and reproducible conditions. Contrast microscopy analysis reveled, in the NT2 exposed cells, an important change in shape and morphology with the outgrowth of neuritic-like structures together with a lower proliferation rate and metabolic activity alike those found in the RA treated cells. A significant up-regulation of early and late neuronal differentiation markers and a significant down-regulation of the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and the fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) were also observed in the exposed cells. The decreased protein expression of the transforming gene Cripto-1 and the reduced capability of the exposed NT2 cells to form colonies in soft agar supported these last results. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-ICR frequency is able to induce differentiation and reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 exposed cells suggesting a new potential therapeutic use in regenerative medicine.
Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis.
Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses.
The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01). The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03), as compared to the sham-exposure group.
The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process.
As use of electrical devices has increased, social concerns about the possible effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on human health have increased. Accordingly, the number of people who complain of various symptoms such as headache and insomnia has risen. Many previous studies of the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field exposure on children have focused on the occurrence of childhood leukaemia and central nervous system cancers. However, very few provocation studies have examined the health effects of ELF magnetic fields on teenagers.
In this double-blind study, we simultaneously investigated physiological changes (heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability), subjective symptoms, and magnetic field perception to determine the reliable effects of 60 Hz 12.5 μT magnetic fields on teenagers. Two volunteer groups of 30 adults and 30 teenagers were tested with exposure to sham and real magnetic fields for 32 min.
ELF magnetic field exposure did not have any effects on the physiological parameters or eight subjective symptoms in either group. Neither group correctly perceived the magnetic fields.
Physiological data were analysed, subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed were measured. No effects were observed in adults or teenagers resulting from 32 min of 60 Hz 12.5 μT magnetic field exposure.
ELF; Physiological changes; Subjective symptoms; Perception
The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed.
Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h) of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT) or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure).
Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026). The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h.
Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.
The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated.
The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a retardation of the originally Ca2+-ICR exposed plants compared to control cultures lasting several weeks, with an increased tendency for dehydration.
A direct influence of the applied MF and EMF is discussed affecting Ca2+ levels via the ICR mechanism. It influences the available Ca2+ and thereby regulatory processes. Theoretical considerations on molecular level focus on ionic interactions with water related to models using quantum electrodynamics.
Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields.
This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old).
The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays.
The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents.
Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress.
Microwave; Caspases; Creatine kinase; Testosterone; Infertility
Electric power is an essential commodity of the developed world, and is critical to the continuing progress of our technology-based society, as well as to the growth of less privileged societies. In contrast to its overwhelming benefits, there is a suspicion that the magnetic component of the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) associated with power distribution and electrical appliances has adverse health effects, especially a small increased incidence of childhood leukaemia. The possibility that environmental EMFs represent a health hazard has serious economic implications for government, the electricity industry and society, as well as raising several profound scientific challenges, including, in particular, biophysical mechanisms, experimental replication and scientific uncertainty. These challenges are explored in relation to the experiences of the EMF Biological Research Trust, a UK medical research charity which funds basic research on the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). As judged from these experiences, at the present time there is no compelling experimental evidence that environmental ELF-EMFs induce biological responses.
extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; radical-pair mechanism; environmental stress responses; yeast gene expression; scientific uncertainty
Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions.
An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen.
Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at magnetic field strengths weak enough, to occur occasionally in our all day environment.
Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results.
In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth.
In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL.
We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF.
acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; parental occupational exposure; electromagnetic fields
Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), especially among electronic equipment repairers may induce oxidative stress and affect sleep quality.
This study was carried out to (a) investigate the effect of exposure to ELF-EMF on the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels among electronic equipment repairers as an indicator of oxidative stress; and melatonin hormone levels; and (b) to study the prevalence of sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMF.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 electronic equipment repairers at high risk of exposure to ELF-EMF, and a matched control group at lower risk of exposure to ELF-EMF. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about medical and occupational histories; and sleep sufficiency. The plasma melatonin and MDA levels of the study subjects were assessed.
The mean level of serum melatonin in the electronic equipment repairers was lower than that of the controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, serum MDA mean level of the electronic equipment repairers was higher than that of the controls (P < 0.01). Sleep insufficiency was more frequent among electronic equipment repairers (18.00%) in comparison with the controls (8.70%) (P > 0.05)
The electronic equipment repairers, exposed to ELF-EMF, are at a risk of oxidative stress and sleep insufficiency, which could be explained by lower plasma melatonin levels and higher MDA levels. Health education about the hazards of ELF-EMF, shortening of exposure time per day, and taking antioxidant vitamins should be done to ameliorate the oxidative effect of EMF on those workers.
Electronic equipment; electromagnetic field; malondialdehyde; melatonin; sleep
The exposures to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in our environment have dramatically increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a possible association between ELF-MF exposure and increased risks of cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Animal studies show that ELF-MF exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, generate behavioral and cognitive disturbances, and produce deficits in attention, perception and spatial learning. Although, many research efforts have been focused on the interaction between ELF-MF exposure and the central nervous system, the mechanism of interaction is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of ELF-MF exposure on learning in mice using two water maze tasks and on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum. We found that ELF-MF exposure (1 mT, 50 Hz) induced serious oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum and impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and striatum-dependent habit learning. This study provides evidence for the association between the impairment of learning and the oxidative stress in hippocampus and striatum induced by ELF-MF exposure.
Studies investigating the effect of power frequency (50–60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melatonin synthesis in rats have been inconsistent with several showing suppression of melatonin synthesis, others showing no effect and a few actually demonstrating small increases. Scant research has focused on the ensuing sleep patterns of EMF exposed rats. The present study was designed to examine the effects of extremely low power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the production of melatonin and the subsequent sleep structure in rats.
Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 1000 milligauss (mG) magnetic field for 1 month. Urine was collected for the final 3 days of the exposure period for analysis of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, the major catabolic product of melatonin found in urine. Subsequent sleep was analyzed over a 24-hour period.
Melatonin production was mildly increased in exposed animals. Although there were no statistically significant changes in sleep structure, exposed animals showed slight decreases in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep as compared to sham (non-exposed) animals.
Power frequency magnetic fields induced a marginally statistically significant increase in melatonin levels in exposed rats compared to control. Subsequent sleep analysis indicated little effect on the sleep architecture of rats, at least not within the first day after 1 month's continuous exposure. Varying results in the literature are discussed and future research suggested.
electromagnetic fields; 6-sulphatoxymelatonin; Sprague-Dawley; sleep
This study was performed to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs) on the proliferation and differentiation of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs). Osteogenesis is a complex series of events involving the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to generate new bone. In this study, we examined not merely the effect of ELF-PEMFs on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix but vinculin, vimentin, and calmodulin (CaM) expressions in hABMSCs during osteogenic differentiation. Exposure of hABMSCs to ELF-PEMFs increased proliferation by 15% compared to untreated cells at day 5. In addition, exposure to ELF-PEMFs significantly increased ALP expression during the early stages of osteogenesis and substantially enhanced mineralization near the midpoint of osteogenesis within 2 weeks. ELF-PEMFs also increased vinculin, vimentin, and CaM expressions, compared to control. In particular, CaM indicated that ELF-PEMFs significantly altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The results indicated that ELF-PEMFs could enhance early cell proliferation in hABMSCs-mediated osteogenesis and accelerate the osteogenesis.
There is clinical evidence that very low and safe levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields administered via an intrabuccal spoon-shaped probe may elicit therapeutic responses in patients with cancer. However, there is no known mechanism explaining the anti-proliferative effect of very low intensity electromagnetic fields.
To understand the mechanism of this novel approach, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were exposed to 27.12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields using in vitro exposure systems designed to replicate in vivo conditions. Cancer cells were exposed to tumour-specific modulation frequencies, previously identified by biofeedback methods in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. Control modulation frequencies consisted of randomly chosen modulation frequencies within the same 100 Hz–21 kHz range as cancer-specific frequencies.
The growth of HCC and breast cancer cells was significantly decreased by HCC-specific and breast cancer-specific modulation frequencies, respectively. However, the same frequencies did not affect proliferation of nonmalignant hepatocytes or breast epithelial cells. Inhibition of HCC cell proliferation was associated with downregulation of XCL2 and PLP2. Furthermore, HCC-specific modulation frequencies disrupted the mitotic spindle.
These findings uncover a novel mechanism controlling the growth of cancer cells at specific modulation frequencies without affecting normal tissues, which may have broad implications in oncology.
hepatocelullar carcinoma; electromagnetic fields; mitotic spindle; PLP2; XCL2
The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited.
Extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) has been reported to be of potential pathogenetic relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD) for years. However, evidence confirming this function remains inconclusive. Chronic Al treatment has been identified as a contributing factor to cognitive function impairment in AD. This study aims to examine whether or not ELF-MF and Al have synergistic effects toward AD pathogenesis by investigating the effects of ELF-MF with or without chronic Al treatment on SD rats.
Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected one of the following treatments: sham (control group), oral Al (Al group), ELF-MF (100 µT at 50 Hz) with oral Al (MF+Al group), or ELF-MF (100 µT at 50 Hz) without oral Al (MF group).
After 12 wk of treatment, oral Al treatment groups (Al and MF+Al groups) showed learning and memory impairment as well as morphological hallmarks, including neuronal cell loss and high density of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. ELF-MF without Al treatment showed no significant effect on AD pathogenesis. ELF-MF+Al treatment induced no more damage than Al treatment did.
Our results showed no evidence of any association between ELF-MF exposure (100 µT at 50 Hz) and AD, and ELF-MF exposure does not influence the pathogenesis of AD induced by Al overload.
Electromagnetic fields are an assessed cause of prolonging free radicals lifespan. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on protein oxidation and on the 20S proteasome functionality, the complex responsible for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Caco 2 cells were exposed, for 24–72 hours, to 1 mT, 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. The treatment induced a time-dependent increase both in cell growth and in protein oxidation, more evident in the presence of TPA, while no changes in cell viability were detected. Exposing the cells to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields caused a global activation of the 20S proteasome catalytic components, particularly evident at 72 hours exposure and in the presence of TPA. The finding that EGCG, a natural antioxidant compound, counteracted the field-related pro-oxidant effects demonstrates that the increased proteasome activity was due to an enhancement in intracellular free radicals.
To estimate the relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by a meta-analysis.
Through searching PubMed databases (or manual searching) up to April 2012 using the following keywords: “occupational exposure”, “electromagnetic fields” and “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” or “motor neuron disease”, seventeen studies were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis. The associations between ELF-EMF exposure and the ALS risk were estimated based on study design (case-control or cohort study), and ELF-EMF exposure level assessment (job title or job-exposure matrix). The heterogeneity across the studies was tested, as was publication bias.
Occupational exposure to ELF-EMF was significantly associated with increased risk of ALS in pooled studies (RR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.02–1.62), and case-control studies (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.05–1.84), but not cohort studies (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.80–1.69). In sub-analyses, similar significant associations were found when the exposure level was defined by the job title, but not the job-exposure matrix. In addition, significant associations between occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and increased risk of ALS were found in studies of subjects who were clinically diagnosed but not those based on the death certificate. Moderate heterogeneity was observed in all analyses.
Our data suggest a slight but significant ALS risk increase among those with job titles related to relatively high levels of ELF-EMF exposure. Since the magnitude of estimated RR was relatively small, we cannot deny the possibility of potential biases at work. Electrical shocks or other unidentified variables associated with electrical occupations, rather than magnetic-field exposure, may be responsible for the observed associations with ALS.
The growing use of transcranial electric and magnetic (EM) brain stimulation in basic research and in clinical applications necessitates a clear understanding of what constitutes the dose of EM stimulation and how it should be reported. The biological effects of EM stimulation are mediated through an electromagnetic field injected (via electric stimulation) or induced (via magnetic stimulation) in the body. Therefore, transcranial EM stimulation dose ought to be defined by all parameters of the stimulation device that affect the electromagnetic field generated in the body, including the stimulation electrode or coil configuration parameters: shape, size, position, and electrical properties, as well as the electrode or coil current (or voltage) waveform parameters: pulse shape, amplitude, width, polarity, and repetition frequency; duration of and interval between bursts or trains of pulses; total number of pulses; and interval between stimulation sessions and total number of sessions. Knowledge of the electromagnetic field generated in the body may not be sufficient but is necessary to understand the biological effects of EM stimulation. We believe that reporting of EM stimulation dose should be guided by the principle of reproducibility: sufficient information about the stimulation parameters should be provided so that the dose can be replicated. This paper provides fundamental definition and principles for reporting of dose that encompass any transcranial EM brain stimulation protocol.
transcranial; stimulation; electric; magnetic; dose
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks.
There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals.
Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.
Electromagnetic Radiation; Testes; Infertility; Vitamins C and E